Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal

Personality, Stress, and Coping Section, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
American Psychologist (Impact Factor: 6.87). 06/1997; 52(5):509-16. DOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.52.5.509
Source: PubMed


Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal.

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    • "This trait encompasses the tolerance of diversity, the broadness of a person's cultural interests, and exploration of novelty. Persons who score high on this dimension are curious, imaginative, and original, while persons who exhibit low scores tend to be cautious and conservative (McCrae & Costa, 1997;McCrae & Costa, 2003, p. 46). Moreover, this trait has been linked to risk taking (Kowert & Hermann, 1997). "
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    • "To address this research gap, the current research investigates the relations between equity sensitivity and broad personality traits (Big Five and HEXACO) in three studies. In the first study, we examine the relation between equity sensitivity and the " Big Five " personality traits—i.e., Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Extraversion (Digman, 1990; McCrae and Costa, 1997). In the second study, we examine whether the measurement of a sixth personality trait—Honesty-Humility from the HEXACO personality model (Lee and Ashton, 2004)—adds to the "
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