Anti-HIV antibody in saliva: An assessment of the role of the components of saliva, testing methodologies and collection systems
The various components of saliva, namely mixed saliva, parotid saliva, submandibular saliva, crevicular fluid and minor (labial) gland secretions, were collected from 63 known HIV antibody seropositive patients. A commercial test system, Wellcozyme HIV 1+2, and an antibody capture ELISA (GACELISA), were compared for sensitivity against all components. Sensitivity of the GACELISA system was 100% in 123 mixed saliva, 121 parotid saliva and 127 labial fluid samples, and 98% in 99 submandibular samples and 127 crevicular fluid samples. Respective figures for Wellcozyme 1+2 were 92%, 55%, 73%, 66% and 63%. Mixed saliva was most easily, conveniently and effectively collected using a plain Salivette. In 241 Salivette samples examined from the 63 patients, GACELISA proved 100% sensitive, and Wellcozyme 95% sensitive. Another form of Salivette impregnated with citric acid was unsuitable for GACELISA and gave a false negative value of 45%. In 197 samples from the gingival margin taken by a dry swab, GACELISA showed a sensitivity of 98% and Wellcozyme 81%. The most sensitive method for demonstrating anti-HIV antibody in saliva is to collect mixed saliva with the plain Salivette system and assay anti-HIV antibody levels by GACELISA.
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- "One commonly used test, OraQuick (available from OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA, USA), while initially approved for use with finger-stick blood (FDA, 2012), can also be applied to oral secretions as well. Testing takes advantage of the relatively substantial levels of anti-HIV antibodies present in crevicular fluid (Lamey et al, 1996; Granade et al, 1998). The test is easy to use and interpret and has been waived under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), no longer requiring certification or formal training, enabling its use in smaller clinical and point-of-care (POC) settings rather than large traditional laboratories (Branson, 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: Over the last thirty years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has matured. In the United States, HIV has changed from an explosive outbreak to an endemic disease; currently, an estimated 1.1 million people are infected with HIV, including a substantial number who are unaware of their status. With recent findings demonstrating the high transmissibility of HIV early in infection, and the potential benefit of early initiation of treatment, it is essential to identify as many infected individuals as possible. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has expanded HIV testing to include any healthcare setting, including dental offices. Testing advances, including oral testing, have reduced the window period of HIV infection. Dental care represents a key, reliable, independent, and confidential link between the healthcare system and the general population that has been under-utilized in the effort to control the HIV epidemic. HIV testing is straightforward, and knowledge of the types of testing will afford dentists an important opportunity to help advance and preserve the health of their patients and to promote the public health of their community. Here, we review the basics of HIV testing and discuss new changes in the approach to HIV diagnostics.
Available from: Branko Zakotnik
- "Gingival crevicular fluid specimens (10 gL) were tested for the presence of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies by means of a commercial enzyme immuno-assay, Wellcozyme HIV 1+2 GACELISA (Murex Diagnostics, Dartford, UK), following manufacturer's instructions, as described previously (Lamey et al., 1996). All repeatedly reactive GCF samples were supplementarily tested with the Novopath HIV-1 Immunoblot Test (Bio-Rad GmbH, Vienna, Austria), following manufacturer's instructions except for the sample volume (200 [L of GCF specimen was used instead of 30 4L of serum). "
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ABSTRACT: The oral cavity is rarely reported to be a site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, despite detectable virus in saliva and relatively frequent prevalence of periodontal disease in HIV-infected persons yielding increased excretion of mononuclear-cell-enriched gingival fluid. To search for possible sources of HIV in saliva, and using the polymerase chain-reaction technique, we sought the presence and shedding patterns of proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid in a group of patients previously determined as HIV-1-seropositive. Periodontal status at the collection sites was monitored by several clinical parameters, including Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected by means of paper points. Proviral HIV-1 DNA was detected in the gingival fluid of 17 out of 35 HIV-1-infected patients. Its detection correlated significantly with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (p = 0.03) and not with peripheral blood CD4+ cell count, the presence of blood in gingival fluid, or oral lesions. There was a significant correlation between clinical attachment loss at the sites of fluid collection and plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (p = 0.002), and borderline correlation between the latter and probing depth (p = 0.54) in the group of patients harboring proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid. The results of our study suggest that mononuclear cells present in gingival crevicular fluid and harboring proviral HIV-1 DNA could represent a potential source of HIV-1 in the presence or absence of local bleeding, especially in persons with advanced HIV infection and increased loss of clinical attachment.
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ABSTRACT: Salivary antibody testing for HIV is proving to be a sensitive and specific procedure, especially useful for epidemiological studies, and has the advantages of being simple and non-invasive. This paper reviews the field and discusses antibody testing of dental patients.
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