Nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler: Abuse liability assessment

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.88). 05/1997; 130(4):352-61. DOI: 10.1007/s002130050250
Source: PubMed


Acute subjective and physiological effects were examined to provide information relevant to abuse liability of new nicotine delivery systems. Subjects (n = 12) were overnight-deprived smokers who received 0, 4, 8 and 16 active puffs from nicotine-containing cigarettes (0.1 mg per puff), 0, 1, 2 or 4 nasal sprays (0.5 mg nicotine per spray) and 0, 30, 60 and 120 vapor inhalations (estimated 0.013 mg nicotine per inhalation) in a within-subject single blinded design. While smokers clearly liked cigarette puffs, there was much less evidence of liking produced by either nasal spray or vapor inhaler; only modest elevations on a measure of good drug effects were observed. The novel delivery products engendered unpleasant effects of burning throat and nose, watery eyes, runny nose, coughing and sneezing that might be expected to limit abuse liability. Nicotine plasma level and heart rate increase was dose-related for cigarettes and nasal spray but not for vapor inhaler, indicating limited nicotine delivery with the latter device. Overall, results are consistent with the conclusion that the nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler are of substantially lower abuse liability than cigarettes in experienced cigarette smokers receiving initial exposure to these products.

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    • "However, ratings of drug liking did not differ as a function of dose, condition, and sex, suggesting that men and women were not able to discern active drug from placebo. The uniformly low ratings of drug liking are consistent with the minimal abuse liability of nicotine nasal spray (Schuh et al, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of the role of nicotinic receptors in attention and memory has led to the testing of nicotinic analogs as cognitive enhancing agents in patient populations. Empirical information about nicotine's ability to enhance elements of attention and memory in normal individuals might guide development of therapeutic uses of nicotine in cognitively impaired populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on continuous attention, working memory, and computational processing in tobacco-deprived and nondeprived smokers. A total of 28 smokers (14 men, 14 women) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study, in which they were overnight (12 h) tobacco deprived at one session and smoked ad libitum before the other session. At each session, participants received 0, 1, and 2 mg nicotine via nasal spray in random order at 90 min intervals. Before and after each dose, a battery of cognitive, subjective, and physiological measures was administered, and blood samples were taken for plasma nicotine concentration. Overnight tobacco deprivation resulted in impaired functioning on all cognitive tests and increased self-reports of tobacco craving and negative mood; nicotine normalized these deficits. In the nondeprived condition, nicotine enhanced performance on the continuous performance test (CPT) and an arithmetic test in a dose-related manner, but had no effect on working memory. In general, women were more sensitive than men to the subjective effects of nicotine. These results provide an unequivocal determination that nicotine enhanced attentional and computational abilities in nondeprived smokers and suggest these cognitive domains as substrates for novel therapeutic indications.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Neuropsychopharmacology
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    • "A recent study that directly examines the absorption of nicotine in the brain (Rose et al. 2006) shows that nicotine delivery to the brain with smoking is much slower than typically cited. More importantly, comparisons of NRT devices with varying speeds of nicotine delivery (Schuh et al. 1997; Fant et al. 1999; West et al. 2000; Perkins et al. 2004; Schneider et al. 2004) do not suggest any correlation between nicotine delivery profile and subjective reward. In the same vein, i.v. "
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