Quality of mechanical, manual standard and active compression-decompression CPR on the arrest site and during transport in a manikin model

Ullevål University Hospital, Institute for Experimental Medical Research, Oslo, Norway.
Resuscitation (Impact Factor: 4.17). 07/1997; 34(3):235-42. DOI: 10.1016/S0300-9572(96)01087-8
Source: PubMed


The quality of mechanical CPR (M-CPR) was compared with manual standard CPR (S-CPR) and active compression-decompression CPR (ACD-CPR) performed by paramedics on the site of a cardiac arrest and during manual and ambulance transport. Each technique was performed 12 times on manikins using teams from a group of 12 paramedic students with good clinical CPR experience using a random cross-over design. Except for some lost ventilations the CPR effort using the mechanical device adhered to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, with an added time requirement of median 40 s for attaching the device compared with manual standard CPR. Throughout the study, in comparison with mechanical CPR the quality of CPR with either manual method was significantly worse. In particular, there were considerable individual variations during stretcher transport. With S-CPR and ACD-CPR the median compression times were 38 and 31%, significantly lower than the recommended 50%, and 46-98% of the decompression efforts with ACD-CPR were too weak, particularly during transport on the stairs. With both manual methods, there were no significant differences in the CPR effort between the site of the arrest and the ambulance transport. However, compression rates were reduced and became more erratic during stretcher transport to the ambulance. When walking horizontally, a median of 19% of S-CPR compressions and 84% of ACD-CPR compressions were to weak. On the stairs, 68% of S-CPR compressions and 100% of ACD-CPR compressions were too weak. In conclusion, when evaluated on a manikin, in comparison with manual standard and ACD-CPR, mechanical CPR adhered more closely to ERC guidelines. This was particularly true when performing CPR during transport on a stretcher.

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    • "The 97% rate remained valid for different environmental settings such as vehicle type and road conditions while manual compressions varied upon different settings. Similarly, Sunde [19] noted that compression depth and frequency provided by mechanical CPR devices were better at both cardiac arrest sites and during transport as they were within CPR standards. An increase in weak compressions for manual CPR was observed during ambulance transport. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to address the question: "In pre-hospital adult cardiac arrest (asystole, pulseless electrical activity, pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation), does the use of mechanical Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) devices compared to manual CPR during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ambulance transport, improve outcomes (e.g. Quality of CPR, Return Of Spontaneous Circulation, Survival)". Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane database for systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Embase, and AHA EndNote Master Library were systematically searched. Further references were gathered from cross-references from articles and reviews as well as forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar. The inclusion criteria for this review included manikin and human studies of adult cardiac arrest and anti-arrhythmic agents, peer-review. Excluded were review articles, case series and case reports. Out of 88 articles identified, only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. Of these 10 articles, 1 was Level of Evidence (LOE) 1, 4 LOE 2, 3 LOE 3, 0 LOE 4, 2 LOE 5. 4 studies evaluated the quality of CPR in terms of compression adequacy while the remaining six studies evaluated on clinical outcomes in terms of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge and Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC). 7 studies were supporting the clinical question, 1 neutral and 2 opposing. In this review, we found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of mechanical CPR devices in settings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and during ambulance transport. While there is some low quality evidence suggesting that mechanical CPR can improve consistency and reduce interruptions in chest compressions, there is no evidence that mechanical CPR devices improve survival, to the contrary they may worsen neurological outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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    • "One study has shown that shallow compressions were associated with defibrillation failure [16] and other studies have shown that increasing compression depth was correlated with increasing short-term survival [22,23]. Clinical studies have documented prevalence of too shallow compressions [6,7,24] whereas EMS manikin studies have reported that up to 50% of the compressions were too deep [25,26]. Thus our study is not concurrent with other manikin studies and points out a skill that needs improvement. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the 'Chain of Survival'. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island. The Basic Life Support (BLS) and Automated External Defibrillator (AED) skills of the ambulance personnel were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest. Points were given according to a scoring sheet. One sample t test was used to analyze the deviation from optimal care according to the 2005 guidelines. After each assessment, individual feedback was given. On 3 consecutive days, we assessed the individual EMS teams responding to OHCA on the island. Overall, 70% of the maximal points were achieved. The hands-off ratio was 40%. Correct compression/ventilation ratio (30:2) was used by 80%. A mean compression depth of 40-50 mm was achieved by 55% and the mean compression depth was 42 mm (SD 7 mm). The mean compression rate was 123 per min (SD 15/min). The mean tidal volume was 746 ml (SD 221 ml). Only the mean tidal volume deviated significantly from the recommended (p = 0.01). During the rhythm analysis, 65% did not perform any visual or verbal safety check. The EMS providers achieved 70% of the maximal points. Tidal volumes were larger than recommended when mask ventilation was applied. Chest compression depth was optimally performed by 55% of the staff. Defibrillation safety checks were not performed in 65% of EMS providers.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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    • "There are experimental studies and case reports supporting a beneficial effect of mechanical chest compressions [9,10], but there are no RCTs supporting its use [11-13]. However, it has been shown that "hands-off time" is shorter and compression quality is improved when a mechanical device is used during transportation [14,15]. On arrival in the ER, both patients had a severe combined acidosis, a marker of a bad outcome [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Three young men were trapped in a car at the bottom of a canal at two meters depth, after losing control of their vehicle. They were brought up by rescue divers and found in cardiac arrest. One of three patients had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), at 47 min after the accident. This sole survivor had the longest submersion time of the three and he received continued mechanical chest compressions during transportation to the hospital. His temperature at admission was 26.9 degrees C, he was rewarmed to 33 degrees C and kept there for 24 h, followed by continued rewarming to normothermia. On day three, he woke up from coma and was discharged from the intensive care unit after one week. At follow-up six months later, he had a complete cerebral recovery but still had myoclonic twitches in the lower extremities. A mechanical device facilitates chest compressions during transportation and may be beneficial as a bridge to final treatment in the hospital. We recommend that comatose patients after submersion, accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest are treated with mild hypothermia for 12-24 h.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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