Article

Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog

Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 07/1997; 276(5319):1687-9. DOI: 10.1126/science.276.5319.1687
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were analyzed from 162 wolves at 27 localities worldwide and from 140 domestic
dogs representing 67 breeds. Sequences from both dogs and wolves showed considerable diversity and supported the hypothesis
that wolves were the ancestors of dogs. Most dog sequences belonged to a divergent monophyletic clade sharing no sequences
with wolves. The sequence divergence within this clade suggested that dogs originated more than 100,000 years before the present.
Associations of dog haplotypes with other wolf lineages indicated episodes of admixture between wolves and dogs. Repeated
genetic exchange between dog and wolf populations may have been an important source of variation for artificial selection.

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    • "The domestication of wolves into dogs is an active topic of research (Boudadi-Maligne and Escarguel 2014;Germonpré et al. 2009;Larson et al. 2012;Morey and Jaeger 2015;Thalmann et al. 2013). Where, when and from which progenitor wolf sub-species dogs originated has been investigated both by osteoarchaeologists (Aaris-Sørensen 1977;Benecke 1987Benecke , 1994Boudadi-Maligne and Escarguel 2014;Huxley 1880;Iljin 1941;Nehring 1888;Rütimeyer 1861;Stockhaus 1965;Studer 1901;Sumin´skiSumin´ski 1975) and geneticists (Anderson et al. 2009;Ardalan et al. 2011;Axelsson et al. 2013;Brown et al. 2011;Freedman et al. 2014;Gundry et al. 2007;Ho et al. 2005;Irion et al. 2003;Karlsson et al. 2007;Khosravi et al. 2013;Kirkness et al. 2003; Klütsch and de Caprona 2010;Larson and Burger 2013;Leonard et al. 2002;Lindblad-Toh et al. 2005;Ostrander and Wayne 2005;Pang et al. 2009;Savolainen et al. 2002Savolainen et al. , 2004Schmutz and Berryere 2007;Schoenebeck and Ostrander 2013;Thalmann et al. 2013;Tsuda et al. 1997;Vaysse et al. 2011;Verginelli et al.Communicated by A. Schmidt-Rhaesa.Vila et al. 1999Vila et al. , 2005Vilà et al. 1993Vilà et al. , 1997Vonholdt et al. 2010;Wayne 2012;Wayne andOstrander 1999, 2007). Briefly there are two current views. "
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    ABSTRACT: The domestication of wolves is currently under debate. Where, when and from which wolf sub-species dogs originated are being investigated both by osteoarchaeologists and geneticists. While DNA research is rapidly becoming more active and popular, morphological methods have been the gold standard in the past. But even today morphological details are routinely employed to discern archaeological wolves from dogs. One such morphological similarity between Canis lupus chanco and dogs was published in 1977 by Olsen and Olsen. This concerns the “turned back” anatomy of the dorsal part of the vertical ramus of the mandible that was claimed to be specific to domestic dogs and Chinese wolves C. lupus chanco, and “absent from other canids”. Based on this characteristic, C. lupus chanco was said to be the progenitor of Asian and American dogs, and this specific morphology has been continuously used as an argument to assign archaeological specimens, including non-Asian and non-American, to the dog clade. We challenged this statement by examining 384 dog skulls of 72 breeds and 60 skulls of four wolf sub-species. Only 20 % of dog mandibles and 80 % of C. lupus chanco showed the specific anatomy. In addition, 12 % of Canis lupus pallipes mandibles showed the “turned back” morphology. It can be concluded that the shape of the coronoid process of the mandible cannot be used as a morphological trait to determine whether a specimen belongs to a dog or as an argument in favour of chanco as the progenitor to dogs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Zoomorphology
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    • "Morphological data on the history of dog origin (Clutton-Brock 1999; Davis & Villà 1978) have been confirmed by genetic examinations (Savolainen et al., 2002; Vilà et al., 1997), while the recent isotopic examination of wolf and dog fossil remains (Germonpré et al., 2009) supplement earlier reports that base on osteometry. These data point to the fact that separation of the first dog form from wolf population took place as early as in the Upper Paleolithic. "

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    • "To be sure, following this innovation, there were no doubt developments that favored the selection of those individuals carrying a genetic disposition to be cooperative and interested in others. In addition, it should not be surprising that pets, especially dogs, who have been cohabitating with humans for some 100,000 years or so (Vila et all 1997), have also been subject to a similar selectional process that they have developed an interest in the other, in this case humans. Searle also adds the crucial point that before people can act in bad faith, which is the foundation for deceit, there has to be a foundation of good faith. "
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    DESCRIPTION: Despite wars and other types of violence, humans interact with one another most of the time nonviolently.
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