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Abstract

Oriental breeds, such as Siamese and Birman cats, are more prone to wool-sucking. Though there appears to be a genetic susceptibility for the behavior, we hypothesized that the expression of wool-sucking was associated with either physical characteristics (head shape in Siamese, coat color, claw status), an abnormally intense appetite, medical problems and/or environmental factors (weaning age; litter size; obtainment source; number of cats in the environment; residence in a home or cattery; and use as a breeder, show cat, or pet.) The purpose of our study was to distinguish environmental and physical differences between affected and control cats and to determine whether these differences impacted the expression of the compulsive behavior. Two hundred and four Siamese and Birman cats were enrolled in the study. Owners of the cats were surveyed regarding signalment, physical characteristics, current and previous medical conditions, presence of an abnormally intense appetite, and environmental factors. Early weaning and small litter size were associated with an increased risk of wool-sucking in Birmans, only. The presence of a medical condition was associated with an increased risk of wool-sucking in Siamese cats. The presence of an abnormally intense appetite was seen in all affected cats. No relationship was seen between physical characteristics and wool-sucking in Siamese or Birman cats.
... A number of animal models of OCD have been proposed, mostly based on early ethologists' conceptualization of "fixed-action patterns," behaviors necessary for survival that are encoded in the brain as motor (emotive and cognitive) programs that are activated by specific environmental cues, and the concept of "displacement " (out-of-context actions that occur when motivated behaviors cannot be executed; Dodman, 1998). Observed in a wide array of species, the most common classes of displacement activities involve fixed-action patterns associated with grooming, feeding, cleaning, and nest building. ...
... These displacement activities have been proposed as an animal model for studying OCD (Dodman, 1998). For example, Greer and Capecchi (2002) have reported that mice with disruptions of a homeodomain-containing gene, Hoxb8, show pathological grooming leading to hair removal and lesions. ...
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This chapter considers Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) from developmental and evolutionary perspectives. It begins with a definition of obsessions and compulsions and a description of this diagnostic category. The chapter then examines several normal epochs of development that are characterized by obsessive-compulsive behaviors that resemble those encountered in OCD. It focuses on the phenomenology and natural history of OCD, and reviews the available genetic, epigenetic, neuropsychological, neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and neuroimaging data that bear on OCD and related normal phenotypes. The chapter further presents number of theoretical models of pathogenesis and the treatments they have engendered. It offers an integrative model that emphasizes evolutionary and developmental perspectives and describes its potential utility in providing a coherent, multidisciplinary framework for future work in this area.
... One possible explanation is that negative thoughts (e.g., "I failed again") and feelings (e.g., anger) after the first episode of PuM generate distress, which needs to be reduced through subsequent repetition of the same action, similarly to the mechanism of compulsive distress-reducing behavior appear- ing as a result of obsessive thoughts in OCD (Stein, 2002). ...
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Background and aims Compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) are an important clinical and social issue. Despite the increasing number of studies, some of CSB’s aspects remain under-investigated. Here, we explore the nature of CSB, such as binge pornography use and masturbation (PuM), and verify the correspondence between self-perceived factors leading to such behavior with its measures obtained in a diary assessment. Methods Semi-structuralized interviews with nine treatment-seeking males aged 22–37 years (M = 31.7, SD = 4.85) were followed by a questionnaire and a 10-week-long diary assessment, allowing us to acquire real-life daily patterns of CSB. Results Six out of nine subjects experienced binge (multiple hours or times a day) PuM. All subjects presented a high level of anxiety and perceived PuM as a way to regulate mood and stress. Data collected in the diary assessment uncovered a high diversity in the patterns of sexual behaviors (such as frequency of regular and binge PuM) and its correlates. Binge PuM was related to decreased mood and/or increased stress or anxiety. The causal relation between these correlates remains undetermined. Discussion and conclusions Binge PuM seems to be one of the most characteristic behavior among males who are seeking treatment for CSB and is related to the feeling of losing control over one’s sexual activity. CSB individuals indicate a variety of binge triggers. Also, diary assessment data indicate that specific correlates of binge PuM (decreased mood, increased stress, and anxiety) differ between subjects. It suggests the existence of significant individual differences in binge PuM behaviors, and a need to study these differences, as it may help guide personalized treatment.
... This area is recognized as the point of maximum concentration of Linoleic not only for diagnostics correspondence, but also because it contains the cat, who, as feline, is known to possess desaturase, but with low activity [27], therefore not to be able to transform Linoleic Acid into Arachidonic Acid, resulting in savings of Linoleic, and long living animals [28]. Further, in the same animals, symptoms of OCD can occur [29,30]. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to connect the experimental evidence concerning brain phospholipids fatty acids composition by comparing the first warm-blooded animal in the phylogeny (birds) with the human brain at various ages of life (from the fetal period until the eightieth year of age). The particularity of our investigation is an almost unique opportunity for groped a hypothesis about the evolutionary aspects of the behavior of brain and consciousness, as represented in the human and animal world, as a result of the evidence that led to the diagnostic classification of mood disorders in humans, in their similarity with some animal species. A logical sequence of considerations about the mood disorder diagnosis, due to unequivocal evidence by the use of mathematical tools that cannot be manipulated, it leads to results that most probably indicate and suggest the existence of a common brain " biochemical house " , in man and animal. This " common house " will become more and more complex, during evolution, from animal to man, respecting the concept of the molecular equilibrium and allowing to each living being the adaptation to their needs and their roles. Small deviations from the biochemical equilibrium of brain fatty acids can manifest pathological behavioral responses, much amplified. Everything seems to be witnessed by the strong classificatory correspondence of the platelets fatty acids which correspond to psycho pathologies, especially for the Linoleic acid and alpha Linolenic acid, in particular the Linoleic Acid, which, to varying percentages, it may correspond to psychopathological phenomena.
... Dopamine antagonists have also been found useful in an animal compulsive disorder involving repetitive movements and motor tics (Dodman et al., 1994). Drug treatments that alleviate anxiety may be partially effective in treating some compulsive disorders in animals (Conceicao & Frussa-Filho, 1993;Sawyer, Moon-Fanelli, & Dodman, 1999), and serotonergic strategies often have a positive therapeutic effect (Moon-Fanelli & Dodman, 1998;Nurnberg, Keith, & Paxton, 1997;Stein, Dodman, & Moon-Fanelli, 1996;Wynchank & Berk, 1998). Equine cribbing responds to treatment with opioid antagonists, as well as an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker (Dodman, Shuster, Court, & Dixon, 1987;Rendon, Shuster, & Dodman, 2001). ...
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Animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) either may be induced in a laboratory setting or may arise spontaneously in veterinary patients. Both models have their usefulness and may replicate some or a constellation of signs associated with the human disorder. Classical laboratory models of OCD are induced by behavioral or pharmacological means. They include rat pup isolation distress calls, conjunctive behaviors, including polydypsia and increased gnawing, spontaneous alternation, and displacement grooming (Dodman & Olivier, 1996). Spontaneously occurring repetitive behavior problems in domestic animals were originally described as stereotypies before a link with human OCD was suggested. The first inkling of this connection surfaced when Goldberger and Rapoport (1991) described the successful treatment with clomipramine of acral lick dermatitis (ALD) in dogs. Their findings were subsequently confirmed in a more comprehensive publication the following year (Rapoport, Ryland, & Kriete, 1992), which represents a landmark in understanding the parallels that exist between canine ALD and a classical form of human OCD, specifically, hand washing. Both conditions involve extreme, apparently irrational assiduousness regarding personal hygiene and involve excessive repetition of selfcleansing behavior. Both conditions may lead to minor degrees of self-injury; both may affect normal behavioral agendas and social relationships; and both respond similarly to serotonin-enhancing pharmacological strategies. The veterinary community became excited about this diagnosis, which offered a new therapeutic approach to a formerly inexplicable and refractory condition.
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Prior to CBT treatment, nineteen obsessive–compulsive washers were administered Jones and Menzies's (1998a) obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) Origins Questionnaire (OOQ) in an attempt to examine the relevance of associative learning pathways in the aetiology of the disorder. The open-ended nature of the questions allows for the distinction between classical conditioning events and traumatic events in which no identifiable unconditioned stimulus can be found. On the basis of subjects' responses on the OOQ, associative learning was shown to account for only five cases of OC washing. Of note, depression was shown to facilitate the onset of OCD in these individuals. Every subject who experienced a relevant indirect learning event and went on to develop OCD, revealed they were experiencing depression at the time. No relationship was found between the mode of OCD acquisition and subsequent response to treatment. Finally, the data revealed that subjects who identified washing/cleaning concerns at the onset of their disorder, as distinct from subjects who identified other OC concerns (e.g. checking, hoarding) at the onset of their disorder, scored similarly on current level of severity and degree of intractability.
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Neurosurgery (anterior capsulotomy) has been beneficial to many patients with debilitating, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but the irreversibility of the procedure is an important limitation to its use. Nondestructive, electrical stimulation (deep brain stimulation; DBS) has proven an effective alternative to ablative surgery for neurological indications, suggesting potential utility in place of capsulotomy for OCD. The effects of DBS for OCD were examined in four patients in a short-term, blinded, on-off design and long-term, open follow-up. The patients had incapacitating illness, refractory to standard treatments. Hardware developed for movement disorder treatment was surgically implanted, with leads placed bilaterally in the anterior limbs of their internal capsules. Patients received stimulation in a randomized "on-off" sequence of four 3-week blocks. Ongoing, open stimulation was continued in consenting patients after the controlled trial. Patients tolerated DBS well. Dramatic benefits to mood, anxiety, and OCD symptoms were seen in one patient during blinded study and open, long-term follow-up. A second patient showed moderate benefit during open follow-up. It appears that DBS has potential value for treating refractory psychiatric disorders, but additional development work is needed before the procedure is utilized outside of carefully controlled research protocols.
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