Stimulation of Sky Tyrosine Phosphorylation by Bovine Protein S

ArticleinEuropean Journal of Biochemistry 246(1):147-54 · June 1997with22 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-2-00147.x · Source: PubMed
Protein S is an anticoagulant vitamin-K-dependent plasma glycoprotein, which acts as a cofactor to activated protein C in the degradation of coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. It has been proposed that protein S has an additional function as a growth factor. Protein S and a structurally similar protein, Gas6, have been found to stimulate members of the Axl/Sky family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Human Gas6 is able to activate Axl and Sky. In contrast, while bovine protein S activates human Sky and its murine homologue, human protein S activates murine Sky but not the human receptor. In the present investigation, we studied the structural background of this species difference. Using protein S chimeras with domains from human and bovine origin, we found that only those chimeras with the steroid-hormone-binding globulin-like (SHBG) region from bovine protein S activate human Sky, indicating that the SHBG region is essential for the interaction. This observation was confirmed by inhibition of Sky phosphorylation by C4b-binding protein, a plasma protein that interacts tightly with the SHBG region of protein S. Another chimeric molecule, composed of the N-terminal 4-carboxyglutamic-acid-containing domain (Gla domain) and the two epidermal-growth-factor-like domains of human factor IX, and the SHBG region of bovine protein S, stimulated the receptor less efficiently. Antibodies directed against the Gla domain of protein S, inhibited the activation of human Sky by bovine protein S. These results indicate that the N-terminal domains of protein S are not essential for activation of the receptor, but contribute to the affinity of the interaction. Our data suggest that protein S might be a ligand of Sky in some species despite the lack of activity of human protein S on human Sky. The bovine/human protein S species difference will be a useful model to establish the structural requirements for the interaction between Sky and its ligands.
    • "Activation through TAM Signaling Pros1 carries an N-terminal g-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich domain that allows it to bind to cell membranes containing the negatively charged phospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Binding of Pros1 to PtdSer is an essential feature of its biological activity (Nyberg et al., 1997). Interestingly, PtdSer is transiently exposed on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of activated T cells (Figure S5; Fischer et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC) activation is essential for the induction of immune defense against pathogens, yet needs to be tightly controlled to avoid chronic inflammation and exaggerated immune responses. Here, we identify a mechanism of immune homeostasis by which adaptive immunity, once triggered, tempers DC activation and prevents overreactive immune responses. T cells, once activated, produced Protein S (Pros1) that signaled through TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in DCs to limit the magnitude of DC activation. Genetic ablation of Pros1 in mouse T cells led to increased expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in DCs and enhanced immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens, as well as increased colitis. Additionally, PROS1 was expressed in activated human T cells, and its ability to regulate DC activation was conserved. Our results identify a heretofore unrecognized, homeostatic negative feedback mechanism at the interface of adaptive and innate immunity that maintains the physiological magnitude of the immune response.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
    • "ProS has a critical function in regulating coagulation in several critical steps [13]. ProS circulates as approximately 40% free ProS and 60% as a complex with C4b-binding protein (C4BP); only free ProS is active as a cofactor for activated protein C and a ligand for the TAM receptor kinases [14]. Lower free ProS concentration in plasma is associated with an increased risk of deep venous thromboembolism [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Growth arrest-specific gene 6 protein (GAS6) and protein S (ProS) are vitamin K-dependent proteins present in plasma with important regulatory functions in systems of response and repair to damage. They interact with receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro3, Axl and MerTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM) family, involved in apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis) and regulation of the innate immunity. TAM-deficient mice show spontaneous lupus-like symptoms. Here we tested the genetic profile and plasma levels of components of the system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and compare them with a control healthy population. Methods Fifty SLE patients and 50 healthy controls with matched age, gender and from the same geographic area were compared. Genetic analysis was performed in GAS6 and the TAM receptor genes on SNPs previously identified. The concentrations of GAS6, total and free ProS, and the soluble forms of the three TAM receptors (sAxl, sMerTK and sTyro3) were measured in plasma from these samples. Results Plasma concentrations of GAS6 were higher and, total and free ProS were lower in the SLE patients compared to controls, even when patients on oral anticoagulant treatment were discarded. Those parameters correlated with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score, GAS6 being higher in the most severe cases, while free and total ProS were lower. All 3 soluble receptors increased its concentration in plasma of lupus patients. Conclusions The present study highlights that the GAS6/ProS-TAM system correlates in several ways with disease activity in SLE. We show here that this correlation is affected by common polymorphisms in the genes of the system. These findings underscore the importance of mechanism of regulatory control of innate immunity in the pathology of SLE.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
    • "The Q RT-PCR showed a relatively high level of Gas6 in normal retina, but the alteration after optic nerve transection was minor, and an injury-induced regulation is therefore less likely. ProteinS is structurally related to Gas6 and may function as a ligand to Sky and Axl (40,41). ProteinS mRNA levels increased acutely to approximately three times the basal level 6 hours after ONT. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve a better understanding of the repertoire of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using degenerate primers directed towards conserved sequences in the tyrosine kinase domain, on cDNA from isolated single RGCs univocally identified by retrograde tracing from the superior colliculi. All the PCR-amplified fragments of the expected sizes were sequenced, and 25% of them contained a tyrosine kinase domain. These were: Axl, Csf-1R, Eph A4, Pdgfrbeta, Ptk7, Ret, Ros, Sky, TrkB, TrkC, Vegfr-2, and Vegfr-3. Non-RTK sequences were Jak1 and 2. Retinal expression of Axl, Csf-1R, Pdgfrbeta, Ret, Sky, TrkB, TrkC, Vegfr-2, and Vegfr-3, as well as Jak1 and 2, was confirmed by PCR on total retina cDNA. Immunodetection of Csf-1R, Pdgfralpha/beta, Ret, Sky, TrkB, and Vegfr-2 on retrogradely traced retinas demonstrated that they were expressed by RGCs. Co-localization of Vegfr-2 and Csf-1R, of Vegfr-2 and TrkB, and of Csf-1R and Ret in retrogradely labelled RGCs was shown. The effect of optic nerve transection on the mRNA level of Pdgfrbeta, Csf-1R, Vegfr-2, Sky, and Axl, and of the Axl ligands Gas6 and ProteinS, was analysed. These analyses show transection-induced changes in Axl and ProteinS mRNA levels. The repertoire of RTKs expressed by RGCs is more extensive than previously anticipated. Several of the receptors found in this study, including Pdgfrbeta, Csf-1R, Vegfr-2, Sky, and Axl, and their ligands, have not previously been primarily associated with retinal ganglion cells.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010
Show more