A Randomized Trial of Office-Based Screening for Common Problems in Older Persons
Multicampus Program in Geriatrics and Gerontology, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine 90095-1687, USA. The American Journal of Medicine
(Impact Factor: 5).
05/1997; 102(4):371-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9343(97)00089-2
To test the effectiveness of a 10-minute office-staff administered screen to evaluate malnutrition/weight loss, visual impairment, hearing loss, cognitive impairment, urinary incontinence, depression, physical limitations, and reduced leg mobility among older persons seen in office practice. This screen was coupled with clinical summaries to assist the physician in further evaluating and managing the screen-included problems.
Twenty-six community-based office practices of internists and family physicians in Los Angeles were randomized to intervention or control groups. Two hundred and sixty-one patients aged > or = 70 years and seeing these physicians for a new visit or a physical examination participated in the study. At the enrollment visit intervention group patients were administered the screening measure and their physicians were given the pertinent clinical summaries. Outcome measures were detection of, and intervention for conditions screened, and health status 6 months after the intervention.
Hearing loss was both more commonly detected (40% intervention versus 28% control) and further evaluated (29% versus 16%) by physicians in the intervention group (P < 0.05). No other differences in the frequency of problem detection or intervention were noted between groups. Six months after the intervention no differences were noted in health status between groups.
A brief measure to screen for common conditions in older persons was associated with more frequent detection and follow-up assessment of hearing loss. Although the measure was well accepted by physicians and their staffs, it did not appear to affect detection and intervention in regard to the other screen-included conditions, or health status at 6 months.
Available from: Mara A Schonberg
- "Several studies have examined ways to improve health promotion among adults in primary care (Dubey et al., 2006; Robinson et al., 2001). Recommendations include physician education seminars (Kersey et al., 1999), preventive health check lists (Miller et al., 2000; Moore & Siu, 1996), computer reminders (Dexter et al., 2001), use of non-physician staff to screen for disease (Moore et al., 1997), addressing preventive health topics at multiple visits (Reuben et al., 2003), and maintaining a periodic health examination (Sox et al., 1997). In our practice we use computer reminders and preventive health check lists to help improve delivery of preventive health services to our patients. "
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ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the use of preventive health services among older women and to assess how age and illness burden influence care patterns.
The charts of 299 women aged > or =80 and 229 women aged 65-79 years who did not have dementia or terminal illness at 1 academic primary care practice in Boston were reviewed between July and December 2005 to determine receipt of screening tests (e.g., mammography), counseling on healthy lifestyle (e.g., exercise), and/or geriatric health issues (e.g., incontinence), and immunizations. Illness burden was quantified using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI).
Women aged > or =80 were more likely than women aged 65-79 to have a CCI of > or =3 (24.0% vs. 16.7%) and were less likely to receive all screening tests. However, receipt of mammography (47.8%) and colon cancer screening (51.2%) was still common among women aged > or =80 and was not targeted to older women in good health. Women aged > or =80 were less likely to be screened for depression (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.8), osteoporosis (aRR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9), or counseled about exercise (aRR 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9) than younger women, but were more likely to receive counseling about falls (aRR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6) and/or incontinence (aRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6). However notes documenting discussions about mood (28.6%), exercise (40.0%), falls (28.8%), or incontinence (20.8%) were low among all women.
In a comprehensive review of preventive health measures for elderly women, many in poor health were screened for cancer. Meanwhile, many older women were not screened for depression or counseled about exercise, falls, or incontinence. There is a need to improve delivery of preventive health care to older women.
Available from: Scott Sherman
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate two performance-based measures of functional status and assess their correlation with self-report measures.
Of the 363 community-dwelling elders enrolled in a trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment who participated, all had at least one of four target conditions (urinary incontinence, depression, impaired functional status, or history of falling).
Two performance-based measures, National Institute on Aging (NIA) Battery, and Physical Performance Test (PPT), and three self-report functional status measures, basic and intermediate activities of daily living and the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) physical functioning subscale, were used. Measures of restricted activity days, patient satisfaction and perceived efficacy were also used.
All measures were internally consistent. There was a high correlation between the NIA and PPT (kappa = 0.71), while correlations between the performance-based and self-report measures ranged from 0.37 to 0.50. When patients with values above the median on the two performance-based measures were compared with those below, there were significant differences (p </=.0001) for age, number of medications, and the physical function, pain, general health, and physical role function SF-36 subscales.
Performance-based measures correlated highly with each other and moderately with questionnaire-based measures. Performance-based measures also had construct validity and did not suffer from floor or ceiling effects.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether a new model of primary care, Chronic Care Clinics, can improve outcomes of common geriatric syndromes (urinary incontinence, falls, depressive symptoms, high risk medications, functional impairment) in frail older adults.
Randomized controlled trial with 24 months of follow-up. Physician practices were randomized either to the Chronic Care Clinics intervention or to usual care.
Nine primary care physician practices that comprise an ambulatory clinic in a large staff-model HMO in western Washington State.
Those patients aged 65 and older in each practice with the highest risk for being hospitalized or experiencing functional decline.
Intervention practices (5 physicians, 96 patients) held half-day Chronic Care Clinics every 3 to 4 months. These clinics included an extended visit with the physician and nurse dedicated to planning chronic disease management; a pharmacist visit that emphasized reduction of polypharmacy and high-risk medications; and a patient self-management/support group. Control practices (4 physicians, 73 patients) received usual care.
Changes in self-reported urinary incontinence, frequency of falls, depressive symptoms, physical function, and satisfaction were analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis adjusted for baseline differences, covariates, and practice-level variation. Prescriptions for high-risk medications and cost/utilization data obtained from administrative data were similarly analyzed.
After 24 months, no significant improvements in frequency of incontinence, proportion with falls, depression scores, physical function scores, or prescriptions for high risk medications were demonstrated. Costs of medical care including frequency of hospitalization, hospital days, emergency and ambulatory visits, and total costs of care were not significantly different between intervention and control groups. A higher proportion of intervention patients rated the overall quality of their medical care as excellent compared with control patients (40.0% vs 25.3%, P = .10).
Although intervention patients expressed high levels of satisfaction with Chronic Care Clinics, improved outcomes for selected geriatric syndromes were not demonstrated. These findings suggest the need for developing greater system-wide support for managing geriatric syndromes in primary care and illustrate the challenges of conducting practice improvement research in a rapidly changing delivery system.
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