Article

The effect of Coenzyme Q10 on sperm motility and function

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Abstract

In sperm cells, the majority of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) an energy promoting agent and antioxidant, is concentrated in the mitochondria of the midpiece, so that the energy for movement and all other energy-dependent processes in the sperm cell also depend on the availability of CoQ10. The reduced form of CoQ10-ubiquinol also acts as an antioxidant, preventing lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on sperm motility in vitro, after incubation with 38 samples of asthenospermic and normal motility sperm, and to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 administration in vivo in 17 patients with low fertilization rates after in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for male factor infertility. All 38 sperm samples from patients registered in our infertility clinic had normal concentrations and morphology. Of these, 16 patients had normal motility (mean 47.5%) and 22 patients were asthenospermic (mean motility 19.1%). Sperm samples were divided into four equal parts and incubated for 24 h in: HAM's medium alone, in HAM's medium with 1% DMSO and HAM's with 5 microM or 50 microM CoQ10. While no significant change in motility after incubation was observed in the samples with initial normal motility, a significant increase in motility was observed in the 50 microM CoQ10 subgroup of sperm from asthenospermic men, with a motility rate of 35.7 +/- 19.5%, as compared to 19.1 +/- 9.3% in the controls (P < 0.05). The 17 patients with low fertilization rates after ICSI were treated with oral CoQ10, 60 mg/day, for a mean of 103 days before the next ICSI treatment. No significant change was noted in most sperm parameters, but a significant improvement was noted in fertilization rates, from a mean of 10.3 +/- 10.5% in their previous cycles, to 26.3 +/- 22.8% after CoQ10 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the administration of CoQ10 may result in improvement in sperm functions in selective patients. Further investigation into the mechanisms related to these effects is needed.

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... CoQ10 has been given orally at the dose of 60 mg/day to 17 patients with low fertilization rate after ICSI performed for male infertility for an average of 103 days previous to the subsequent ICSI procedure. The results showed a significant enhancement of the fertilization rate [71] (IIb). ...
... A systematic search was performed through the Pubmed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Academic One Files, Google Scholar and Scopus databases, from each database inception to December 15, 2018, using Medical Subjects Headings (MeSH) indexes and keywords searches. [47] Ib A Moslemi and Tavanbakhsh (2011) [48] III C N-acetyl-cysteine plus vitamin E Comhaire et al. (2000) [89] IIb B Selenium plus N-acetyl-cysteine Safarinejad and Safarinejad (2009) [95] Ib A N-acetyl-cysteine Ciftci et al. (2009) [90] Ib Glutathione Lenzi et al. (1992) [50] III C Lenzi et al. (1993) [49] Ib A Lenzi et al. (1994) [51] IIa B Carnitines Moncada et al. (1992) [ [69] Ia B Coenzyme Q10 Lewin and Lavon (1997) [71] IIb B Balercia et al. (2009) [73] Ib A Safarinejad (2009) [74] Ib A Safarinejad (2012) [75] IIb B Nadjarzadeh et al. (2011) [77] Ib A The search strategy used combined MeSH terms and keywords and was based on the following keywords: "male infertility", "antioxidants", "oligozoospermia", "sperm", "semen", "spermatozoa", "oxidative stress", "sperm DNA fragmentation", "pregnancy rate", "ascorbic acid", "vitamin C", "α-tocopehrol", "vitamin E", "selenium", "glutathione", "carnitines", "coenzyme Q10", "myoinositol", "lycopene", "N-acetyl-cysteine", "folic acid", "picnogenol", "pentoxyfilline", "zinc". Additional manual searches were made using the reference lists of relevant studies. ...
... A systematic search was performed through the Pubmed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Academic One Files, Google Scholar and Scopus databases, from each database inception to December 15, 2018, using Medical Subjects Headings (MeSH) indexes and keywords searches. [47] Ib A Moslemi and Tavanbakhsh (2011) [48] III C N-acetyl-cysteine plus vitamin E Comhaire et al. (2000) [89] IIb B Selenium plus N-acetyl-cysteine Safarinejad and Safarinejad (2009) [95] Ib A N-acetyl-cysteine Ciftci et al. (2009) [90] Ib Glutathione Lenzi et al. (1992) [50] III C Lenzi et al. (1993) [49] Ib A Lenzi et al. (1994) [51] IIa B Carnitines Moncada et al. (1992) [ [69] Ia B Coenzyme Q10 Lewin and Lavon (1997) [71] IIb B Balercia et al. (2009) [73] Ib A Safarinejad (2009) [74] Ib A Safarinejad (2012) [75] IIb B Nadjarzadeh et al. (2011) [77] Ib A The search strategy used combined MeSH terms and keywords and was based on the following keywords: "male infertility", "antioxidants", "oligozoospermia", "sperm", "semen", "spermatozoa", "oxidative stress", "sperm DNA fragmentation", "pregnancy rate", "ascorbic acid", "vitamin C", "α-tocopehrol", "vitamin E", "selenium", "glutathione", "carnitines", "coenzyme Q10", "myoinositol", "lycopene", "N-acetyl-cysteine", "folic acid", "picnogenol", "pentoxyfilline", "zinc". Additional manual searches were made using the reference lists of relevant studies. ...
Chapter
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Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as an important cause of male infertility because it may damage sperm function and DNA integrity. Since antioxidants counteract the action of OS, these compounds are used in the medical treatment of male infertility. This chapter reviews the effects of the main antioxidants used in clinical practice. We used an evidence-based medicine criterion in the attempt to identify the molecules that have the highest clinical efficacy. Some antioxidants have been clearly shown to be effective by many well-conducted studies. These include vitamins C and E, carnitines and coenzyme Q10, which may be considered as a first line treatment. Other molecules, such as glutathione, zinc, lycopene and myoinositol, may be proposed as a second line treatment because their use is supported by a few, but well-designed studies. Lastly, the efficacy of other antioxidants, such as picnogenol, pentoxyfilline, etc., is not yet supported by a sufficient number of studies.
... Coenzyme Q 10 is an antioxidant and a component of the respiratory chain [22], that plays an important role in energy metabolism, with higher concentrations being found in the mitochondria of the sperm cell's mid-piece [22,23]. Hence, motility and all other energy-dependent sperm cell processes rely on the availability of coenzyme Q 10 [23]. ...
... Coenzyme Q 10 is an antioxidant and a component of the respiratory chain [22], that plays an important role in energy metabolism, with higher concentrations being found in the mitochondria of the sperm cell's mid-piece [22,23]. Hence, motility and all other energy-dependent sperm cell processes rely on the availability of coenzyme Q 10 [23]. One study found that supplementation with coenzyme Q 10 improved fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection [23]. ...
... Hence, motility and all other energy-dependent sperm cell processes rely on the availability of coenzyme Q 10 [23]. One study found that supplementation with coenzyme Q 10 improved fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection [23]. ...
Article
Background Male infertility has been related to an increased sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Nutritional factors may improve sperm nuclear DNA integrity and thus pregnancy rates. Objective: To evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation on sperm DNA integrity in subfertile men and subsequent pregnancy rates. Methods In this retrospective comparative study 339 subfertile males were included on whom a sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) was performed as a method to detect DNA fragmentation, as well as an initial semen analysis. Of all, n = 162 received a nutritional management program for three months, consisting of two daily capsules of a standardized combined micronutrient formulation together with a guidance to diet modification and to lifestyle changes (study group). Each capsule contained L-carnitine, L-arginine, coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, folic acid, glutathione, and selenium. The control group consisted of those patients who did not receive the active treatment (n = 177), yet were instructed to engage in a healthy lifestyle, including a modification of their regular diet. The SCD test was repeated for both groups after three months. As part of the routine follow up, pregnancy rate was assessed six months after the second SCD test. Males with complete follow up and healthy female partners (aged 18 to 40 years) where included. Results Data of men with an initial mean DFI of >15% were analyzed first (n = 81;46 study and 35 control patients). After three months, both groups displayed a significant decrease of mean DFI values; however, the mean percent difference was higher in the study group (10.46 ± 1.20 % vs. 5.29 ± 0.57 %; p < .001). Then, the entire population was considered (n = 339). After three months, only the study group displayed a significant decrease of mean DFI initial values (10.48 ± 7.76 % to 6.51 ± 4.61%; p < .001); and the percent difference was higher in the study group (3.97 ± 0.28 % vs. 0.91 ± 0.28 %; p < .001). At six months follow-up, pregnancy rate was higher in the study group (27.78% vs. 15.25%, p = .002). Conclusion Both regimes significantly reduced sperm DNA fragmentation among subfertile men with a DFI >15%; however, when any baseline DFI value was considered, only micronutrient supplementation achieved a better result on DFI and thus pregnancy rate was higher.
... Coenzyme Q10 is an antioxidant and a component of the respiratory chain (Lafuente et al., 2013). It plays an important role in energy metabolism and is concentrated in the mitochondria of the sperm cell's midpiece (Lewin and Lavon, 1997;Lafuente et al., 2013). Motility and all other energy-dependent processes in the sperm cell therefore rely on the availability of coenzyme Q10 (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). ...
... It plays an important role in energy metabolism and is concentrated in the mitochondria of the sperm cell's midpiece (Lewin and Lavon, 1997;Lafuente et al., 2013). Motility and all other energy-dependent processes in the sperm cell therefore rely on the availability of coenzyme Q10 (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improved fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). ...
... Motility and all other energy-dependent processes in the sperm cell therefore rely on the availability of coenzyme Q10 (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improved fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An elevated DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) has been associated with male infertility; therefore measuring the sperm nuclear DNA integrity appears to be useful in predicting the ability of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes. Aim: To evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation over DFI values in subfertile men. Methods: This was a retrospective/comparative study that included a total of 306 subfertile males consulting the clinic from March 2011 to November 2017, who had performed the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCD) — a method used to detect DNA fragmentation — along with the initial semen analysis. Of the included population, [Formula: see text] 146 had received two daily oral capsules of a standardized combined micronutrient compound ([Formula: see text], Lenus Pharma, Vienna, Austria) for three months plus lifestyle change (study group). Each capsule contains L-carnitine, L-arginine, coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, folic acid, glutathione and selenium. Those who did not receive the active treatment ([Formula: see text] 160) but only engaged with lifestyle changes were considered controls. The SCD test was performed in both groups at baseline and after 3 months. Results: For the first statistical analysis, patients with an initial mean DFI of >15% were considered ([Formula: see text] 66 [37 were study and 29 were controls]). After 3 months, both groups displayed a significant decrease of mean DFI values. However, this decrease was more evident in the study group as compared to controls (10.54% vs. 14.48%, [Formula: see text] 0.05; [Formula: see text] 0.013). For the second statistical approach the entire population was considered ([Formula: see text] 306). After 3 months, only the study group displayed a significant decrease of the mean initial DFI value (10.16% to 6.49%, [Formula: see text] < 0.0001); decrease that was more evident as compared to controls (6.49% vs. 8.82%, [Formula: see text] 0.05; [Formula: see text] 0.000020). Conclusions: Among subfertile men with a DFI >15%, both regimes significantly decreased sperm DNA fragmentation; however, when any baseline DFI value was considered, only treatment with the active standardized micronutrient compound achieved a significant better result.
... Coenzyme Q-10 is a non enzymatic antioxidant that is related to low-density lipoproteins and protects against peroxidative damage. Since it is an energy-promoting agent, it also enhances sperm motility [181]. It is present in the sperm midpiece and recycles vitamin E and prevents its pro-oxidant activity [182]. ...
... It is present in the sperm midpiece and recycles vitamin E and prevents its pro-oxidant activity [182]. It has been shown that oral supplementation of 60 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 improves fertilization rate using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in normospermic infertile males [181]. Another study has shown that incubation of sperm samples from asthenozoospermic infertile males for 24 h in Ham's F-10 medium with 50 μM coenzyme Q10 improves sperm motility [181]. ...
... It has been shown that oral supplementation of 60 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 improves fertilization rate using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in normospermic infertile males [181]. Another study has shown that incubation of sperm samples from asthenozoospermic infertile males for 24 h in Ham's F-10 medium with 50 μM coenzyme Q10 improves sperm motility [181]. Also many other antioxidants like N-acetyl cysteine, carnitine, trehalose, hyaluranon, bovine serum albumin, inositol and carotenoids have been used in animal models. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress is an important aetiological factor which leads to sperm DNA damage and infertility. It damages all biomolecules and both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and adversely affects sperm membrane fluidity and motility. This acts like a biological safeguard however use of such sperm for ART/ICSI can lead to pre and post implantation losses, major and minor congenital malformations and even childhood cancer. Thus it is important to know the causes of oxidative stress and how the levels of free radicals be maintained at physiological levels when they are beneficial for normal function. It is also important to develop techniques to identity cases with high free radical levels and also adopt certain life style measures which can minimize oxidative stress and improve male reproductive health.
... Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) is a lipid molecule present in mammalian cells, which is capable of promoting energy generation through the exchange of electrons and protons that occurs during electron transport chain in the internal mitochondrial membrane (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). Due to its direct action in intracellular energy production, CoQ-10 is involved with several phisiological processes (Littarru and Tiano, 2010). ...
... Each ejaculates were divided into three treatments, being control (extender BotuCrio® -Botupharma, Botucatu, SP, Brazil) and the same extender with two different concentrations of CoQ-10 (Sigma-Aldrich® -C9538) that were added (50 µmol of CoQ-10 and 1 mmol of CoQ-10) ( Figure 1). These two chosen concentrations of CoQ-10 were based on literature review, especially in papers (Lewin and Lavon, 1997;Rossi et al., 2016). Hence, the treatments were denominated as control (CONT), 50 µmol CoQ-10 and 1 mmol CoQ-10. ...
... Therefore, overall cellular energy production depends on CoQ-10 availability. Concerning the spermatozoa, CoQ-10 is mostly concentrated in the midpiece being used for ATP-dependent processes such as sperm motility (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). Moreover, ubiquinol (a reduced form of CoQ-10) acts as a strong antioxidant in several biological systems (such as membranes and lipoproteins) by protecting them from hydroperoxides formation and lipid peroxidation (Alleva et al., 1997;Bentinger et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) is a cofactor for mitochondrial electron transport chain and may be an alternative to improve sperm quality of cryopreserved equine semen. This work aimed to improve stallion semen quality after freezing by adding CoQ-10 to the cryopreservation protocol. Seven saddle stallions were utilized. Each animal was submitted to five semen collections and freezing procedures. For cryopreservation, each ejaculate was divided in three treatments: 1) Botucrio® diluent (control); 2) 50 μmol CoQ-10 added to Botucrio® diluent; 3) 1 mmol CoQ-10 added to Botucrio® diluent. Semen batches were analyzed for sperm motility characteristics (CASA), plasma and acrosomal membranes integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (by fluorescence probes propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, FITC-PSA and JC-1, respectively), alterations in cytoskeletal actin (phalloidin-FITC) and mitochondrial function (diaminobenzidine; DAB). The 1 mmol CoQ-10 treatment presented higher (P<0.05) amount (66.8%) of sperm cells with fully stained midpiece (indicating high mitochondrial activity) and higher (P<0.05) amount (81.6%) of cells without actin reorganization to the post-acrosomal region compared to control group (60.8% and 76.0%, respectively). It was concluded that the addition of 1 mmol CoQ-10 to the freezing diluent was more effective in preserving mitochondria functionality and cytoskeleton of sperm cells submitted to cryopreservation process.
... It is also known as a regulating cofactor of mitochondrial electron transport in the respiratory chain for ATP production [13]. In addition, CoQ10 present in the sperm mitochondria is involved in energy metabolism for motility and acts as an antioxidant to prevent LP of sperm cell membranes [14,15]. Furthermore, it is essential for physiological mechanisms, including mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, membrane integrity, and scavenging of ROS to suppress the lipid peroxidation [16]. ...
... It is the downstream target for improving spermatogenesis to regulate the division of spermatogonia and spermatocyte maturity, as well as the activation of antioxidants in the face of HS. The effect of CoQ10 on sperm quality involves an essential cofactor in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP spermatozoa and their motility [15,36,37]. In addition, CoQ10 acts as a mobile electron carrier, transferring electrons to NADH coenzyme matrices, enhancing the resistance of spermatozoa to stress disorders [13,14]. ...
... Another antioxidant of interest is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is found in mitochondria at the midpiece of sperm [109]. Its reduced form, ubiquinol, is an antioxidant that protects sperm plasma membrane from lipid peroxidation [109]. ...
... Another antioxidant of interest is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is found in mitochondria at the midpiece of sperm [109]. Its reduced form, ubiquinol, is an antioxidant that protects sperm plasma membrane from lipid peroxidation [109]. In a prospective study, it was shown that treatment of CoQ10 increases sperm concentration, progressive and total sperm motility, antioxidant capacity, and SOD and CAT activity in men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) [110]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the delay of parenthood becoming more common, the age at which men father children is on the rise. While the effects of advanced maternal age have been well documented, only recently have studies started to focus on the impact of advanced paternal age (APA) in the context of male reproduction. As men age, the antioxidant defense system gradually becomes less efficient and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate in spermatozoa; this can impair their functional and structural integrity. In this review, we present an overview of how oxidative stress is implicated in male reproductive aging by providing a summary of the sources and roles of ROS, the theories of aging, and the current animal and human studies that demonstrate the impacts of APA on the male germ line, the health of progeny and fertility, and how treatment with antioxidants may reverse these effects.
... It has also been implicated that the energy of the sperm depends on the availability of CoQ10 (Mancini et al., 2005) that affects the structure and function of sperm through the energy production (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). The CoQ10 also functions as a motility enhancer in human sperm due to its properties against lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation (Talevi et al., 2013). ...
... The protective effect of CoQ10 against lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed spermatozoa has opened up a new horizon for scientists to use CoQ10 as a motility enhancer for spermatozoa (Saeed et al., 2016). The data related to lipid peroxidation are consistent with results from previous studies (Lewin and Lavon, 1997;Turunen et al., 2004;Yousefian et al., 2014Yousefian et al., , 2018. Using CoQ10 in freezing extender had no effect on DNA fragmentation in the present study, but results for other studies indicate there are positive effects on the DNA integrity (Talevi et al., 2013;Saeed et al., 2016;Yousefian et al., 2018). ...
Article
The effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has not yet been assessed for cryopreservation of rooster semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of CoQ10 in Lake extender for cryopreservation of rooster semen. The viability and apoptosis status, DNA fragmentation, abnormal morphology, motion parameters, membrane functionality, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation, and fertility potential were evaluated after the freeze-thaw process. Semen samples were collected from ten roosters, twice a week, and then diluted in extender contained different concentrations of CoQ10 as follows: Lake without CoQ10 (control, Q 0), Lake containing 1 μM (Q 1), 2 μM (Q 2), 5 μM (Q 5), and 10 μM (Q 10) CoQ10. Supplementation of Lake with 1 and 2 μM CoQ10 resulted in greater sperm viability, total motility, progressive motility, membrane functionality, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, and fertility rate. Furthermore, the extent of lipid peroxidation in thawed spermatozoa treated with 1 and 2 μM CoQ10 was less than with the other groups. Different concentrations of CoQ10 had no effect on DNA fragmentation and sperm morphology. Results of the present study indicate that supplementation of Lake extender with 1 and 2 μM CoQ10 enhances the quality of rooster sperm after the freeze-thaw process.
... CoQ10 deficiency can lead to sperm damage, lower sperm motility and sperm count. Studies have shown that the supplementation with CoQ10 can improve the reproductive outcomes in men with fertility problems [15]. In addition, seminal fluid CoQ10 concentrations correlate positively with sperm motility and count. ...
... An in-vitro study with CoQ10 supplementation has shown that it increases sperm motility significantly in asthenozoospermic patients [15]. A placebo-controlled, randomized study reported a significant improvement of sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility after CoQ10 supplementation to infertile men [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) are potential contributing factors for idiopathic male infertility. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been reported to be effective in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, in general, owing to its antioxidant properties. Thus, the present study intends to investigate the effects of CoQ10 therapy on semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and SDF in infertile men, specifically with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia (OA). Materials and methods: In this case-control study, sixty-five infertile patients with idiopathic OA and forty fertile men (control) were included. All participants underwent semen analysis based on the World Health Organization guidelines (5th edition, 2010). Patients received CoQ10 at the dose of 200 mg/d orally for three months. Seminal plasma CoQ10, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and SDF levels were measured in controls (baseline) and infertile patients pre- and post-CoQ10 treatment. Results: CoQ10 treatment for three months significantly improved sperm concentration (p<0.05), progressive motility (p<0.05), total motility (p<0.01), seminal fluid CoQ10 concentration (p<0.001), TAC (p<0.001), and GPx (p<0.001) levels in infertile men with OA. Further, ROS level (p<0.05) and SDF percentage (p<0.001) were reduced in OA patients as compared to the baseline. CoQ10 levels also correlated positively with sperm concentration (r=0.48, p=0.01) and total motility (r=0.59, p=0.003) while a negative correlation was recorded between SDF and sperm motility (r=-0.54, p=0.006). Conclusions: CoQ10 supplementation for three months could improve semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and reduce SDF in infertile men with idiopathic OA.
... Besides antioxidant preventing lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane, coenzyme Q-10 is present in mitochondria where it participates in energy production [57]. Coenzyme Q-10 supplementation showed to significantly increase sperm count and motility, improving sperm quality [58]. ...
Article
Background: Sexual dysfunction and infertility are conditions with high prevalence in general population. Nutritional factors have been reported to have impact in sexual and reproductive health. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the data on nutritional factors that have influence in male and female sexual and reproductive function, including nutritional status, specific foods (e.g. dairy food), nutrients and other food components and dietary supplements. Method: A literature search was performed using Cochrane Library, Medline and ScienceDirect databases without time limitations. Results: Obesity has a negative influence in male fertility, and weight loss improves male fertility. Food insufficiency is associated with increased sexual risk behaviours, more significant in women. Regarding to macronutrients and group foods, trans-fatty acids, high glycemic index food, high carbohydrate diet and high animal protein intake prejudices fertility; omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, low glycemic index food and low carbohydrate diet, vegetable proteins and antioxidants improves fertility. Isoflavones has a negative impact on men fertility and improves sexual health of menopausal women. Whole milk improves women fertility, but men benefit from skim milk. Concerning to dietary supplements there is weak evidence sustaining efficacy, and the most promising supplements are yohimbine, vitamin B, L-arginine and vitamin D. Conclusion: The compiled results indicate that despite the multifactorial etiology of sexual/reproductive dysfunction, nutritional factors may affect the sexual and reproductive health in both men and women. However, it is necessary further studies to clarify this association, and simultaneously improve the approach and treatment of patients with sexual and/or reproductive problems.
... наблюдали 17 пациентов с выраженной астенозооспермией и предшествующей неудачей в оплодотворении в программе ИКСИ. После приема коэнзима Q10 уровень оплодотворения вырос с 10,3±10,5% в предыдущих циклах до 26,3±22,8% (p<0,05) [23]. ...
... Coenzyme-Q10, also playing a key role in ATP synthesis and energy production, is observed to be highly positively correlated with sperm parameters [242]. Spermatozoa of asthenospermic patients cultured in Ham's F10 medium with Coenzyme-Q10 incubated for 24 h showed a significant increase in motility [243]. Notably, a common issue faced by these lipid-soluble antioxidants is that the use of cosolvents such as DMSO or absolute ethanol are required in spite of low concentrations (<1%), which are toxic to spermatozoa. ...
Article
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Preservation of human spermatozoa in vitro at normothermia or hypothermia maintaining their functions and fertility for several days plays a significant role in reproductive biology and medicine. However, it is well known that human spermatozoa left in vitro deteriorate over time irreversibly as the consequence of various stresses such as the change of osmolarity, energy deficiency, and oxidative damage, leading to substantial limitations including the need for semen examinations, fertility preservation, and assisted reproductive technology. These problems may be addressed with the aid of non-freezing storage techniques. The main and most effective preservation strategies are the partial or total replacement of seminal plasma with culture medium, named as extenders, and temperature-induced metabolic restriction. Semen extenders consist of buffers, osmolytes, and antioxidants, etc. to protect spermatozoa against the above-mentioned adverse factors. Extended preservation of human spermatozoa in vitro has a negative effect on sperm parameters, whereas its effect on ART outcomes remains inconsistent. The storage duration, temperature, and pre-treatment of semen should be determined according to the aims of preservation. Advanced techniques such as nanotechnology and omics have been introduced and show great potential in the lifespan extension of human sperm. It is certain that more patients will benefit from it in the near future. This review provided an overview of the current knowledge and prospects of prolonged non-freezing storage of human sperm in vitro.
... CoQ10 or its reduced metabolite ubiquinol possesses anti-oxidant properties and expresses abundantly in mitochondria of sperm midpiece [130]. Different studies indicated the lower level of CoQ10 in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of infertile men with idiopathic and varicocele-associated asthenospermia [131]. ...
Article
Oxidative stress (OS) is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body that can cause tissue damage. Oxidative stress has a significant involvement in the pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and male infertility. CP/CPPS is a major risk factor for male infertility due to generation of excessive ROS that damage sperm DNA, lipids, and proteins, resulting in compromised vitality and decreased sperm motility. Here we present a comprehensive review of oxidative stress relevance in CP/CPPS and male infertility, and embody the protective effects of antioxidants against ROS. An online literature was searched using the following keywords/terms: oxidative stress, ROS, Oxidative stress and chronic prostatitis, oxidative stress and male infertility and antioxidants. Original and review articles, clinical trials, and case reports of human and animal studies published till 2017 were searched using the PubMed and MEDLINE.
... Concerning the effect of Co-Q10 on animal reproduction, it was reported that the deficiency in Co-Q10 may be the cause of asthenozoospermia in some male (Lewin et al., 1997), and incubation of sperm cells with Co-Q10 improved the pattern of bull sperm cells motility (Ibrahim et al., 2011;Thakur et al., 2013). This also proved in our study, whereas all extenders enhanced sperm parameters with Co-Q10 as compared to without addition, indicating antioxidant effect of Co-Q10 in buffalo semen extenders. ...
Conference Paper
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Low fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is related to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. This study was conducted to evaluate the freezability of buffalo bull semen extended with four types of extenders, including citrate egg-yolk (CEY, control), CEY with ethanolic Moringa Olifera Leaf Extract (eMOLE) as replacement of antibiotics (CEYm), eMOLE and eMOLE with conventional antibiotic (eMOLEa) with or without Coenzyme Q10 as antioxidant. Semen was subjected to calculate progressive motility, livability, abnormality, acrosome damage and integrity of sperm membrane in semen after extending, equilibrating and thawing processes. Four sexually mature buffalo bulls (4-5 y and 400-450 kg LBW) were used for semen collection, and semen was collected twice weekly for 4 successive weeks. Semen ejaculates of ≥70% as mass motility percentage were pooled and extended at 37°C by the four types of extenders without or with (30 μM Co-Q10). Results cleared that progressive motility, livability, abnormality, acrosomal damage and plasma membrane integrity percentages improved (P<0.05) in buffalo semen after dilution, equilibration and thawing, while activity of AST, ALT and LDH in seminal plasma of post-thawed semen reduced (P<0.05) by extension of semen with eMOLE as a new extender. All sperm parameters and enzyme activity were maintained by replacing antibiotics in CEY extender with 4 ml eMOLE. All sperm parameters were improved (P<0.05) and enzyme activity was maintained by adding 30 μM of Co-Q10 as compared to free extenders. Fertility rate of buffalo cows inseminated with semen cryopreserved in extender (eMOLE+Co-Q10) was the highest (91.6%), followed by eMOLE without Co-Q10 (83.3%) and the lowest for control CEY (66.6%). In conclusion, eMOLE as a new extender, is promising for the extension and preservation of buffalo semen. Also, adding 4 ml of eMOLE could be a good substitute for the antibiotic component of CEY as a conventional semen extender. Moreover, supplementing semen extenders with antioxidant addition (30 μM Co-Q10) is important to improve function of spermatozoa and sperm fertility of cryopreserved semen of buffaloes.
... In the present study, comparing to the fresh semen, chilled semen storage in extender supplemented with CoQ10 decreased spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane functionality and integrity by 8.16%, 12.16% and 8.62%, respectively, but lack of Co-Q10 caused much bigger adverse changes in motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality by 18.30%, 24.23 and 21.21% respectively. The results of previous studies showed that CoQ10 maintained the sperm quality, as in asthenozoospermic [35] and normospermic [29] human as well as in semen of cocks [36] and in horses [13]. Nath et al. (2015) showed an in vitro study on pooled semen of Rhode Island Red cocks incubated with 0.3 mg/mL of CoQ10 at 4°C for 36 h which significantly improved the sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity. ...
... Особенно высока его концентрация в митохондриях сперматозоидов, участвующих в клеточном дыхании. Он играет важную роль в выработке энергии [32,33]. Кроме того, коэнзим Q 10 ингибирует образование супероксида, предотвращая нарушение функционирования сперматозоидов, вызванное ОС. ...
Article
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The study objective is to discuss the most studied antioxidants, using for the enhancement of human reproductive characteristics, and to describe their mechanisms of action, effects and recommended doses.Results. Oxidative stress remains a key factor that can affect the reproductive outcome, either naturally or with assisted reproductive technology. Zinc, selenium, folic acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, carnitines, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, coenzyme Qw, lycopene most commonly used for mono- or combination therapy.Conclusion. The identification and treatment of oxidative stress by reducing reactive oxygen species (antioxidant therapy) seems an attractive tactic in the prevention and treatment of infertility.
... Co-enzyme Q10 and catalase act as antioxidants that preserve and increase semen motility [63][64][65][66]. Co-enzyme Q10 is associated with semen parameters, such as concentration, morphology, and motility [6]. ...
Article
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Sperm cells are highly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced during cellular oxidation. In normal cell biology, ROS levels increase with a decreasing antioxidant response, resulting in oxidative stress which threatens sperm biology. Oxidative stress has numerous effects, including increased apoptosis, reduced motion parameters, and reduced sperm integrity. In this regard, green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) have been reported to possess properties that may increase the quality of male and female gametes, mostly via the capability of catechins to reduce ROS production. GrTPs have antioxidant properties that improve major semen parameters, such as sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA damage, fertility rate, and gamete quality. These unique properties of green tea catechins could improve reproductive health and represent an important study area. This exploratory review discusses the therapeutic effects of GrTPs against infertility, their possible mechanisms of action, and recommended supportive therapy for improving fertility in humans and in animals.
... Two major probes currently used to assess ROS generation by spermatozoa Zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4 ) • Administration of 250 mg of ZnSO 4 twice daily for 3 months to 50 asthenozoospermic patients resulted in a higher sperm count and membrane integrity. ZnSO 4 also played an immunological role as T-helper cytokines and interleukin-4 levels increased in the experimental group and TNF-α and antisperm antibodies decreased [176] Coenzyme Q10 • Supplementation of 60 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 for 103 days led to an increase in the fertilization rate but had no efect on motility, morphology or concentration in 17 patients with low fertilization rates due to male factor infertility [177] • 60 patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia who received 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 demonstrated signiicant improvement in motility after 6 months of treatment [178] extracellularly. Chemiluminescent assays are sensitive, convenient for diagnostic purposes and have relatively well-established normal ranges [11,12]. ...
... Coenzyme Q10 is a non enzymatic antioxidant that is related to low-density lipoproteins and protects against peroxidative damage. Since it is an energypromoting agent, it also enhances sperm motility (11) , and a major cellular antioxidant (12) . The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different concentrations of (L-carnitine and COQ10) supplied to culture medium on sperm motility and sperm grade activity during in vitro sperm activation. ...
Article
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This study was designed to assess the effect of different concentrations of L-carnitine and Co enzyme Q10 (COQ10) supplied to SMART Pro-medium on human sperm motility and sperm grade activity (progressive, non-progressive and immotile) during in vitro sperm activation. Eighty seven samples of semen of infertile and fertile men were randomly collected from the subjects at the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies / Al-Nahrain University. The mean age of the men was (32.034 ± 0.57) years with mean duration of infertility (4.644 ± 0.25) years. Seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations according to WHO criteria. Swim-up technique was dependent for in vitro sperm activation , the washed samples were divided before using centrifugation swim-up technique into 3 groups: control group (G1) without L-carnitine and CoQ10. While, in G2, G3 two concentrations of L-carnitine and CoQ10 (20 µg , and 40 µg) were used. Moreover, all groups within post-activation enriched with SMART-Pro media. The sperm motility and sperm grade activity were evaluated after the addition of L-carnitine and COQ10. The results showed a significant (P<0.05) differences were showed in sperm motility and sperm grade activity of post-activation when compared with the pre-activation. In G2 and G3, with dose of (20 µg and 40 µg) of L-carnitine and CoQ10, the results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility in spite of the increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility in G3 compared to G2, there was non significant (P>0.05) differences between G2 and G3. The results for non-progressive sperm motility% and total progressive sperm motility millions/ mL. for 40 µg (G3) groups were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased when compared to control group (G1) with non-significant (P>0.05) differences between 20µg (G2) group, with significant (P< 0.05) decreased in immotile sperm percentage in post-activation when compared to the pre-activation. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the addition of 40 µg of L-carnitine and CoQ10 to washed sperms can improve sperm motility and sperm grade activity in vitro. Data were analyzed statistically using complete randomized design (CRD) (one way ANOVA).
... Lower levels of vitamin E were observed in the semen of infertile men [128]. Insufficient intake of vitamin E produced deleterious effects on the process of normal spermatozoa [129]. One of the earlier studies investigating vitamin E alone (300 mg daily) on infertile men reported significant improvement in spermatozoa motility [121]. ...
... Seventeen patients with low fertilization rates during prior ICSI for male factor infertility were treated with oral coenzyme Q10 (60 mg/day) for a mean of 103 days before subsequent ICSI trial. While no significant change was observed in most semen parameters, a significant improvement was found in fertilization rates from a mean of 10.3% in their previous cycle to 26.3% after coenzyme Q10 therapy [28]. Another study of similar design assessed the effect of vitamin C and vitamin E (1000 mg each for 2 months) on 38 men who had at least one unsuccessful previous ICSI cycle and elevated DNA-fragmented spermatozoa. ...
Chapter
In the era of assisted reproductive techniques where intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may overcome the most severe form of male infertility, sperm with severe function defect may bypass the natural selection process and achieve clinical pregnancy and live birth. The risk of injecting DNA-damaged sperm into oocyte during ICSI is increasingly recognized with the understanding of oxidative stress (OS)-induced sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the pathogenesis of male subfertility. Emerging evidence reveals the negative impact of poor sperm DNA integrity on ICSI outcomes, particularly miscarriage rate. The invention of various OS and SDF assays, on one hand, allows the investigation of potential treatment strategies in the alleviation of OS and SDF. On the other hand, presence of effective treatment is essential in further substantiating the role of laboratory assays in clinical practice. Several interventions including the use of sperm with short ejaculatory abstinence, oral antioxidant therapy, varicocele repair, advanced sperm selection techniques, and the use of testicular sperm have been explored. Most of these strategies have proven their efficacy in reducing OS and SDF significantly. However, clinical application of the techniques remains less clear due to limited clinical trials in the literature. Although improved ICSI outcomes have been observed in a number of retrospective and prospective studies, the treatment strategies should be utilized with caution in view of the lack of randomized study at the moment.
... Different cellular defense mechanisms involve for protection against the free radical damage (Lewin et al., 1997). Enzymes (e.g. ...
... Concerning the effect of Co-Q10 on animal reproduction, it was reported that the deficiency in Co-Q10 may be the cause of asthenozoospermia in some male (Lewin et al., 1997), and incubation of sperm cells with Co-Q10 improved the pattern of bull sperm cells motility (Ibrahim et al., 2011;Thakur et al., 2013). This also proved in our study, whereas all extenders enhanced sperm parameters with Co-Q10 as compared to without addition, indicating antioxidant effect of Co-Q10 in buffalo semen extenders. ...
Article
Full-text available
Low fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is related to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. This study was conducted to evaluate the freezability of buffalo bull semen extended with four types of extenders, including citrate egg-yolk (CEY, control), CEY with ethanolic Moringa Olifera Leaf Extract (eMOLE) as replacement of antibiotics (CEYm), eMOLE and eMOLE with conventional antibiotic (eMOLEa) with or without Coenzyme Q10 as antioxidant. Semen was subjected to calculate progressive motility, livability, abnormality, acrosome damage and integrity of sperm membrane in semen after extending, equilibrating and thawing processes. Four sexually mature buffalo bulls (4-5 y and 400-450 kg LBW) were used for semen collection, and semen was collected twice weekly for 4 successive weeks. Semen ejaculates of ≥70% as mass motility percentage were pooled and extended at 37°C by the four types of extenders without or with (30 μM Co-Q10). Results cleared that progressive motility, livability, abnormality, acrosomal damage and plasma membrane integrity percentages improved (P<0.05) in buffalo semen after dilution, equilibration and thawing, while activity of AST, ALT and LDH in seminal plasma of post-thawed semen reduced (P<0.05) by extension of semen with eMOLE as a new extender. All sperm parameters and enzyme activity were maintained by replacing antibiotics in CEY extender with 4 ml eMOLE. All sperm parameters were improved (P<0.05) and enzyme activity was maintained by adding 30 μM of Co-Q10 as compared to free extenders. Fertility rate of buffalo cows inseminated with semen cryopreserved in extender (eMOLE+Co-Q10) was the highest (91.6%), followed by eMOLE without Co-Q10 (83.3%) and the lowest for control CEY (66.6%). In conclusion, eMOLE as a new extender, is promising for the extension and preservation of buffalo semen. Also, adding 4 ml of eMOLE could be a good substitute for the antibiotic component of CEY as a conventional semen extender. Moreover, supplementing semen extenders with antioxidant addition (30 μM Co-Q10) is important to improve function of spermatozoa and sperm fertility of cryopreserved semen of buffaloes.
... Benzoquinone, also known as ubidearenone and ubiquinone, is a lipid-soluble antioxidant mainly present in the mitochondria, and is also a natural antioxidant and free radical scavenger in mammals (Lafuente et al., 2013;Liu et al., 2017). As an energy promoter and antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 is mainly distributed in the mitochondria in the midsection of sperm, and the availability of the energy required for sperm motility and other energy-dependent processes depends on the availability of coenzyme Q10 (Aby and Lavon, 1997). Studies have shown that sperm concentration, motility and semen parameters are related to CoQ10 concentration, as CoQ10 can reduce stress oxidation, increase antioxidant enzyme activity, and improve overall antioxidant capacity (Balercia et al., 2009;Lafuente et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore the potential biological function of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the sperm motility traits of Xinjiang Yili geese, and to provide a reference for analyzing the mechanism of regulation of Yili geese sperm motility. The 10 selected Xinjiang Yili Geese with high or low sperm motility (five for each group) were 3 years old, in good health, and were kept in the same feeding conditions. Yili geese were slaughtered for the collection of testicular tissue and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to screen differentially expressed circRNAs for bioinformatics analysis. Combined with the previously screened miRNAs related to the sperm motility of Yili geese, the circRNAs miRNAs regulatory network was constructed. The results showed that a total of 26,311 circRNAs were obtained from testicular tissues with high and low sperm motility, and 173 DECs were screened between the two groups (p < 0.05, |log2Foldchange|>0), of which 82 were up-regulated and 91 were down-regulated. Functional analysis of the source genes of these DECs showed that the source genes were mainly involved in biological processes. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the source genes of DECs were mainly enriched in autophagy-animal, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and other pathways. Furthermore, the visual regulatory network of differential circRNA-miRNA-mRNA was constructed, including 20 circRNAs, 18 miRNAs and 177 mRNAs, and nine core regulatory circRNAs were screened, including novell_circ_0045314, novel_circ_0019994 and novel_circ_0020422, etc., targeting ppy-mir-16, hsa-mir-221–3p, gga-mir-499–5p, etc. The results suggest that circRNAs may interact with miRNAs to further regulate mRNA to regulate sperm motility in Yili geese, so as to provide a reference for analyzing the molecular mechanism of sperm motility regulation.
... 39,43 (3) Co Q10 is a type of nonenzymatic antioxidant that reduces the concentration of lipoprotein and protects the body from peroxidation. 44,45 Our previous study found that tamoxifen combined with Co Q10 can significantly improve sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in patients with idiopathic oligozoospermia. 46 As common antioxidants in the clinical treatment of male infertility, vitamin C, vitamin E, and Co Q10 have been proven to be effective, cheap, and easy to obtain, which makes this study more useful for clinical treatment. ...
Article
To explore the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes such as CYP1A1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 and idiopathic male infertility. By observing the efficacy of antioxidants in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, the effect of metabolic enzyme gene polymorphisms on antioxidant therapy in patients with idiopathic male infertility was prospectively studied. This case-control study included 310 men with idiopathic infertility and 170 healthy controls. The cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) genotypes in peripheral blood samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The idiopathic male infertility group was treated with vitamin C, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 for 3 months and followed up for 6 months. GSTM1(-), GSTT1(-), and GSTM1/T1(-/-) in the idiopathic male infertility groups were more common than those in the control group. The sperm concentration, motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level in patients with GSTM1(-), GSTT1(-), and GSTM1/T1(-/-) were lower than those in wild-type carriers, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were higher. Therefore, oxidative damage may play an important role in the occurrence and development of idiopathic male infertility, but antioxidant therapy is not effective in male infertility patients with GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions.
... The group of non-enzymatic antioxidants also includes coenzyme Q10, which is especially present in high concentrations in the mitochondria of sperm involved in cell respiration and plays an integral role in energy production [39]. This positive effect promotes its use as a motility stimulant and antioxidant molecule. ...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular studies of the causes of male infertility revealed a significant contribution of oxidative stress. When excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced or antioxidant activity fails, the equilibrium between oxidation and reduction is disrupted, causing oxidative stress (OS). High levels of ROS can have an adverse effect on sperm function through the initiation of DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, loss of membrane integrity and increased permeability, inactivation of cellular enzymes, and cell apoptosis. In addition to endogenous factors such as immature sperm, leukocytes, and varicocele, potential causes of excessive ROS can also be found exogenously in males with testicular hyperthermia or exposed to environmental toxicity. To maintain the optimal functioning of sperm cells, it is, therefore, necessary to balance the redox potential, i.e., to balance ROS by antioxidants. The purpose of this review is to present the antioxidant defense systems in semen.
... orBecause of dramatically reduced serum hormone levels (LH, FSH, and testosterone levels), testis weight by direct desensitization of the HPG axis [19].perhaps significant decreases in germ cells, daily sperm production, total support capacity of Sertoli cells, Sertoli efficiency and meiotic index, and an increase in the coefficient of mitosis indicated germ cell loss, which may have occurred through apoptotic mechanisms [20].coadministration of kisspeptin and ubiquinone resulted in a significant enhancement in the total sperm count,elongated spermatid and daily sperm production, the improvements may be due CoQ10 act as an antioxidant, an energy booster, a membrane stabilizer, and a regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pores [36].The majority of CoQ10 in sperm cells is concentrated in the mitochondria of the mid piece, and energy-dependent activities in the sperm cell are dependent on CoQ10 availability [45].CoQ10 levels in seminal fluid have a direct relationship with sperm parameters [46].Due to its participation in mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant characteristics, exogenous treatment of CoQ 10 raises both ubiquinone and ubiquinol levels in the sperm and can be useful in enhancing sperm kinetic aspects in patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia [14,35]. The findings show that supplementing with Ubiquinol aids in boosting sperm count and motility [47].Reduced oxidative damage in the presence of the lipophilic antioxidant ubiquinol may explain why testicular cells release a normal quantity of testosterone. ...
Article
Objectives:. to investigates the effects of pulsatile Kisspeptin administration for12 days on gonadotropin and testosterone production and maturation of immature rat male gonads, as well as to assess the protective role of ubiquinone 10 when rats were exposed to Kisspeptin in the male reproductive system during the prepubertal phase. Materials & methods: thirty-six male rats were used in the experiment. The rats divided into four groups (eight each) ,the first group were given DMSO as control, the second group were given kisspeptin as experimental,the third group were given kisspeptin + ubiquinone as treatment and the fourth group was given ubiquinone only as care.At the end of the experiment, all rats in each group were sacrificed. after this, Plasma LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations were measured, while total spermatid head count,elongated spermatid and daily sperm production were calculated. Results. At the end of the treatments, the result shows a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone(FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH)and testosterone hormone while show significant increase in Inhibin B in male rats treated with 50nmol/kg B.W of kisspeptin during the pre pubertal stage compared with other groups. coadministration of ubiquinone with kisspeptin results in an improvement in LH, FSH ,testosterone and Inhibin B levels in the present study.while other results concerning a total number of spermatid heads, elongated spermatid and daily sperm production show a significant decrease in male rats treated with 50nmol/kg B.W of kisspeptin compare with other groups. coadministration of ubiquinone with kisspeptin results in a significant elevation in all parameters treated studied.
... For this reason, pretreatment with antioxidants could be useful to improve the quality of gametes [30]. According to Arhin et al. [65], evidence from many RCTs has shown that oral antioxidant supplementation leads to a significant increase in the pregnancy rate in couples undergoing ART cycles by enhancing male fertility. However, the results of some of these studies must be interpreted with the utmost care due to discrepancies in the treatment regimens. ...
Article
Full-text available
Male infertility has a complex etiopathology, which mostly remains elusive. Although research has claimed that oxidative stress (OS) is the most likely underlying mechanism of idiopathic male infertility, the specific treatment of OS-mediated male infertility requires further investigation. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a vitamin-like substance, has been found in measurable levels in human semen. It exhibits essential metabolic and antioxidant functions, as well as playing a vital role in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Thus, CoQ10 may be a key player in the maintenance of biological redox balance. CoQ10 concentrations in seminal plasma directly correlate with semen parameters, especially sperm count and sperm motility. Seminal CoQ10 concentrations have been shown to be altered in various male infertility states, such as varicocele, asthenozoospermia, and medical or surgical regimens used to treat male infertility. These observations imply that CoQ10 plays an important physiological role in the maintenance and amelioration of semen quality. The present article thereby aimed to review the possible mechanisms through which CoQ10 plays a role in the regulation of male reproductive function, and to concisely discuss its efficacy as an ameliorative agent in restoring semen parameters in male infertility, as well as its impact on OS markers, sperm DNA fragmentation, pregnancy, and assisted reproductive technology outcomes.
... It also considered as an antioxidant, preventing lipid peroxidation of the membranes of sperm. Recent research indicated that CoQ10 improve the quality of semen in males with Infertility (Lewin and Lavon, 1997). Furthermore, Ernster and Dallner (1995), Bhagavan and Chopra (2006) stated that ubiquinone is a benzoquinone soluble lipid-which is an essential ingredient of the respiratory chain in mitochondrial to synthesize adenosine triphosphate. ...
Research
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Lithium carbonate (LC) is the most prevalent used as anti-psychological drug and can curbing reproductive performance via testicular toxicity and induction of oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate examines the neuromodulatory effects of Ficus carica leaves extract and ubiquinone (Coq10) against lithium carbonate induced neuron-toxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. So forty two (42) rats were assigned into 7 groups of six animals each. The 1st group was control (C) received distill water. The 2nd groups treated with extract 200 mg /kg body weight Ficus carica extract (FE). The 3rd groups treated with 20 mg /kg b.w of CoQ10 (CoQ10). The 4th group treated with lithium carbonate (25 mg /kg b.w) (LC). The 5th group treated with LC+ FE (LC+ FC) 25 mg /kg body weight of Lithium carbonate and 200mg/kg b.w of FE. The 6th group treated with LC 25 mg /kg body + CoQ10 20 mg/kg b.w (LC+ CoQ10). The 7th group treated with LC 25 mg /kg body weight + FE (200mg/kg b.w) + CoQ10 20 mg/kg b.w (LC + FC +CoQ10). The experiment lasted for 60 days. The data revealed that LC induces significant (P>0.05) increase in serum 5HT, GSSG, MDA, MPO, PGE2, IL-1 β and IL-6. But showed significant (P>0.05) decrease in 5HIAA, ACHE, BDNF, serum GSH. From another side, FC, CoQ10 and their combination improve negative impacts exhibited by LC. On the whole, Obtained data concluded that LC acts as a bipolar treatment but increase neuro toxicity through increase oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. Alternatively, FC, CoQ10 and their combination improve negative impacts of LC and can normalize bipolar symptoms.
... Lewin and Lavon employed coenzyme Q10 both in vivo and in vitro and revealed that the incorporation of 50 mmol in vitro caused a significant improvement in motility, whilst in vivo incorporation of 60 mg/day for almost four months resulted in an enhancement in the fertilization rate but did not provide any impact on motility, morphology or concentration in 17 patients with decreased fertilization rates after in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male factor infertility [96]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nutritional utilization of antioxidants, such as vitamins C, E, ß-Carotene and micronutrients, such as folate and zinc, have been shown to be critically essential for normal semen quality and reproductive function. However, it is still, a large knowledge gap exists concerning the role of antioxidants on semen parameters and the role in treatment of male subfertility. Therefore, the current review article designed to find out the positive effect of antioxidants on semen quality, alterations in physiological functions of spermatozoa and infertility treatment It is advisable that patients with oxidative DNA disruption should be asked to take a simple course of antioxidants prior to undertaking assisted reproduction treatment (ART). In conclusion, antioxidant may be employed as a potent antioxidant and may improve infertility treatment outcomes with ART.
Chapter
Oxidative stress is a well-established cause of male infertility. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced by sperm and activated leukocytes within the male reproductive tract, are present at higher concentrations in infertile men’s semen and have been conclusively shown to impair sperm function leading to infertility and possible long-term health consequences for any child conceived. In this chapter, we critically analyse the published studies that have attempted to treat male infertility by the reduction of leukocyte production of ROS (anti-inflammatory action), the direct neutralization of ROS by antioxidants or the fortification of sperm against ROS attack. Overall, there is reasonably good evidence that some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapies can significantly reduce oxidative damage to sperm DNA and improve sperm membrane function (motility and sperm fertilization capacity). However, what is still contentious is whether these improvements in sperm quality translate into an increase in natural conception rates for infertile couples. While several relatively small studies have shown some antioxidant therapies to assist both in vivo and in vitro conception, larger more definitive studies will be required before antioxidant therapy becomes an established medical practice for infertile males.
Article
Although coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) serves as an antioxidant and energy source for spermatozoa when added to stallion semen before cooling or freezing, the effects of feeding CoQ10 on semen quality have not been studied. We assessed the effects of daily oral ingestion of CoQ10-ubiquinol by stallions on their plasma CoQ10 concentrations and semen quality. Seven mature Andalusian stallions ate 1g ubiquinol/day for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. Four horses initially completed an additional 4-week control period without ubiquinol. Blood was sampled weekly for determination of plasma CoQ10 concentrations. Ejaculates were collected every two weeks and assessed for total motility (TM), progressive motility (PM), and viability (V) after cooling for 24hours (T1), immediate cryopreservation (T2), and cryopreservation after 24hours cooling (T3). Ingesting ubiquinol resulted in an increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration (P < .001). Two weeks of CoQ10-ubiquinol resulted in improved V with all treatments (T1: P = .007; T2: P = .05; T3: P = .01) and PM with T3 (P = .04). In five stallions, TM and PM were also improved for T1 (P = .01 and P = .02, respectively) and TM increased with T2 (P = .03). Overall, semen quality parameters increased within the first 2 weeks of supplementation, plateaued at the end of the 4-week supplementation period and persisted after discontinuing ubiquinol until the end of the sampling period (8 weeks). Feeding 1 g CoQ10-ubiquinol for 4 weeks to breeding stallions improved semen quality after cooling and freezing in 5 of 7 stallions. This could be important for improving reproductive efficiency in stallions.
Article
The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of the addition of different concentrations of the antioxidants Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and melatonin to equine semen freezing diluent, alone or in combination, during the cryopreservation process. Twenty ejaculates (n = 5 stallions) were divided in groups: Control (C, without the addition of antioxidants), melatonin 0.75 mM (MEL1), melatonin 1.5 mM (MEL2), CoQ10 40 μg/mL (Q1), CoQ10 200 μg/mL (Q2), and CoQ10 40 μg/mL+ 0.75 mM melatonin (Q1 +MEL1). Q1 and Q2 groups demonstrated intact plasma membrane and high mitochondrial membrane potential after 30 (M-30) and 60 (M-60) min of incubation compared with the control group (Q1: 64.8 % ± 9.9 %, Q2: 65.2 % ± 10.5 %, C: 55.1 % ± 10.0 %; M-30 and Q1: 63.3 % ± 10.4 %, Q2: 64.6 % ± 10.8 %, C: 53.1 ± 10.6 %; M-60; P < 0.05). Melatonin conferred greater membrane stability at all evaluated times compared with the control group (MEL1: 42.1 % ± 6.0 %; MEL2: 44.0 % ± 6.7 %, C: 35.9 % ± 5.9 %; M-0; MEL1: 40.8 % ± 5.6 %; MEL2: 42.6 % ± 7.2 %, C: 33.1 % ± 6.6 %; M-30 and MEL1: 37.5 % ± 7.4 %; MEL2: 39.1 % ± 7.2 %; C: 31.3 % ± 6.5 %; M-60; P < 0.05). The use of antioxidants alone or in combination resulted in lower levels of lipoperoxidation at all times evaluated compared with in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 and melatonin were effective in the cryopreservation of equine semen by decreasing lipoperoxidation and promoting a higher percentage of spermatozoa with a high mitochondrial potential, total and progressive motility, and prevention of membrane lipid disorder.
Article
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This study was conducted to explore the synergistic effect of adding some antioxidants to Tris extender on sperm cells individual motility of Holstein bulls following different cooling and cryopreservation periods (5°C, 48 h, 1 and 2 months post cryopreservation, PC). This experiment was executed at the Artificial Insemination Department; belong to the Animal Resources Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture in Abu-Ghraib region (25 Km west of Baghdad) during the period from 15th November 2015 to 30th March 2016. Semen was collected via artificial vagina in one ejaculate per bull per week for the 6-week experimental period. Pooled semen was equally divided into five groups. Was added to the first group (A1) diluted Tris just where I went back the control group, Combinations of vitamin C + carnitine (5 and 7.5 mm/ ml, respectively; A2), vitamin E + coenzyme Q10 (0.2 and 0.5 mm/ ml, respectively; A3), vitamin E + α-lipoic acid (0.2 and 0.5 mm/ ml, respectively; A4) and carnitine + catalase (7.5 mm and 100 IU / ml, respectively; A5). The individual motility (IM) was greater (P≤ 0.01) in the A5 as compared with the remaining groups at 1 and 2 months PC (44.16 ± 3.00 %). Moreover, the IM was also greater (P≤ 0.01) in A5 as compared with the A1, A2 and A4 groups at the 48 h PC time period. However, the IM was not significantly different in all groups at the cooling time period. As the percentage of individual movement of sperm was significantly different between the extended conservation at A5 Group did not differ. The Group A2 has recorded the lowest individual movement of the sperm after 48 hours of conservation freeze-reaching 22.50 ± 3.81%. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of adding some antioxidant combinations had improved sperm cells individual motility of Holstein bulls, which will positively reflect in enhancing bull’s fertility and owner’s economic returns consequently.
Article
The male factor is a major contributory factor to infertility. Oxidative stress is the important cause of male infertility which is oxygen-derived radicals, generated constantly as a main part of normal aerobic life. These radicals are formed in mitochondria as oxygen is reduced along the electron transport chain and collectively known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is a powerful mechanism causing sperm damage, deformity and finally leads to male infertility. Antioxidants suppress the action of these reactive oxygen species in a regulatory manner but in several conditions viz., aging, physical injury, chronic disease and toxin exposure, these ROS production increases and causes oxidative stress which leads to cellular damage. The review article enlightens the physiological and pathological role of ROS in normal sperm function and to explore the role of antioxidant therapies in management of ROS causes infertility. KEYWORDS Reactive Oxygen Species, Antioxidants, Infertility and Oxidative Stress.
Article
Aim: In the current study, the effects of in-vitro sperm incubation with Pentoxifylline (PTX) and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on sperm parameters, mitochondrial activity, chromatin, and membrane integrity, protamine deficiency, and apoptosis among Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were obtained from normal men with normozoospermic and men with OAT. Following the swim-up technique, the sperm pellet samples of each group (normal and OAT men) were subdivided into four subgroups: 1) without incubation of PTX + CoQ10; 2) incubation with PTX; 3) Incubation with CoQ10; 4) incubation of combination with PTX+ CoQ10; incubated at 37°C in one hour. Then, sperm parameters, chromatin, DNA and membrane integrity, protamine deficiency, apoptosis, mitochondrial activity using aniline blue staining (AB), sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD ), hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS) test, chromomycin A3 (CMA3), and terminal deoxynuclemitochondrial activity otidyl transferase dutp nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and diaminobenzidine (DAB) assays were evaluated, respectively. Results: Incubated sperm with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in the sperm total motility (P=0.03) and sperm progressive motility with CoQ10 (P≤0.001) and PTX (P=0.008). Whereas a significant decrease was noted with a combination of PTX and CoQ10 in normal men (P=0.02). Percentage of DNA fragmentation, AB+, HOS test+, TUNEL +, DABI, DABIII, and DAB IV proportions of mitochondrial activity in OAT group were compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in the percentage of sperm count, concentration, normal morphology, and CMA3+ after incubation. .Conclusions: Incubated sperm with CoQ10, PTX, and in combination with each other can effetely improve sperm parameters in OAT patients(P<0.05).
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of multiple antioxidant (Proxeed Plus (PP) with Carnitine, Selenium, Zinc, Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin C, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) on local random skin flap healing with the hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. Methods Fourty rats were equally divided into five groups (Control, PP, HBO, HBO+PP, PP+HBO+PP). Local random McFarlane skin flap was applied to all rats. Following the applications, evaluations were made biochemical (TAS, TOS, OSI, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, VEGF) and histopathological parameters. Results Necrosis percentage was found to be lower in the PP+HBO+PP group than all other groups whereas the necrosis percentages of PP and HBO groups were similar. Oxidative stress rates were significantly higher in the control group compared to the other groups whereas it was lower in the PP+HBO+PP group than all other groups. The inflammation parameters were the highest in the control group and the lowest in the PP+HBO+PP group. Growth factors were higher in the PP+HBO+PP group than all other groups. Epithelialization and wound healing were better in the HBO and PP groups than in the control group. The greatest healing, epithelialization and vascularization was seen in the PP+HBO+PP group. The histopathological findings in the PP+HBO+PP group were better in each inner region than in the other groups. Conclusion Biochemical and histopathological parameters have shown that PP reduces ischemia and necrosis and increases oxygenation in flap healing by providing significant improvement thanks to the multiple molecular structures in its content.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to explore the synergistic effect of adding some antioxidants to Tris extender on sperm cells individual motility of Holstein bulls following different cooling and cryopreservation periods (5°C, 48 h, 1 and 2 months post cryopreservation, PC). This experiment was executed at the Artificial Insemination Department; belong to the Animal Resources Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture in Abu-Ghraib region (25 Km west of Baghdad) during the period from 15th November 2015 to 30th March 2016. Semen was collected via artificial vagina in one ejaculate per bull per week for the 6-week experimental period. Pooled semen was equally divided into five groups. Was added to the first group (A1) diluted Tris just where I went back the control group, Combinations of vitamin C + carnitine (5 and 7.5 mm/ ml, respectively; A2), vitamin E + coenzyme Q10 (0.2 and 0.5 mm/ ml, respectively; A3), vitamin E + α-lipoic acid (0.2 and 0.5 mm/ ml, respectively; A4) and carnitine + catalase (7.5 mm and 100 IU / ml, respectively; A5). The individual motility (IM) was greater (P≤ 0.01) in the A5 as compared with the remaining groups at 1 and 2 months PC (44.16 ± 3.00 %). Moreover, the IM was also greater (P≤ 0.01) in A5 as compared with the A1, A2 and A4 groups at the 48 h PC time period. However, the IM was not significantly different in all groups at the cooling time period. As the percentage of individual movement of sperm was significantly different between the extended conservation at A5 Group did not differ. The Group A2 has recorded the lowest individual movement of the sperm after 48 hours of conservation freeze-reaching 22.50 ± 3.81%. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of adding some antioxidant combinations had improved sperm cells individual motility of Holstein bulls, which will positively reflect in enhancing bull’s fertility and owner’s economic returns consequently.
Chapter
Cryopreservation and thawing expose spermatozoa to various stresses that could lead eventually to loss of fertilizing potential. Despite various advances in cryopreservation methodology, the recovery rate of functional post-thaw spermatozoa remains to be improved. The use of cryoprotectants such as glycerol, ethylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 1,2-propanediol (PROH) marked one of the most significant advancements in cryopreservation. Cryoprotectants are low-molecular-weight, highly permeable chemicals that serve to protect spermatozoa from freeze damage induced by ice crystallization. Cryoprotectants act by decreasing the freezing point of a substance, reducing the amount of salts and solutes present in the liquid phase of the sample, and decreasing ice formation within the spermatozoa. Oxidative stress (OS), resulting from an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, is detrimental to human spermatozoa resulting in significant loss of function. Increased ROS production and decreased antioxidant levels are known to occur during sperm cryopreservation and thawing. Therefore, OS does play a role in injury sustained by spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Subsequently, antioxidants which counteract the effects of ROS could be of use in preventing OS-induced cryoinjury.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of CoQ10 in soybean lecithin (SL) or egg yolk (EY) extenders on ram semen cryopreservation. Semen samples were collected from five rams, twice a week, then diluted in the extenders (SL and EY) containing different concentrations of CoQ10 as follows: extender containing SL: 0 μM (control, SL/Q0), 1 μM (SL/Q1), 2 μM (SL/Q2), 5 μM (SL/Q5) and 10 μM (SL/Q10) CoQ10; extender containing EY: 0 μM (control, EY/Q0), 1 μM (EY/Q1), 2 μM (EY/Q2), 5 μM (EY/Q5) and 10 μM (EY/Q10) CoQ10. Sperm motion characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, viability, apoptotic-like changes, mitochondria active potential, acrosome integrity and lipid peroxidation were evaluated after freeze-thaw process. The SL/Q1, SL/Q2, EY/Q1 and EY/Q2 resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.05) sperm total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and mitochondria active potential compared to the other groups. Acrosome integrity in the SL/Q0, SL/Q1, SL/Q2, EY/Q0, EY/Q1 and EY/Q2 groups was greater (P ≤ 0.05) than in the SL/Q5, SL/Q10, EY/Q5 and EY/Q10 groups. The SL/Q2 and EY/Q2 treatment groups had greater (P ≤ 0.05) sperm viability rates and less apoptotic-like changes and lipid peroxidation. The CoQ10 compound could be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for cryopreservation of ram semen because with used of this compound in the present study there was an improved post-thawed sperm quality.
Article
Oxidants are highly unstable molecules that attack every chemical substance they come into contact. Oxidants modify the macromolecules both structurally and functionally. The body has defense mechanisms against oxidants in the form of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of oxidants formed during oxygen metabolism. ROS appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. In reproductive medicine, ROS have both physiological and pathological role in male and female reproduction. Oxidative stress develops when the generation of ROS overwhelms the scavenging capacity of antioxidants. Oxidative stress causes damage to spermatozoa, oocyte, and embryos. It appears to play a role in both natural and in vitro fertilization and pregnancy. The patients with oxidative stress may benefit from the strategies to reduce oxidative stress by treatment with potent antioxidant therapy. The present paper reviews the Role of Oxidants & Antioxidants in maintaining optimum Male & Female fertility.
Article
We investigated the effect of supplementing post-wash asthenozoospermic spermatozoa with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in vitro, which may reduce oxidative stress and improve sperm motility. Semen samples were collected from 39 men with asthenozoospermia, and their spermatozoa were isolated by two-layer Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Kinetic parameters of the isolated spermatozoa (baseline before intervention) were determined immediately by computer-aided semen analysis. Total anti-oxidant capacity and protein carbonyl levels, as markers of oxidative stress, were also measured in the baseline spermatozoa. The baseline spermatozoa suspension was divided equally into two portions, one for CoQ10 supplementation (50 µg/ml for 1 hr) and the other as an un-supplemented vehicle control. The total motility of the CoQ10-supplemented spermatozoa was significantly higher than in the control (p = .009) and progressive motility tended to be higher (p = .053). Immotile sperm concentration in the CoQ10-supplemented spermatozoa was significantly lower than in both the baseline (p = .026) and control (p = .009). Total anti-oxidant capacity and protein carbonyl levels between the baseline, CoQ10-supplemented and control spermatozoa were not significantly different. Our data suggest that CoQ10 treatment reactivated sperm motility. We propose short-term supplementation of post-wash asthenozoospermic spermatozoa with CoQ10 before intrauterine insemination.
Chapter
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) intake and supplementation has been directly and indirectly associated with physiological function relative to exercise, aging and reproduction. This chapter describes several significant aspects regarding biochemical properties and mechanism of action of CoQ10 in male and female fertility and reproduction. This effect is mainly through its action as an antioxidant, protecting against oxidative stress by controlling the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with reproductive pathologies. Although some studies support the evidence of use of CoQ10 to improve fertility, the available literature is contradictory and conflicting due to lack of standardization regarding type, dosage and time frame of treatment with CoQ10 as well as the bio-specimen, the exercise protocol employed and the assays used to analyze these specimens. However, CoQ10 supplementation seems to be able to improve both male and female gamete physiology, conception and embryo development and pregnancy success, something that may be related to the protecting effect against ROS-related fertility issues. It seems it may, as well, attenuate somewhat the negative impact of age on fertility, though discontinuation of treatment will result in cessation or diminution of such effect.
Article
Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between ROS and antioxidants, which plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases. There is extensive evidence highlighting the role of oxidative stress in male infertility due to elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and abnormal semen parameters. The use of antioxidants is a potential therapeutic option to reduce ROS and improve semen quality. The appeal is that antioxidants can be easily obtained over the counter and are considered all‐natural and therefore healthy. The hypothesis has been that by decreasing oxidative stress, antioxidants may be used for the treatment of male infertility. While initial studies of antioxidant supplementation suggested a beneficial role in the management of male subfertility, additional research has questioned the benefit of these therapies. The focus of this article is to present recent evidence assessing the viability of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility.
Article
During semen cryopreservation, the sensitivity of equine sperm to oxidative stress is increased by the eliminated seminal plasma. Thus, antioxidant addition to the semen extender can be helpful to the sperm survival after freezing and thawing. This work aimed to test whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) added in different concentrations to the INRA 82 freezing extender has antioxidant function on equine sperm to improve its fertilizing ability. Semen samples from five stallions were frozen with the extenders: (T1) INRA 82, control, (T2) T1+ 5 μM CoQ10, (T3) T1+ 25 μM CoQ10, and (T4) T1+ 50 μM CoQ10. After sample thawing, sperm motility and kinetics characteristics were evaluated using a computer-assisted sperm analysis and sperm membrane functionality and integrity were evaluated with a hypo-osmotic swelling test and an epifluorescence microscopy, respectively. The nitrite (NO2⁻) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations of the semen samples were measured with spectrophotometry. There was no difference on the sperm characteristics among all treatments (P > .05). However, the 25 μM CoQ10 (T3) decreased NO2⁻ concentration (6.7 ± 2.2 μM/μg protein) compared with the treatments T1, T2, and T4 (64.3 ± 3.7, 59.4 ± 5.3, 45.1 ± 8.6 μM/μg protein), respectively, as well H2O2 concentration (1.8 ± 0.3 μM/μg protein) compared with the control (4.6 ± 0.4 μM/μg protein) and 5 μM CoQ10 treatments (4.8 ± 0.2 μM/μg protein, P < .05). In conclusion, 25 μM CoQ10 plays a significant role as antioxidant to the frozen equine sperm, decreasing NO2⁻ and H2O2 concentrations. Thus, its addition to the INRA 82 freezing extender may be beneficial to the fertilizing ability of equine semen.
Article
The free-radical theory of male infertility suggests that reactive oxygen species produced by the spermatozoa themselves, are a leading cause of sperm dysfunction, including loss of sperm motility. However, the field is overshadowed on several fronts, primarily because: (i) the probes used to measure ROS are imprecise; and (ii) many reports suggesting that oxygen radicals are detrimental to sperm function add an exogenous source of ROS. Herein, we used a more reliable approach to measure superoxide anion production by human spermatozoa based on mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, we also investigated the formation of the lipid-peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) during in vitro incubation using proteomics. Our data demonstrate that neither superoxide anion nor other free radicals that cause 4-HNE production are related to the loss of sperm motility during incubation. Interestingly, it appears that many of the 4-HNE adducted proteins, found within spermatozoa, originate from the prostate. A quantitative SWATH analysis demonstrated that these proteins transiently bind to sperm and are then shed during in vitro incubation. These proteomics-based findings propose a revised understanding of oxidative stress within the male reproductive tract. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Recent studies have demonstrated that human spermatozoa are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and that this activity is significantly accelerated in cases of defective sperm function. In view of the pivotal role played by lipid peroxidation in mediating free radical damage to cells, we have examined the relationships between reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, and the functional competence of human spermatozoa. Using malondialdehyde production in the presence of ferrous ion promoter as an index of lipid peroxidation, we have shown that lipid peroxidation is significantly accelerated in populations of defective spermatozoa exhibiting high levels of reactive oxygen species production or in normal cells stimulated to produce oxygen radicals by the ionophore, A23187. The functional consequences of lipid peroxidation included a dose-dependent reduction in the ability of human spermatozoa to exhibit sperm oocyte-fusion, which could be reversed by the inclusion of a chain-breaking antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. Low levels of lipid peroxidation also had a slight enhancing effect on the generation of reactive oxygen species in response to ionophore, without influencing the steady-state activity. At higher levels of lipid peroxidation, both the basal level of reactive oxygen species production and the response to A23187 were significantly diminished. In contrast, lipid peroxidation had a highly significant, enhancing effect on the ability of human spermatozoa to bind to both homologous and heterologous zonae pellucidae via mechanisms that could again be reversed by alpha-tocopherol. These results are consistent with a causative role for lipid peroxidation in the etiology of defective sperm function and also suggest a possible physiological role for the reactive oxygen species generated by human spermatozoa in mediating sperm-zona interaction.
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We examined the damaging effects on spermatozoa of endogenous phospholipid peroxidation brought about by aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C in the presence of 0-5 mM-ascorbic acid and 0-5 mM-FeSO4. As well as becoming immotile, such peroxidized spermatozoa also lost, through leakage, certain intracellular enzymes into the surrounding medium, on a scale resembling that produced by cold shocking non-peroxidized spermatozoa. Morphological observations revealed that peroxidation damaged the plasma membrane, particularly in the region of the acrosome. Further experiments showed that lipid peroxidation irreversibly abolished the fructolytic and respiratory activity of spermatozoa. The susceptibility of spermatozoa to peroxidation was greater when the cells were damaged before incubation with ascorbic acid and FeSO4. To some extent, peroxidation could be prevented, but not reversed, by the addition to sperm suspensions of dialysed egg yolk or dialysed bull seminal plasma. However, dialysed seminal plasma from ram, stallion or man had no protective effect.
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have demonstrated that human spermatozoa are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and that this activity is significantly accelerated in cases of defective sperm function. In view of the pivotal role played by lipid peroxidation in mediating free radical damage to cells, we have examined the relationships between reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, and the functional competence of human spermatozoa. Using malondialdehyde production in the presence of ferrous ion promoter as an index of lipid peroxidation, we have shown that lipid peroxidation is significantly accelerated in populations of defective spermatozoa exhibiting high levels of reactive oxygen species production or in normal cells stimulated to produce oxygen radicals by the ionophore, A23187. The functional consequences of lipid peroxidation included a dose-dependent reduction in the ability of human spermatozoa to exhibit sperm oocyte-fusion, which could be reversed by the inclusion of a chain-breaking antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. Low levels of lipid peroxidation also had a slight enhancing effect on the generation of reactive oxygen species in response to ionophore, without influencing the steady-state activity. At higher levels of lipid peroxidation, both the basal level of reactive oxygen species production and the response to A23187 were significantly diminished. In contrast, lipid peroxidation had a highly significant, enhancing effect on the ability of human spermatozoa to bind to both homologous and heterologous zonae pellucidae via mechanisms that could again be reversed by alpha-tocopherol. These results are consistent with a causative role for lipid peroxidation in the etiology of defective sperm function and also suggest a possible physiological role for the reactive oxygen species generated by human spermatozoa in mediating sperm-zona interaction.
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The concentration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a key intermediate of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, was determined in spermatozoa of 13 fertile subjects, 8 potentially fertile patients, and 12 infertile patients. CoQ10 concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in infertile patients than in fertile and potentially fertile subjects. The difference between potentially fertile and fertile subjects was also significant (P < 0.001). We propose that a decrease in consumption of CoQ10 in both infertile and potentially fertile populations is due to an autoregulatory mechanism of ATP production.
Article
Objective To determine the incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in semen of a population of patients consulting for infertility. Design The incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in whole semen and in washed spermatozoa was studied. The values obtained were correlated with semen parameters. The effect of the type of sperm washing on reactive oxygen species formation was also investigated. Setting Semen samples from patients consulting for infertility and control subjects were obtained by masturbation after 3 days of sexual abstinence. Reactive oxygen species formation was measured in whole semen, sperm suspension washed by Percoll gradients, or repeated centrifugations. Sperm motility parameters were measured by computer-aided sperm analysis. Patients, Participants Fertile control men and an unselected population of patients consulting for infertility. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Reactive oxygen species formation by fresh semen specimen or washed spermatozoa was measured in a computer-driven LKB 1251 Luminometer (LKB-Wallac, Turku, Finland). Results Reactive oxygen species formation was detected in 40% of the semen with spermatozoa from infertile patients, whereas none was found in 6 azoospermic men and 10 control men. The level of reactive oxygen species formation was inversely correlated to the semen volume, the percentage of motile spermatozoa, and sperm linearity both in semen and in Percoll-washed spermatozoa. Washing by repeated centrifugation-resuspension increased 20- to 50-fold sperm reactive oxygen species formation. This enhancement was caused by the centrifugation itself and by the removal of seminal plasma. Both morphologically normal and abnormal spermatozoa produced reactive oxygen species. Conclusion The data suggest that reactive oxygen species formation by spermatozoa may be a significant cause for male infertility.
Article
The authors had previously found an inverse correlation between per sperm creatine phosphokinase activity and sperm concentrations in men. Because creatine phosphokinase is a key enzyme in sperm energy transport, the possible relationship of sperm creatine phosphokinase activity, sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations, sperm ATP/ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ratios, and computer-aided semen analysis sperm motility parameters were then studied. The ATP concentrations and ATP/ADP ratios, measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography in washed sperm, were similar in normospermic and oligospermic specimens (ATP: 123.1 +/- 21.6 vs. 90.0 +/- 24.5 pmol/10(6) sperm; ATP/ADP: 2.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.4, N = 32 and 17, mean +/- SEM), and in samples with normal and less than 40% sperm motility (ATP: 96.8 +/- 27.2 vs. 122.2 +/- 19.6 pmol/10(6) sperm; ATP/ADP: 2.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.4, n = 26 and 23). In the swim-up sperm fractions, which showed improved motility, the ATP concentrations, but not the ATP/ADP ratios, were lower than in the initial semen samples (ATP: 152.9 +/- 28.4 vs. 90.3 +/- 10.6 pmol/10(6) sperm, P less than 0.05; ATP/ADP: 3.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.7, N = 18 pairs of samples). This is consistent with our previous finding of a lower cytoplasmic content in sperm in swim-up fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
To determine the incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in semen of a population of patients consulting for infertility. The incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in whole semen and in washed spermatozoa was studied. The values obtained were correlated with semen parameters. The effect of the type of sperm washing on reactive oxygen species formation was also investigated. Semen samples from patients consulting for infertility and control subjects were obtained by masturbation after 3 days of sexual abstinence. Reactive oxygen species formation was measured in whole semen, sperm suspension washed by Percoll gradients, or repeated centrifugations. Sperm motility parameters were measured by computer-aided sperm analysis. Fertile control men and an unselected population of patients consulting for infertility. None. Reactive oxygen species formation by fresh semen specimen or washed spermatozoa was measured in a computer-driven LKB 1251 Luminometer (LKB-Wallac, Turku, Finland). Reactive oxygen species formation was detected in 40% of the semen with spermatozoa from infertile patients, whereas none was found in 6 azoospermic men and 10 control men. The level of reactive oxygen species formation was inversely correlated to the semen volume, the percentage of motile spermatozoa, and sperm linearity both in semen and in Percoll-washed spermatozoa. Washing by repeated centrifugation-resuspension increased 20- to 50-fold sperm reactive oxygen species formation. This enhancement was caused by the centrifugation itself and by the removal of seminal plasma. Both morphologically normal and abnormal spermatozoa produced reactive oxygen species. The data suggest that reactive oxygen species formation by spermatozoa may be a significant cause for male infertility.
Article
The mechanisms responsible for mediating the influence of sperm preparation protocols on human sperm function have been investigated. Techniques that involved the separation of motile spermatozoa prior to centrifugation were found to yield sperm suspensions of highest quality. If the spermatozoa were centrifuged prior to isolation of the motile cells, sperm function was impaired. The detrimental effects of centrifugation were associated with a sudden burst of reactive oxygen species production by a discrete subpopulation of cells (characterized by significantly diminished motility and fertilizing capacity) that could be separated from normal functional spermatozoa on Percoll gradients. If unfractionated sperm suspensions were subjected to centrifugation, the reactive oxygen species generated by this subpopulation impaired the functional competence of normal spermatozoa in the same suspension. Assessment of the ability of the antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene, and vitamin E, to curtail the peroxidative damage inflicted by such cells in response to centrifugation revealed a significant improvement of sperm function in the presence of vitamin E.
Article
A study was undertaken to examine the relationship between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the fertilizing capacity of human spermatozoa in vitro and in vivo. The concentration of ATP in semen was found to be positively correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster oocytes. However, it was also demonstrated that a large part of this relationship depends upon the relationship between semen ATP concentrations and sperm number. Measurements of ATP levels in cryostored ejaculates used in an artificial insemination by donor program revealed that such measurements were not able to distinguish fertile from infertile ejaculates. However, among fertile donors, ATP levels did seem to contribute useful information on relative fertility. It is concluded that ATP measurement has a limited role in the laboratory evaluation of sperm function.
Article
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels were assayed in total seminal fluid or both in seminal fluid and seminal plasma in 77 subjects with normal or pathological findings at standard semen analysis. CoQ10 levels showed a significant correlation with sperm count and with sperm motility. An interesting exception was constituted by patients with varicocele, in whom the correlation with sperm concentration was preserved, whereas the correlation with sperm motility was lacking. Moreover, they showed an increased ratio of plasma CoQ to total seminal CoQ10 in comparison with the other subjects. These data suggest a pathophysiological meaning of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid and a possible molecular defect in varicocele patients. CoQ10 measurement could represent an important examination in infertile patients; moreover, from these results a rationale might arise for a possible treatment with exogenous CoQ10 in dyspermic patients.
Article
The levels of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were determined by HPLC in seminal fluid samples obtained from 77 patients who performed a standard semen analysis for infertility, previous phlogosis or varicocele. CoQ10 was determined in total seminal fluid (n = 60), in seminal plasma (n = 44) and in the cell pellet (n = 37). The molecule, in total fluid, showed a linear correlation with sperm count and motility. In the pellet of spermatozoa, a trend toward an inverse correlation between CoQ10 (expressed as ng/10(6) cells) and semen parameters could be observed. A different pattern was shown in varicocele patients, in whom, in total fluid, the correlation between CoQ10 and sperm count was preserved, but the one between CoQ10 and sperm motility was lacking; moreover, a higher proportion of CoQ10 was present in seminal plasma, and the inverse trend between cellular CoQ10 and sperm count and motility was not observed. These data suggest a pathophysiological role of ubiquinone in human seminal fluid and a molecular defect in the spermatozoa of varicocele patients.
Article
To investigate the influence of reactive oxygen species generated by human spermatozoa and contaminating leukocytes on sperm movement and fertilization in vitro. A chemiluminescence technique, using luminol and peroxidase, was used to monitor the generation of reactive oxygen species by human sperm suspensions and the results were correlated with sperm movement and the fertilization of human ova in vitro. Diagnostic Andrology Laboratory and IVF Clinic. Infertile couples undergoing IVF therapy. An N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) provocation test was used to demonstrate that the presence of leukocytes in 28.5% of the sperm preparations was associated with elevated levels of spontaneous reactive oxygen species production, impaired movement, and a reduced capacity for fertilization in vitro. In the absence of leukocytes, exposure to phorbol ester stimulated a burst of reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, the magnitude of which was correlated highly with a loss of sperm motility but not with fertilization rates observed in the concurrent IVF cycle. Leukocyte contamination of human sperm preparations can be detected readily by FMLP-induced, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and the results have an important bearing on the fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa in vitro.
Article
A defective myocardial energy supply--due to lack of substrates and/or essential cofactors and a poor utilization efficiency of oxygen--may be a common final pathway in the progression of myocardial diseases of various etiologies. The vitamin-like essential substance coenzyme Q10, or ubiquinone, is a natural antioxidant and has a key role in oxidative phosphorylation. A biochemical rationale for using coenzyme Q10 as a therapy in heart disease was established years ago by Folkers and associates; however, this has been further strengthened by investigations of viable myocardial tissue from the author's series of 45 patients with various cardiomyopathies. Myocardial tissue levels of coenzyme Q10 determined by high-performance lipid chromatography were found to be significantly lower in patients with more advanced heart failure compared with those in the milder stages of heart failure. Furthermore, the myocardial tissue coenzyme Q10 deficiency might be restored significantly by oral supplementation in selected cases. In the author's open clinical protocol study with coenzyme Q10 therapy (100 mg daily) nearly two-thirds of patients revealed clinical improvement, most pronounced in those with dilated cardiomyopathy. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials have definitely confirmed that coenzyme Q10 has a place as adjunctive treatment in heart failure with beneficial effects on the clinical outcome, the patients' physical activity, and their quality of life. The positive results have been above and beyond the clinical status obtained from treatment with traditional principles--including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Article
To study the possible influence of antioxidant treatment on human spermatozoa and the fertilization rate in an IVF program. Prospective study. In Vitro Fertilization Unit, Serlin Maternity Hospital, and the Laboratory of Male Fertility, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Fifteen fertile normospermic male volunteers who had low fertilization rates in their previous IVF cycles. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 200 mg daily by mouth for 3 months. Lipid peroxidation potential (amount of malondialdehyde [MDA]), quantitative ultramorphologic analysis of spermatozoa, and fertilization rate per cycle. The high MDA levels significantly decreased from 12.6 +/- 9.4 nmol/10(8) spermatozoa to normal levels of 7.8 +/- 4.2 nmol/10(8) spermatozoa after 1 month of treatment. The fertilization rate per cycle increased significantly from 19.3 +/- 23.3 to 29.1 +/- 22.2 after 1 month of treatment. No additional effects on MDA levels and fertilization rate were observed after completion of treatment. With regard to the quantitative ultramorphologic analysis, none of the sperm cell subcellular organelles were affected significantly by vitamin E treatment. Vitamin E may improve the fertilization rate of fertile normospermic males with low fertilization rates after 1 month of treatment, possibly by reducing the lipid peroxidation potential, and with no change of the quantitative ultramorphologic analysis of subcellular organelles.
The antioxidant role of coenzyme Q
  • Beyer
Total antioxidant status of seminal plasma and semen variables
  • Lissak