Genomic Organization, Alternative Splicing, and Expression Patterns of theDSCR1(Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1) Gene

Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.28). 10/1997; 44(3):358-61. DOI: 10.1006/geno.1997.4866
Source: PubMed


Down syndrome is a major cause of mental retardation and congenital heart defects and is due to the presence of three copies of human chromosome 21 in the affected individual. We have identified a gene, DSCR1 (HGMW-approved symbol), from the region 21q22.1-q22.2, which is highly expressed in human fetal brain and adult heart. Structural features of the conceptual protein encourage us to propose involvement of DSCR1 in the regulation of transcription and/or signal transduction. Higher expression of RNA in the brains of young rats compared to adults suggests a possible role for the gene in the development of the central nervous system. We have determined the genomic organization of DSCR1 and identified three additional alternative first exons by RACE and cDNA library screening. DSCR1 spans nearly 45 kb of genomic DNA and comprises seven exons, four of which (exons 1-4) are alternative first exons. All the exons are flanked by splice junctions that conform to the consensus AG-GT motif. We have studied the expression patterns of the alternative first exons. Exon 2 was detected in fetal brain and liver by RT-PCR. Both exons 1 and 4 were differentially expressed in fetal brain, lung, liver, and kidney and in all adult tissues tested by Northern analysis with two notable exceptions: exon 1 was not detected in adult kidney and exon 4 was not found in adult brain. The high level of expression of exon 1 in fetal brain suggests that this alternative form of DSCR1 has an important role in brain development. This information should help us to understand the possible relationship of DSCR1 with Down syndrome and aid in the development of animal models.

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    • "near the minimal critical region implicated in the Down Syndrome phenotype . The gene consists of six exons, and codes for two major protein isoforms, each with a unique first exon, exon 1 (RCAN1-1) or exon 4 (RCAN1-4) and shared exons 5e7 [15]. Additionally, exon 1 has two translation start codons, corresponding to a long and short variant: RCAN1-1L and RCAN1-1S. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to induce apoptosis of leukemia cells via gene regulatory changes affecting key pro-and anti-apoptotic genes. Three genes previously implicated in GC-evoked apoptosis in the CEM human T-cell leukemia model, RCAN1, E4BP4 and BIM, were studied in a panel of human lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines. Of the two RCAN1 transcripts, the synthetic GC Dexamethasone (Dex) selectively upregulates RCAN1-1, but not RCAN1-4, in GC-susceptible Sup-B15, RS4;11, Kasumi-1 cells but not in GC-resistant Sup T1 and Loucy cells. E4BP4 and BIM regulation correlated with that of RCAN1-1. A putative GRE and four EBPREs were identified within 1500bp upstream from the transcription start site of RCAN1-1. GC-refractory CEM C1-15 cells sensitized to GC-evoked apoptosis by ectopic E4BP4 expression, CEM C1-15mE#3, showed restored RCAN1-1 upregulation, suggesting that RCAN1-1 is a downstream target of E4BP4. A model for coordinated regulation of RCAN1-1, E4BP4 and BIM, and their role in GC-evoked apoptosis is proposed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    • "Three such genes are known, RCAN1, RCAN2 and RCAN3. The human RCAN1 gene comprises 7 exons, the first 4 of which are alternative first exons, resulting in different isoforms named for the first exon they include as RCAN1.1 to RCAN1.4 (previously called MCIP1.4); the isoforms show different patterns of expression and regulation (Fuentes et al., 1997). Nuclear localization of NFAT isoforms, and expression of NFAT-dependent genes, such as RCAN1.4, "
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    ABSTRACT: Anabolic androgens have been shown to reduce muscle loss due to immobilization, paralysis and many other medical conditions, but the molecular basis for these actions is poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that nandrolone, a synthetic androgen, slows muscle atrophy after nerve transection associated with down-regulation of regulator of calcineurin 2 (RCAN2), a calcineurin inhibitor, suggesting a possible role of calcineurin-NFAT signaling. To test this possibility, rat gastrocnemius muscle was analyzed at 56 days after denervation. In denervated muscle, calcineurin activity declined and NFATc4 was excluded from the nucleus and these effects were reversed by nandrolone. Similarly, nandrolone increased calcineurin activity and nuclear NFATc4 levels in cultured L6 myotubes. Nandrolone also induced cell hypertrophy that was blocked by cyclosporin A or overexpression of RCAN2. Finally protection against denervation atrophy by nandrolone in rats was blocked by cyclosporin A. These results demonstrate for the first time that nandrolone activates calcineurin-NFAT signaling, and that such signaling is important in nandrolone-induced cell hypertrophy and protection against paralysis-induced muscle atrophy. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    • "RCAN1 is preferentially expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, and brain [4], and can bind to and inhibit calcineurin [5], [6]. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin mediates many cellular responses including lymphocyte activation and neuronal and muscle development [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1) is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S) interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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