Epilepsy as a “Natural Laboratory” for the Study of Human Memory

Brain and Cognition (Impact Factor: 2.48). 11/1997; 35(1):1-4. DOI: 10.1006/brcg.1997.0924
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with epilepsy frequently complain of memory difficulties yet perform normally on standard neuropsychological tests of memory. It has been suggested that this may be due to an impairment of very long-term memory consolidation processes, beyond those normally assessed in the neuropsychological clinic. We carried out a prospective study of verbal memory over a long-term retention interval of 8 weeks in patients with epilepsy and in controls. Results were compared with performance on conventional tests of memory. Despite normal learning and retention over 30 min, patients with epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe performed disproportionately poorly on the long-term test compared with both patients with epileptic foci in the right temporal lobe and controls. Our findings provide evidence for an extended period of memory consolidation and point to the critical region for this process, at least for verbal material, in the left temporal lobe. The implications of our findings for clinical assessment and therapeutic management of patients with epilepsy are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Brain
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired memory is a common and often debilitating complaint in patients with epilepsy. Overlapping variables such as seizure control, attentional dysfunction, and mood disorders further complicate diagnosis and management. Direct therapy for memory deficits associated with epilepsy is rarely attempted. The varied pharmacological (AED selection, cholinesterase inhibitors, stimulants, antidepressants, and herbal supplements) and nonpharmacological approaches to cognitive remediation in epilepsy patients are reviewed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Epilepsy & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: We report a rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to identify the 10 Bacteroides fragilis group species - Bacteroides caccae, B. distasonis, B. eggerthii, B. fragilis, B. merdae, B. ovatus, B. stercoris, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. uniformis and B. vulgatus. These 10 species were first divided into three subgroups by multiplex PCR-G, followed by three multiplex PCR assays with three species-specific primer mixtures for identification to the species level. The primers were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene. The established two-step multiplex PCR identification scheme was applied to the identification of 155 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group that were previously identified to the species level by phenotypic tests. The new scheme was more accurate than phenotypic identification, which was accurate only 84.5% of the time. The multiplex PCR scheme established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of the B. fragilis group species. This will permit more accurate assessment of the role of various B. fragilis group members in infections and of the degree of antimicrobial resistance in each of the group members.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · FEMS Microbiology Letters
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