Magnetic Resonance Studies on the Active Site and Metal Centers of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Porphobilinogen Synthase †
Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.02). 11/1997; 36(43):13421-7. DOI: 10.1021/bi971642a
Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a metalloenzyme which catalyzes the asymmetric condensation of two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to form porphobilinogen. There are at least four types of PBGS, categorized according to metal ion usage. The PBGS from Bradyrhizobium japonicum requires Mg(II) in catalytic metal site A, has an allosteric Mg(II) in metal site C, and also contains an activating monovalent cation binding site [Petrovich et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 8692-8699]. 13C NMR and Mn(II) EPR have been used to probe the active site and Mg(II) binding sites of this 310 000 dalton protein. The 13C NMR chemical shifts of enzyme-bound product demonstrate that the chemical environment of porphobilinogen bound to B. japonicum PBGS is different from that of PBGS which contains Zn(II) rather than Mg(II) at the active site. Use of Mn(II) in place of Mg(II) broadens the NMR resonances of enzyme-bound porphobilinogen, providing evidence for a direct interaction between MnA and product at the active site. Prior characterization of the enzyme defined conditions in which the divalent cation occupies either the A or the C site. Mimicking these conditions allows Mn(II) EPR observation of either MnC or MnA. The EPR spectrum of MnC is significantly broader and less intense than "free" Mn(II), but relatively featureless. The EPR spectrum of MnA is broader still and more asymmetric than MnC. The EPR data indicate that the coordination spheres of the two metals are different.
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ABSTRACT: Common to the biosynthesis of all known tetrapyrroles is the condensation of two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid to the pyrrole porphobilinogen catalyzed by the enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS). Two major classes of PBGS are known. Zn2+-dependent PBGSs are found in mammals, yeast and some bacteria including Escherichia coli, while Mg2+-dependent PBGSs are present mainly in plants and other bacteria. The crystal structure of the Mg2+-dependent PBGS from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with the competitive inhibitor levulinic acid (LA) solved at 1.67 A resolution shows a homooctameric enzyme that consists of four asymmetric dimers. The monomers in each dimer differ from each other by having a "closed" and an "open" active site pocket. In the closed subunit, the active site is completely shielded from solvent by a well-defined lid that is partially disordered in the open subunit. A single molecule of LA binds to a mainly hydrophobic pocket in each monomer where it is covalently attached via a Schiff base to an active site lysine residue. Whereas no metal ions are found in the active site of both monomers, a single well-defined and highly hydrated Mg2+is present only in the closed form about 14 A away from the Schiff base forming nitrogen atom of the active site lysine. We conclude that the observed differences in the active sites of both monomers might be induced by Mg2+-binding to this remote site and propose a structure-based mechanism for this allosteric Mg2+in rate enhancement.
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ABSTRACT: Porphobilinogen synthases (PBGS) are metalloenzymes that catalyze the first common step in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. The PBGS enzymes have previously been categorized into four types (I-IV) by the number of Zn(2+) and/or Mg(2+) utilized at three different metal binding sites termed A, B, and C. In this study Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS is found to bind only four Mg(2+) per octamer as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, in the presence or absence of substrate/product. This is the lowest number of bound metal ions yet found for PBGS where other enzymes bind 8-16 divalent ions. These four Mg(2+) allosterically stimulate a metal ion independent catalytic activity, in a fashion dependent upon both pH and K(+). The allosteric Mg(2+) of PBGS is located in metal binding site C, which is outside the active site. No evidence is found for metal binding to the potential high-affinity active site metal binding sites A and/or B. P. aeruginosa PBGS was investigated using Mn(2+) as an EPR probe for Mg(2+), and the active site was investigated using [3,5-(13)C]porphobilinogen as an NMR probe. The magnetic resonance data exclude the direct involvement of Mg(2+) in substrate binding and product formation. The combined data suggest that P. aeruginosa PBGS represents a new type V enzyme. Type V PBGS has the remarkable ability to synthesize porphobilinogen in a metal ion independent fashion. The total metal ion stoichiometry of only 4 per octamer suggests half-sites reactivity.
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ABSTRACT: Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is an ancient enzyme essential to tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (e.g. heme, chlorophyll, and vitamin B12). Two common alleles encoding human PBGS, K59 and N59, have been correlated with differential susceptibility of humans to lead poisoning. However, a model for human PBGS based on homologous crystal structures shows the location of the allelic variation to be distant from the active site with its two Zn(II). Previous microbial expression systems for human PBGS have resulted in a poor yield. Here, an artificial gene encoding human PBGS was constructed by recursive polymerase chain reaction from synthetic oligonucleotides to rectify this problem. The artificial gene was made to resemble the highly expressed homologous Escherichia coli hemB gene and to remove rare codons that can confound heterologous protein expression in E. coli. We have expressed and purified recombinant human PBGS variants K59 and N59 in 100-mg quantities. Both human PBGS proteins purified with eight Zn(II)/octamer; Zn(II) binding was shown to be pH-dependent; and Pb(II) could displace some of the Zn(II). However, there was no differential displacement of Zn(II) by Pb(II) between K59 and N59, and simple Pb(II) inhibition studies revealed no allelic difference.
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