Hepatic angiomyolipoma: Two case reports of caudate-based lesions and review of the literature

Department of Surgery, St. Vincent Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90057-1904, USA.
Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 02/1997; 3(1):46-53. DOI: 10.1002/lt.500030107
Source: PubMed


Two case reports of hepatic angiomyolipoma, both originating in the caudate lobe, are reported with a review of the literature. The liver is the second most common site of angiomyolipoma, an uncommon benign tumor of mixed mesenchymal origin. It is commonly diagnosed following abdominal pain or as an asymptomatic mass discovered on abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography scan. Of 74 cases reported, the lesions ranged from 0.3 to 36 cm in diameter and are noted between the first and eighth decade, with predominant female predilection. The right lobe is the most common site, with lesions arising in the caudate lobe comprising only five cases. The natural history of the hepatic lesion is unknown. Malignant invasion or metastatic disease has not been documented. Hepatic and renal angiomyolipoma can occur concurrently (13 of 60 cases), although the majority are not biopsy proven. Multicentric hepatic disease occurs. The correlation between tuberous sclerosis and hepatic angiomyolipoma is not confirmed histologically and occurs rarely. These lesions have a characteristic radiographic appearance due to high fat content. Histologically, angiomyolipoma are characterized by an admixture of adipose tissue, blood vessels, and smooth muscle cells. These lesions cannot reliably be differentiated from a malignant lesion based on clinical history, radiologic examination, and/or pathologic interpretation. If clinical suspicion for malignancy is low, then careful observation with serial radiologic follow-up is performed. The treatment for a symptomatic or suspicious lesion is resection, if feasible. Liver transplantation may be considered for large or centrally located lesions not amenable to resection.

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