Acute toluene ingestion toxicity.

Annals of Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.68). 01/1998; 30(6):838-9.
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  • No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · European Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: The abuse of volatile organic solvents (inhalants) leads to diverse sequelae at levels ranging from the cell to the whole organism. This paper reviews findings from the last 10 years of animal models investigating the behavioral and mechanistic effects of solvent abuse. In research with animal models of inhalant abuse, NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, nicotine, and 5HT(3) receptors appear to be important targets of action for several abused solvents with emerging evidence suggesting that other receptor subtypes and nerve membrane ion channels may be involved as well. The behavioral effects vary in magnitude and duration among the solvents investigated. The behavioral effects of acute and chronic inhalant abuse include motor impairment, alterations in spontaneous motor activity, anticonvulsant effects, anxiolytic effects, sensory effects, and effects on learning, memory and operant behavior (e.g., response rates and discriminative stimulus effects). In addition, repeated exposure to these solvents may produce tolerance, dependence and/or sensitization to these effects.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter reviews the disorders associated with deliberately inhaling large quantities of volatile solvents and gases for minutes to hours, most often repeatedly over days, months and frequently for many years. This is referred to as inhalant disorders in DSM-IV-TR. The most frequent chemicals now present in the products that are abused include toluene, butane, nitrous oxide, gasoline mixtures (including hexane and benzene), different chlorocarbons, such as trichloroethylene, fluorocarbons and organic nitrites. Acute symptoms include: dizziness, headache, disorientation, ataxia, foul breath, with conditions proceeding to nausea, slurred speech, belligerence, irritability, and delirium. Chronic conditions are characterized by a strong psychological, but weaker physical dependence, with a wide range of comorbid psychiatric and social disorders. Known associated physical disorders include cognitive dysfunction, limb dysmetria, hearing loss, arrhythmia, metabolic acidosis, peripheral neuropathies, hematologic abnormalities, and some liver and lung changes.
    No preview · Chapter · Aug 2008
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