Cytologic correlates of benign versus dysplastic abnormal keratinization

Department of Pathology, SUNY at Stony Brook, USA.
Diagnostic Cytopathology (Impact Factor: 1.12). 01/1998; 17(6):447-51. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0339(199712)17:63.0.CO;2-M
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to determine the cytologic and histologic features that differentiate benign from squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)-associated cervical abnormal keratinization, defined as hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, or individual cell dyskeratosis. Fifty-four cervical Papanicoloau (Pap) smears that contained abnormally keratinized cells were reviewed without knowledge of the concurrent biopsy. Twenty-three Pap smears were diagnosed as SIL and the corresponding biopsy showed SIL in 21 (91%) of these cases. Of the 23 Pap smears diagnosed as negative for SIL, the corresponding biopsy in 20 cases (87%) showed benign (SIL negative) abnormal keratinization. Eight Pap smears showed squamous atypia, of these 5 showed SIL on biopsy, and the other 3 revealed benign keratinization. The Pap smear correlates of the 25 biopsies that were negative for SIL included marked hyperkeratosis (18/25-72 vs. 5/29-17% for biopsies with SIL) and regular nuclear membranes (16/18-89% cases with nucleated dyskeratotic cells vs. 5/29-17% for biopsies with SIL). The cytologic correlates of the 29 biopsies that showed SIL included irregular chromatin clumping (27/29-93% vs. 3/18-17% for biopsies without SIL), and a disorganized growth pattern (24/29-83 vs. 5/25-20% for biopsies without SIL). It is concluded that the cytologic distinction between benign and SIL-related Pap smears with abnormal keratinization can be reliably made by the degree of hyperkeratosis, nuclear chromaticity pattern and contour, and the growth pattern of the dyskeratotic cells.

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    ABSTRACT: To identify cytologic parameters on Pap smears of women with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) diagnosis that could help cytologists to indicate whether a particular ASCUS case is most likely related to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 or 2/3. A total of 360 eligible women diagnosed with ASCUS and referred to the colposcopy clinic of Saint-Sacrement Hospital participated in the study. Eligible women were those aged 18-50 years, newly diagnosed with ASCUS, with no history of cervical biopsies or treatment, and not pregnant at the time of the visit. Colposcopically directed biopsies of lesions were obtained. All Pap smears were reviewed according to 36 different cytomorphologic criteria. The regression logistic model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between cytologic criteria observed in smears and the diagnosis of CIN made on biopsies. All cytologic criteria significantly (P < .05) associated with CIN were entered in the models, and a backward selection was done to determine independent cytologic predictors of CIN 1 and 2/3. Biopsies revealed that 22.2% of the study population had concurrent CIN. CIN I and 2/3 were identified in 61 (16.9%) and 19 women (5.3%), respectively. Clear perinuclear spaces (OR = 2.5, P = .002) and moderate nuclear atypia (OR = 4.4, P = .02) were two cytologic criteria independently associated with CIN 1. Four independent predictors of CIN 2/3 were identified: the presence of clear perinuclear spaces (OR = 5.9, P = .004), hyperchromasia (OR = 3.9, P = .04), moderate anisokaryosis (OR = 13.1, P = .01 and increased nuclear volume of metaplastic cells (OR = 5.1, P = .007). These observations may help cytologists to better categorize ASCUS lesions as intraepithelial ones and will also contribute to improving the Bethesda definition of ASCUS. Further studies are planned to validate these observations.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Acta cytologica
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that extensively keratinized squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) are difficult to grade precisely by identifying 100 Papanicolaou smears with a keratinizing SIL that had been originally judged difficult to grade. Of these, 65 were confirmed as low-grade SIL (LSIL) or high-grade SIL (HSIL) on subsequent biopsy. The 65 smears were reviewed independently by 3 cytopathologists who graded each case as LSIL or HSIL (by Bethesda System criteria). The accuracy of the grade was determined by the subsequent biopsy results; accuracy was compared with that of a historic control group of SILs with biopsy follow-up. In the study group, biopsies showed LSIL in 41 cases and HSIL in 24. The mean accuracy for a smear diagnosis of LSIL was 60% for the study group and 92% for the control group. For a smear diagnosis of HSIL, the accuracy was 60% for the study group and 95% for the control group. The overall kappa value for the study group confirmed poor interobserver agreement. Some keratinizing SILs are difficult if not impossible to grade precisely using standard criteria. For such lesions, the diagnosis "SIL, grade cannot be determined due to extensive keratinization" is justified.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2001 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the significance of reporting hyperkeratosis on cervical/vaginal (CV) smears. Cases diagnosed with extensive hyperkeratosis (E-HK) and without prior or concurrent history of neoplasia, squamous intraepithelial lesion or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) were retrieved from our files for the period January 1994-August 2001. E-HK is defined in our practice as patches of anucleated squames with irregular, angulated edges present in at least 5 low-power (10 x eyepiece and 10 x objective) fields on a conventional CV smear. On liquid-based preparations, we use 3 low-power fields. Only cases with a follow-up CV smear and/or cervical biopsy (CB) were selected. Among 328 cases of E-HK, 138 patients met the study selection criteria. Eighty-one cases had negative CV smears and/or CB, 17 (12.3%) patients had persistent E-HK, and a subsequent diagnosis of ASCUS or higher was made in 40 patients (28.9%). Among the 40 cases with subsequent abnormalities, 13 (9.4%) were diagnosed with ASCUS, 24 (17.4%) with HPV or dysplasia, and 3 (2.1%) with malignancy. While isolated, anucleate squames may have no clinical importance in patient management, E-HK can be a significant marker of underlying neoplastic disease. This should be kept in mind as one decides how to report CV cytology based on 2001 Bethesda System recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Acta cytologica
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