Meldrum DR, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al: Prospective characterization and selective management of the abdominal compartment syndrome

University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States
The American Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.29). 12/1997; 174(6):667-72; discussion 672-3. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9610(97)00201-8
Source: PubMed


The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is now recognized as a frequent confounder of surgical critical care following major trauma; however, few prospective data exist concerning its characterization, evolution, and response to decompression.
Acutely injured patients with an injury severity scale (ISS) score >15 requiring emergent laparotomy and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were prospectively evaluated for the development of ACS. The syndrome was defined as an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) >20 mm Hg complicated by one of the following: peak airway pressure (PAP) >40 cm H2O, oxygen delivery index (DO2I) <600 mL O2/min/m2, or urine output (UO) <0.5 mL/kg/hr. Physiologic response to decompression was similarly documented prospectively.
Over a 14-month period ending December 1995, 21 (14%) of 145 patients (ISS >15) requiring laparotomy and admitted to our surgical ICU developed ACS; mean age was 39 +/- 9 years; injury mechanism was blunt in 60%; ISS 26 +/- 6. At initial laparotomy, 67% underwent abdominal packing (57% for major liver injuries). Mean IAP was 27 +/- 2.3 mm Hg, and time from laparotomy to decompression was 27 +/- 4 hours; 24% were planned whereas the remaining were prompted by deteriorating organ function as defined above (cardiopulmonary in 43%; renal in 19%; both renal and cardiopulmonary in 14%). Following decompression, there was an increase in cardiac index, oxygen delivery, urine output, and static compliance while there was a decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and peak airway pressure.
The abdominal compartment syndrome occurs in a significant number of severely injured patients, and it develops quickly (27 +/- 4 hours). Cardiopulmonary deterioration is the most frequent reason prompting decompression. Timely decompression of the ACS results in improvements in cardiopulmonary and renal function. These data support the use of the proposed ACS grading system for selective management of the syndrome.

Download full-text


Available from: Ernest E Moore
  • Source
    • "The development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) from intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) does not occur at a precise level. ACS is thought to develop once the abdominal pressures reach 20–25 mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability [1] [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012
  • Source
    • "IAH/ACS has frequently been described in severe trauma patients. The incidence of ACS in trauma patients undergoing emergency laparotomy/damage-control surgery ranges from 5% to 14% depending on the severity of the insult and the extent of abdominal packing applied [9,17]. The liberal use of open-abdomen techniques has decreased the incidence of ACS in these patients [18]; however, monitoring IAP is still mandatory, as ACS can develop in cases of open abdomen [19,20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is seldom measured by default in intensive care patients. This review summarises the current evidence on the prevalence and risk factors of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) to assist the decision-making for IAP monitoring. IAH occurs in 20% to 40% of intensive care patients. High body mass index (BMI), abdominal surgery, liver dysfunction/ascites, hypotension/vasoactive therapy, respiratory failure and excessive fluid balance are risk factors of IAH in the general ICU population. IAP monitoring is strongly supported in mechanically ventilated patients with severe burns, severe trauma, severe acute pancreatitis, liver failure or ruptured aortic aneurysms. The risk of developing IAH is minimal in mechanically ventilated patients with positive end-expiratory pressure < 10 cmH2O, PaO2/FiO2 > 300, and BMI < 30 and without pancreatitis, hepatic failure/cirrhosis with ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding or laparotomy and the use of vasopressors/inotropes on admission. In these patients, omitting IAP measurements might be considered. In conclusions, clear guidelines to select the patients in whom IAP measurements should be performed cannot be given at present. In addition to IAP measurements in at-risk patients, a clinical assessment of the signs of IAH should be a part of every ICU patient's bedside evaluation, leading to prompt IAP monitoring in case of the slightest suspicion of IAH development.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Annals of Intensive Care
  • Source
    • "Need for mechanical ventilation, oliguria, and circulatory instability are the signs typically observed when IAH progresses to ACS. Since prerequisites for an ACS in animals have not been defined yet [32], a relevant animal model of ACS should display this 'classic triad' of an ACS [33-36]. In the present investigation, the ventilated animals displayed a decreased circulatory and renal function. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to quantify bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes due to different levels of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH; 15 vs. 30 mmHg) lasting for 24 h in a porcine model. We examined 18 anesthetized and intubated pigs (52.3 ± 4.7 kg) which were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (each n = 6) and studied over a period of 24 h. After preparation and establishing a steady state, the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was increased stepwise to 30 mmHg in six animals using a carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflator (IAP-30 group). In the second group, IAP was increased to 15 mmHg (IAP-15 group), while IAP remained unchanged in another six pigs (control group). Using a pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO®) monitoring system, hemodynamic parameters as well as blood gases were recorded periodically. Moreover, peripheral and portal vein blood samples were taken for microbiological examinations. Lymph nodes from the ileocecal junction were sampled during an intra-vital laparotomy at the end of the observational period. After sacrificing the animals, bowel tissue samples and corresponding mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were extracted for histopathological and microbiological analyses. Cardiac output decreased in all groups. In IAP-30 animals, volumetric preload indices significantly decreased, while those of IAP-15 pigs did not differ from those of controls. Under IAH, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the IAP-30 group declined, while MAP in the IAP-15 group was significantly elevated (controls unchanged). PO2 and PCO2 remained unchanged. The grade of ischemic damage of the intestines (histopathologically quantified using the Park score) increased significantly with different IAH levels. Accordingly, the amount of translocated bacteria in intestinal wall specimens as well as in MLN significantly increased with the level of IAH. Lymph node cultures confirmed the relation between bacterial translocation (BT) and IAP. The most often cultivated species were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Pasteurella, and Streptococcus. Bacteremia was detected only occasionally in all three groups (not significantly different) showing gut-derived bacteria such as Proteus, Klebsiella, and E. coli spp. In this porcine model, a higher level of ischemic damage and more BT were observed in animals subjected to an IAP of 30 mmHg when compared to animals subjected to an IAP of 15 mmHg or controls.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Annals of Intensive Care
Show more