ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Abstract and Figures

People approach pleasure and avoid pain. To discover the true nature of approach-avoidance motivation, psychologists need to move beyond this hedonic principle to the principles that underlie the different ways that it operates. One such principle is regulatory focus, which distinguishes self-regulation with a promotion focus (accomplishments and aspirations) from self-regulation with a prevention focus (safety and responsibilities). This principle is used to reconsider the fundamental nature of approach-avoidance, expectancy-value relations, and emotional and evaluative sensitivities. Both types of regulatory focus are applied to phenomena that have been treated in terms of either promotion (e.g., well-being) or prevention (e.g., cognitive dissonance). Then, regulatory focus is distinguished from regulatory anticipation and regulatory reference, 2 other principles underlying the different ways that people approach pleasure and avoid pain.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the motivational factors, types of uncertainty, and entrepre-neurship strategies of transitional entrepreneurship among ethnic minorities, immigrants, and women entrepreneurs, drawing insights from an extensive literature review. To understand the dynamics of transitional entrepreneurship, a thematic review, a qualitative research tool, was used to analyze the research problem and provide answers to the research questions. Three insightful findings emerged from the thematic review. First, six broad themes emerged as catalysts for transitional entrepreneurship among the three focused entrepreneurs, namely, the institutional environment, push factors, pull factors, ethnic resource dependence, cultural inheritance, and gender identity issues. Specific elements of each of the six themes are explicated. Moreover, two levels of uncertainty (Levels 1 and 2) confront transitional entrepreneurs depending on countries and institutional contexts. Level 1 uncertainty presents a clear future with likelihoods, possibilities, and probabilities of success, while Level 2 uncertainty presents several alternate paths and trajectories with a blurred possibility of success for these entrepreneurs. Finally, transitional entrepreneurs leverage optioned and adaptive entrepreneurship strategies in different ways to cope with the two types of uncertainty in their host countries. Given the prospects of TE, the paper provides implications on how to remove the institutional barriers facing transitional entrepreneurs for more balanced socioeconomic inclusion in host countries. It further explicates a need to leverage the motivational factors and entrepre-neurship strategies for economic development. By providing a theoretical-based framework of motivations , types of uncertainty, and entrepreneurship strategies, the paper bridges the gaps in the literature and contributes to a better way of understanding TE among ethnic minorities, immigrants, and women entrepreneurs in the period of transition.
Article
Previous research found mental contrasting to be an effective self-regulatory strategy. This study explored whether motivational features such as regulatory focus, as promotion focus and prevention focus, could affect people’s spontaneous use of a mental contrasting strategy. The present study hypothesized that promotion focus positively predicts spontaneous mental contrasting. Across the correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) designs, predominantly promotion-focused university students spontaneously employed more mental contrasting strategies. The implications and suggestions for future research have been discussed.
Article
Full-text available
By integrating the resource accumulation perspective and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, this research explores the impact mechanism of responsible leadership on employees’ pro-environmental behaviors (EPB). We conducted a survey to collect data from 319 employees in Chinese companies in three waves. Our research found that responsible leadership had significantly positive effect on EPB; employees’ perceived organizational support toward the environment (POS-E) and green self-efficacy played a serial multiple mediating role; meanwhile, employees’ chronic regulatory focus moderated the relationship between responsible leadership and EPB, with promotion focus strengthening the relationship and prevention focus weakening the relationship. Our findings support the applicability of JD-R model in the field of EPB, enrich the theoretical research on responsible leadership and EPB, and also provide a practical basis for organizations to effectively stimulate EPB and promote sustainable development.
Article
Full-text available
While hospitality scholars have been conducting research on post-pandemic consumption recovery, the impact of the psychological consequences of COVID-19 on consumers’ post-pandemic behavior remains insufficiently addressed. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among anticipated emotions, perceived value, perceived threat, and dining-out intention in the COVID-19 context. In this study, 621 restaurant consumers in China were surveyed and the data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The results suggested that positive anticipated emotions affect perceived hedonic, utilitarian, and social values, whereas negative anticipated emotions affect hedonic value. Hedonic and utilitarian values then influence dining-out intention. Perceived threat in terms of perceived severity and susceptibility to COVID-19 was explored to moderate the impacts of hedonic and social values on the intention. This study contributes to the literature by identifying the positive, distinct roles of both anticipated emotions on consumer dining-out intention through perceived values and threats during the early recovery of COVID-19.
Article
Full-text available
There is a consensus that values serve as ideal standards that motivate and influence behavior. Previous research concludes that certain universal values promote well-being and others undermine it. In line with the idea that values behave as a dynamic system and do not influence well-being as independent elements, the present findings indicate that all universal values may contribute to well-being. A new measure assessing the degree 10 universal value domains serve as ideals is administered on an online sample (N = 933) from the United Kingdom. Participants completed three well-being measures. Latent Profile Analysis in a within study cross-validation (Sample 1: n = 468, Sample 2: n = 465) replicates three distinct latent value profiles denoting high, moderate and low levels of value orientation. Analysis of Variance shows that the level of value orientation explains differences in average levels of well-being. A high-level of value orientation is associated with higher average levels of well-being compared to a low-level of value orientation. This evidence suggests that the degree values influence well-being depends on the level they represent people's ideals. In conclusion, the type of value pattern and not the type of prioritized values can systematically explain variability in well-being. Implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
A regulatory focus in relationships motivates individuals to be concerned about the presence/absence of positives (promotion focus)/negatives (prevention focus) in social interactions. How to capture the regulatory focus in relationships remains unclear. Based on regulatory focus theory, we created a regulatory focus in relationships scale (RFRS) with a sample of Chinese undergraduates. The RFRS included four subscales of interpersonal relationships (parent–child, teacher-student, friend, classmate), each of which consists of a model of promotion-prevention focus. With a series of interviews and tests, we found that the RFRS had acceptable validation and reliability. And promotion-prevention focus in relationships is context-dependent: Chinese undergraduates hold high promotion and low prevention focus for parents, friends, and classmates, while they hold high prevention focus and low promotion focus for teachers. The regulatory focus in relationships newly created can be used for future studies to test relational motivation in the specific interpersonal context.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study is to examine the roles of Zimbardo’s time perspective along with other individual differences such as promotion focus and innovativeness in perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude toward SNSs (social networking sites) in the technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 234 participants joined this online study in South Korea. As predicted, past positive time perspective (TP) positively affected promotion focus and innovativeness, whereas past negative TP negatively affected them. Present hedonic TP positively affected innovativeness, and present fatalistic TP negatively affected promotion focus each. Future TP also positively related to promotion focus and innovativeness. In addition, simple and serial mediation effects of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness independently and sequentially mediated the impact of TP on attitude toward SNSs. By considering TP along with promotion focus and innovativeness in conjunction with beliefs in the TAM, this study identifies psychological underpinnings of how individual differences affect technology adoption attitude and behavior. Research implications and future research suggestions will be discussed in detail.
Chapter
Motive und Motivation werden als Ursache von Bewegung und Veränderung gesehen. Motivation schließt Energie und Erregung ein. Sie richtet ein vorhandenes Energiepotenzial, welches zunächst ungerichtet ist, auf bestimmte Ziele aus. Motivation hat also eine Steuerungsfunktion. Motive sind auch der Grund der Intensität (Antriebsfunktion) möglicher Aktivitäten. Verhalten ist immer eine Funktion von Umwelt- und Persönlichkeitsvariablen, d. h. sowohl die Umwelt als auch die Persönlichkeit einer Person lösen das Verhalten in einer ganz konkreten Situation aus.
Article
Full-text available
Background Mixed messaging among health officials are prevalent amid COVID-19. Crisis communication strategies have the potential to help health officials effectively address issues such as mixed messages and improve their crisis communication efficacy. However, there is a dearth of insights in the literature. Therefore, to bridge the research gap, this study aims to examine practical strategies health officials can utilize to improve their crisis communication efficacy. Methods A literature review on effective crisis communication strategies amid COVID-19 was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO, with a focus on scholarly literature published in English. Results The findings of the study identified the following strategies that health officials can utilize to improve their crisis communication capabilities: (1) develop fact-based, transparent, and accountable messaging, (2) utilize people-centered and empathetic persuasive strategies, and (3) leverage international collaboration for consistent messaging and comprehensive crisis communication. Conclusion COVID-19 has challenged health officials with unprecedented crisis communication duties and responsibilities. In this study, we underscored the importance of effective crisis communication amid global health emergencies like COVID-19, and identified communication strategies health officials could adopt or adapt to improve their crisis communication efficacy. Future research could explore strategies health officials can use to better communicate with government officials and media professionals to further help health officials improve their crisis communication capabilities, their abilities to avoid preventable miscommunication or mixed messaging, and in turn, society's collective strengthen in curbing and controlling the pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Pay for employee characteristic human capital inputs, which results in part of horizontal pay dispersion (HPD) and is well acknowledged by organizations and employees, has been greatly ignored by scholars. This study proposes "the characteristic-human-capital-inputs-based HPD" and explores what impact it tends to exert on team member work role performance (TMWRP), why, and when. Drawing on social comparison theory, goal-setting theory, and self-regulatory depletion theory, we develop a dual-mediation model elaborating the detrimental effect of this type of HPD on TMWRP from the perspective of employee benign and malicious envy and test it using objective and subjective data of 364 members coming from 65 Chinese ordinary employee teams. Methods: We on-site collected objective data including each member's pay level, outcome performance, and characteristic human capital inputs. Using five-point Likert rating method, team supervisors were requested to evaluate each member's TMWRP and members were asked to self-rate benign and malicious envy. Hierarchical regression analysis, simple slope analysis, and bootstrapping approach were employed to verify the model. Results: The characteristic-human-capital-inputs-based HPD adversely affects TMWRP by reducing employee benign envy (the mediating effect=-0.053, 95% CI=[-0.111, -0.002], excluding 0) and enhancing employee malicious envy (the mediating effect=-0.025, 95% CI=[-0.059, -0.004], excluding 0). The positive linkage between employee benign envy and TMWRP is only observed in lower-paid employees (the simple slope=0.145, p<0.05). Employee pay level does not moderate the relationship between malicious envy and TMWRP (β=-0.033, p>0.10). Conclusion: The characteristic-human-capital-inputs-based HPD, which involves the HPD part mainly resulting from employee differences in characteristic human capital inputs, tends to impair TMWRP through inhibiting employee benign envy and promoting employee malicious envy. Employee pay level is an important boundary condition constraining the positive effect of benign envy on TMWRP.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)