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Hospital use by Olympic athletes during the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games

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Only 43 athletes presented to the hospital at the Atlanta Olympics; their conditions fell within the range routinely seen in modern hospitals.
... Eight studies [6,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15] reported on injuries in all summer Olympics sports (Table 4). Of these, 5 studies were deemed unsuitable for calculation of injury rates. ...
... Of these, 5 studies were deemed unsuitable for calculation of injury rates. Crema et al. [10] studied only muscle injuries, Elias et al. [11] studied only plantar fascia and Achilles tendon injuries, Hayashi et al. [15] studied only bone stress injuries, Jaraya et al. [12] studied only tendon abnormalities and Keim et al. [14] reported injury data from a single center. Hence, 3 studies [6,9,13] were used to calculate the overall injury rates and foot and ankle injury rates in summer Olympics. ...
Introduction: Foot and ankle injuries in elite athletes can result in decreased performance, absence from sport and prolonged morbidity. There is paucity of data on foot and ankle injuries in Olympics athletes. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the PubMed and EMBASE databases. Studies in English language that reported the incidence and/or prevalence of foot and ankle injuries in during Olympics games (summer, winter and youth Olympics) were included. Studies in languages other than English, those that looked at injuries other than foot and ankle injuries, studies looking at injuries in non-Olympics events and those looking at Olympics trials were excluded. We determined the injury rates and burden of foot and ankle injuries. We also looked at the patterns and trends of foot and ankle injuries. Results: A total of 399 foot and ankle injuries from 25 publications were included in the review. Foot and ankle injury rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.42 injuries per athlete-years for summer Olympics and 0.02-0.35 injuries per athlete-years for winter Olympics. Quantitative analysis revealed that foot and ankle injuries contributed to 16.9% of all injuries (95% CI 8.1-31.9%) for summer Olympics and 5.1% of all injuries (95% CI 1.9-12.6%) for winter Olympics; however, a high statistical heterogeneity was noted. The three most common injuries were tendon injuries, ligament injuries and stress fractures. The rates and burden of foot and ankle injuries showed a declining trend. Conclusions: Foot and ankle injuries are an important cause of morbidity amongst Olympics athletes. The declining trend amongst these injuries notwithstanding, there is a need for a global electronic database for reporting of injuries in Olympics athletes.
... El inconveniente de estos trabajos es que agrupan a una gran variedad de especialidades deportivas, por lo que se hace muy difícil establecer criterios comparativos. Además, estas investigaciones hacen referencia a las lesiones de deportistas válidos y no discapacitados, y por otra parte, no recogen la incidencia lesional total, puesto que los servicios médicos de las organizaciones no atienden todos los problemas de los deportistas debido a que muchas selecciones disponen de sus propios servicios médicos como sucede en el caso español 10,11 . ...
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Paralympic sport of high competition has a very remarkable development as far as the number of participants and to the level of dedication and competition, however there are few investigations about the injuries that this kind of sport produces. The present work analyzes the number of injuries in athletics of paralympics sportsmen of high competition, concretely in the Championship of Europe celebrated in Assen (Holland) in 2003, where the Spanish Selection participated with a total of 34 athletes (28 men) belongs to the Spanish federations of Sports for Blinds (FEDC) with 17 athletes, to the one of Sports of Physical Disabled (FEDMF), with 8 athletes and to the one of Cerebral Palsy Brain (FEDPC) with 9 athletes. The specific diagnoses, the classifications of the sportsmen and the tests are described in which they participated. A total of 50 injuries took shelter that affected to 24 of the 34 sportsmen (70.58%). All the injuries were acute and the most frequent were the muscular ones (50% of the total) with 6 overuse of adducers, 4 overuse in back-lumbar zone, 4 in hamstrings and 3 in shoulder joint complex. There were also 6 spasm muscle, 2 strains and 3 tendinitis. Except for a wound by compression of the chair there were not specific injuries of handicapped sportsmen. The injuries preferredly affected to the lower extremities (64%), upper extremities superior (12%) and trunk (8%). The injuries rate was of 1.47 injuries/sportsman in the group of blind athletes, 1.22 in cerebral palsy ones and 0.75 in the physical disabled ones.
... A detailed contingency plan for mass casualty scenarios with the inclusion of other hospitals and level-A trauma centers should be present during planning and execution of a major sporting event [10]. Due to possible additional threats, emergent particularly during the last few years, an inclusion of emergency services and law enforcement in contingency planning should be considered to address the threat of terror attacks [8] Interdepartmental training exercises in the practical preparedness of medical facilities of Kazan to provide medical care to patients and suspicious on especially dangerous infections was held on May, 2013. "The blasting of explosive device on Perron Hall subway station" and "Spraying toxic substance in the train" were simulated for the exercise. ...
Medical care system is one of the important part in terms of the international sports events. It is clear that one of the key factors of success of international multi-sport competitions such as Olympic Games and Universiade is well established system of medical care delivery. The purpose of this paper was to analyze experience of the XXVII World Summer Universiade 2013 and to propose a practical framework methodology to assist construction of the health care system and medical service system in terms of mass international sporting events.
Background: The Gold Coast (Queensland, Australia) held the 2018 Commonwealth Games. Previous studies have focussed on the socio-economic and employment impact of hosting a major sporting event; however, there is limited research available about the provision of medical recourses required of the host city. Methods: Twelve weeks of data were retrospectively collected from the local health service to quantify the orthopaedic department workload for the period surrounding the 2018 Commonwealth Games. Data collected included referrals to Orthopaedic Fracture Outpatient clinic, theatre cases - emergency and category 1 (scheduled trauma) performed, and entries made into electronic medical records by the on-call orthopaedic staff. Results: A statistically significant increase was found for theatre cases performed during the Commonwealth Games (86 versus 71 cases per week, P = 0.033, 95% confidence interval 1.46-27.5). We found no statistically significant increase in Fracture Outpatient Clinic referrals or medical record entries between peri-games and games periods (P = 0.149 and 0.699, respectively). Conclusion: Based on our experience, orthopaedic departments should plan for an increase in operative intervention requirements of at least 20%, in consultation with other local services. Strategic use of pre-existing resources and staff may be sufficient to address the increased workload during the event period.
The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (the XXVII Olympiad) will be the biggest peacetime event ever held in Australia. During the Games, all public health decisions will be centralised, with daily briefing sessions held to review emerging public health issues and facilitate responses. Infectious diseases will be monitored and reported through the Olympic Surveillance System, with particular attention to foodborne diseases and conditions spread via the respiratory route. This system relies heavily on the cooperation of key notifiers such as emergency departments, laboratories and general practitioners. The lessons learned during the Games, and the new and enhanced systems and linkages that have been developed to support it, will strengthen future disease surveillance in NSW.
To estimate the effect of the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic Games on visits to local ambulatory healthcare facilities. Comparison of median visit rates by time period, obtained from retrospective review of administrative data. The emergency department of the designated athletes' hospital, the public hospital's adult emergency department and adult walk-in clinics, and the adult and paediatric outpatient facilities of a large health maintenance organisation. All 132,826 visitors to the designated facilities during the study interval. Daily visit frequencies at each facility. Our informal observations had suggested that volumes were not as high as expected. In all but the athletes' designated hospital, there was a decrease in average volumes the week before the opening ceremonies, ranging from zero to 8.4% of baseline. Average daily volumes in these non-venue facilities varied from 3.2% above to 16.1% below baseline during the two weeks of the Games, but all experienced an increase in volumes the week after the closing ceremonies, ranging from 3.0% to 13.7% of baseline. Unlike the venue-related facility, community ambulatory care sites did not encounter a significant rise in volumes until after the closing ceremonies. Although confirmation from other events is needed, our data suggest that, in addition to increased preparedness for sudden volume surges, overtime staffing of local facilities during planned mass gatherings should occur not during, but immediately after, the event.
To determine the level of medical care required for mass gatherings and describe the types of medical problems encountered in a major winter event. Standard charts were available for 3,395 encounters. Interviews with medical staff showed that the few unrecorded encounters were for very minor medical problems. A four-tiered triage system (low, moderate, urgent, and emergent) developed before the Games was applied to each chart retrospectively by a single emergency physician. Chi-squared tests were used to test significant differences. This winter sporting and entertainment event had 12 urban and rural venues. Medical staff (98 physicians, 161 nurses, and 337 first-aid attendants) were based in 28 advanced life support (ALS) clinics. The medical service operated for four weeks. There were 1.8 million spectator-days. Patients included spectators, athletes, and support staff. First-aid attendants referred patients to the clinics, where nurses conducted initial assessments and referred patients to physicians at the venue, or more rarely, to local hospital emergency departments. Paramedic ambulances were stationed at the venues. The triage system was not used for patient management. Only 40 urgent and one emergent medical problems were encountered. The majority of patients could have been managed by trained nurses working alone under standing orders. Fifty patients were transported to the hospital by ground ambulance and three by helicopter. No significant differences were found in the low acuity levels experienced at indoor urban venues, outdoor urban venues, and the rural cross-country ski venue. The Alpine ski venue was characterized by significantly higher acuity and a long prehospital transfer phase. Owing to the low acuity encountered and the availability of Calgary's ALS ambulance service, we concluded that physician-based ALS teams were not required for patient management at the urban venues. Such teams were found to be required at the rural Alpine ski venue. Other reasons for using physicians are discussed, as is development of a standard triage system for mass gatherings.
During the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services used its active disease surveillance system to monitor disease occurrence and other health concerns. Reports were collected by telephone three times a week from 198 participating facilities including hospitals, prepaid health plans, private physicians, and Olympic sites. Background data were obtained two months preceding the Olympic events. Less illness was recorded during the Olympics than during the same period for the three preceding years.
We conducted a study to review the organization of medical care for the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympics, to review the spectrum of illnesses encountered by health care providers, to determine the usage patterns of available services, and to assess the role that physicians and other providers play in special event mass medical care. Recorded medical care provided at Olympic venues with a spectator capacity of more than 10,000 (nine of 28 competitive sites) was reviewed retrospectively. Total attendance at these sites during the 15 days of competition was 3,447,807. Of this population, 5,516 (0.16%) were evaluated on site by RNs or MDs. Only 29% required physician evaluation. Common diagnoses (recorded using International Classification of Diseases code) encountered by physicians were minor musculoskeletal and dermal injuries (25%), heat-related illness (12%), and minor gastrointestinal complaints (8%). Two percent of patients presented with symptoms of cardiac disease, and only eight people required physician care for alcohol or drug ingestion. Ninety-one individuals were transferred to hospitals for further evaluation/care; of these, 22 were transferred for musculoskeletal injury and 18 were transferred for suspected cardiac disease. Usage rates (number of patient visits per 1,000 in attendance at each site) ranged from 0.68 to 6.8, with a mean of 1.6, and were higher at venues with multiple daily sessions, outdoor events, and events at which spectators could move about. We found that the majority of medical problems encountered at major athletic events are musculoskeletal, cutaneous, or of an "environmental" nature. The majority of medical problems encountered in our study were managed by appropriately trained and experienced nonphysician health care providers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Evaluation of travelers returning from the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, Spain: did they acquire resistant pneumococci and meningococci?
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