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The effects of different types of music on mood, tension, and mental clarity

Authors:
  • HearthMath Institute

Abstract

This study investigated the impact of different types of music on tension, mood, and mental clarity. A total of 144 subjects completed a psychological profile before and after listening for 15 minutes to four types of music (grunge rock, classical, New Age, and designer). With grunge rock music, significant increases were found in hostility, sadness, tension, and fatigue, and significant reductions were observed in caring, relaxation, mental clarity, and vigor. In contrast, after listening to the designer music (music designed to have specific effects on the listener), significant increases in caring, relaxation, mental clarity, and vigor were measured; significant decreases were found in hostility, fatigue, sadness, and tension. The results for New Age and classical music were mixed. Feeling shifts among subjects were observed with all types of music. Designer music was most effective in increasing positive feelings and decreasing negative feelings. Results suggest that designer music may be useful in the treatment of tension, mental distraction, and negative moods.
... Music also change the thinking way of an individual. The effect of designer music is studied by McCraty et al. [35] concluding its beneficial and adverse impact on the feeling of a person. This shows that a user-based system that can determine the person's mood and can play songs that can induce similar feelings or emotions or recommend different songs to change the subject's mood can be very beneficial and popular considering the average time a person spends while listening to music daily. ...
... Defined by the alpha wave spectrum ranging from 7.95-8. 35 • Sadness: A sudden decrease in high Alpha energies and an increase in high Beta are related to sadness. • Anticipation: Identified by prefrontal cortex activity, low Alpha waves which are activated with possibility of learning new information through various stimuli [3]. ...
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Emotion is considered a physiological state that appears whenever a transformation is observed by an individual in their environment or body. While studying the literature, it has been observed that combining the electrical activity of the brain, along with other physiological signals for the accurate analysis of human emotions is yet to be explored in greater depth. On the basis of physiological signals, this work has proposed a model using machine learning approaches for the calibration of music mood and human emotion. The proposed model consists of three phases (a) prediction of the mood of the song based on audio signals, (b) prediction of the emotion of the human-based on physiological signals using EEG, GSR, ECG, Pulse Detector, and finally, (c) the mapping has been done between the music mood and the human emotion and classifies them in real-time. Extensive experimentations have been conducted on the different music mood datasets and human emotion for influential feature extraction, training, testing and performance evaluation. An effort has been made to observe and measure the human emotions up to a certain degree of accuracy and efficiency by recording a person’s bio- signals in response to music. Further, to test the applicability of the proposed work, playlists are generated based on the user’s real-time emotion determined using features generated from different physiological sensors and mood depicted by musical excerpts. This work could prove to be helpful for improving mental and physical health by scientifically analyzing the physiological signals.
... Barwood et al. found that participants traveled more distance when running on the treadmill while listening to provocative music, had a lower lactate accumulation rate, and conversely, had an insignificant change in the rate of perceived exertion [7]. Studies revealed that music affects muscle tension, vasoconstriction, immune function, respiration rate, changes in heart rate, and blood pressure [8]. ...
... Other studies demonstrated that listening to a variety of music can alter stress hormone levels, including cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline [9]. According to research, music improves motor performance and skills through the mechanisms of reducing fatigue, increasing the levels of arousal, creating harmony, and promoting relaxation and feeling comfortable; all of which are directly related to perceptual processes [8]. However, some of these studies have reached contradictory results on physiological responses that can be due to differences in the types of music, activities, or the conditions of the participants [10]. ...
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Introduction: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of different musical intensities on performance and cardiovascular responses after incremental exercise in male athletes. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with a cross-over design, 15 male athletes were voluntarily selected. The study subjects performed Bruce protocol, along with listening to progressive music, slow music, and without music until exhaustion. Results: This study indicated that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum heart rate, and time to exhaustion insignificantly decreased while listening to slow music, compared to the no music (P=0.134, P=0.993, P=0.999, P=0.160, P=0.819, respectively). Furthermore, while listening to progressive music, compared to no music, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as maximum heart rate insignificantly increased (P=0.735, P=0.999, P=0.496, respectively); the maximum oxygen consumption and the time of exhaustion significantly increased in the study subjects (P=0.043, P=0.008 respectively). Moreover, while listening to progressive music, compared to slow music, the systolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum heart rate, and the time of exhaustion significantly increased (P=0.004, P=0.009, P=0.002, P=0.001 respectively); however, diastolic blood pressure presented an insignificant decrease (P=0.253). Conclusion: The obtained findings revealed that listening to progressive music can affect physiological factors and performance during exercising. It increases the athlete’s motivation and postpones the time to exhaustion to continue exercising; however, listening to slow music creates a state of relaxation during exercise and reduces heart rate. As a result, individuals with hypertension can decline their blood pressure during endurance exercise by listening to soft music.
... Music can have physiological effects on many areas of life and mental health. It can affect tension depending on the type, and it can also be used to create specific emotions (16). The potential therapeutic effect of music has been attributed to its ability to reduce stress and alter arousal (17). ...
... Music of various moods has been shown to enrich the listener's emotions and promote psychological and mental stability [1][2][3][4][5]. Classical music is longer than other music genres, so it contains various detailed mood changes in one song [6]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to propose an effective model for recognizing the detailed mood of classical music. First, in this study, the subject classical music was segmented via MFCC analysis by tone, which is one of the acoustic features. Short segments of 5 s or under, which are not easy to use in mood recognition or service, were merged with the preceding or rear segment using an algorithm. In addition, 18 adjective classes that can be used as representative moods of classical music were defined. Finally, after analyzing 19 kinds of acoustic features of classical music segments using XGBoost, a model was proposed that can automatically recognize the music mood through learning. The XGBoost algorithm that is proposed in this study, which uses the automatic music segmentation method according to the characteristics of tone and mood using acoustic features, was evaluated and shown to improve the performance of mood recognition. The result of this study will be used as a basis for the production of an affect convergence platform service where the mood is fused with similar visual media when listening to classical music by recognizing the mood of the detailed section.
... Thaut [104] compiled various benefits of music in Rehabilitation and Therapy. In 1998, McCraty et al. [67] studied the effect of 4 kinds of music on our mood and emotions and determined that depending upon the mood music can change our thinking process and concluded that only Designer Music is beneficial, as it has no negative effects. The latter is a very significant study as it shows that different types of music have different effects on our mood and feelings. ...
Article
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Scientists and researchers have tried to establish a bond between the emotions conveyed and the subsequent mood perceived in a person. Emotions play a major role in terms of our choices, preferences, and decision-making. Emotions appear whenever a person perceives a change in their surroundings or within their body. Since early times, a considerable amount of effort has been made in the field of emotion detection and mood estimation. Listening to music forms a major part of our daily life. The music we listen to, the emotions it induces, and the resulting mood are all interrelated in ways we are unbeknownst to, and our survey is entirely based on these two areas of research. Differing viewpoints on this issue have led to the proposal of different ways of emotion annotation, model training, and result visualization. This paper provides a detailed review of the methods proposed in music mood recognition. It also discusses the different sensors that have been utilized to acquire various physiological signals. This paper will focus upon the datasets created and reused, different classifiers employed to obtain results with higher accuracy, features extracted from the acquired signals, and music along with an attempt to determine the exact features and parameters that will help in improving the classification process. It will also investigate several techniques to detect emotions and the different music models used to assess the music mood. This review intends to answer the questions and research issues in identifying human emotions and music mood to provide a greater insight into this field of interest and develop a better understanding to comprehend and answer the perplexing problems that surround us.
... Thaut [104] compiled various benefits of music in Rehabilitation and Therapy. In 1998, McCraty et al. [67] studied the effect of 4 kinds of music on our mood and emotions and determined that depending upon the mood music can change our thinking process and concluded that only Designer Music is beneficial, as it has no negative effects. The latter is a very significant study as it shows that different types of music have different effects on our mood and feelings. ...
Article
Scientists and researchers have tried to establish a bond between the emotions conveyed and the subsequent mood perceived in a person. Emotions play a major role in terms of our choices, preferences, and decision-making. Emotions appear whenever a person perceives a change in their surroundings or within their body. Since early times, a considerable amount of efort has been made in the feld of emotion detection and mood estimation. Listening to music forms a major part of our daily life. The music we listen to, the emotions it induces, and the resulting mood are all interrelated in ways we are unbeknownst to, and our survey is entirely based on these two areas of research. Difering viewpoints on this issue have led to the proposal of diferent ways of emotion annotation, model training, and result visualization. This paper provides a detailed review of the methods proposed in music mood recognition. It also discusses the diferent sensors that have been utilized to acquire various physiological signals. This paper will focus upon the datasets created and reused, diferent classifers employed to obtain results with higher accuracy, features extracted from the acquired signals, and music along with an attempt to determine the exact features and parameters that will help in improving the classifcation process. It will also investigate several techniques to detect emotions and the diferent music models used to assess the music mood. This review intends to answer the questions and research issues in identifying human emotions and music mood to provide a greater insight into this feld of interest and develop a better understanding to comprehend and answer the perplexing problems that surround us.
... Music can have physiological effects on many areas of life and mental health. It can affect tension depending on the type, and it can also be used to create specific emotions 15 . The potential therapeutic effect of music has been attributed to its ability to reduce stress and alter arousal 16 . ...
Preprint
Background: Anxiety is commonly experienced during the delivery process and has been shown to have adverse effects on maternal and infant health outcomes. Music interventions tend to mitigate the effects of anxiety in a variety of populations, are low-cost and easily accessible, and have high acceptability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of music intervention on expectant mothers’ vital signs and anxiety levels during cesarean section. Methods: This study is a single-center, controlled, randomized study. The women in the intervention group listened to music via earpieces during the operation. The control group received standard treatment without music. Cesarean section was performed under regional anesthesia. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered to the patients before and after the operation. Results: There was no significant difference between the pre- and postoperative systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, or O2 saturation parameters of the music group and the control group (p>0.05). The pre-operative STAI anxiety score was similar in the music (45.58±4.60) and control (43.82±4.33) groups (p=0.183). After the operation, the anxiety score of the music group (35.88±5.39) was found to be statistically significantly lower than the anxiety score of the control group (42.14±3.75) (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that slow, rhythmic Sufi music during cesarean section can reduce patients’ anxiety. It is possible to distract the patient from negative thoughts and reduce stress. The results show that patients who listened to music during surgery had significantly lower anxiety levels than patients who did not listen to music.
... According to brain anatomy researchers, music acts as a nonverbal medium moving through the auditory cortex directly to the limbic system. This system plays an important role in the emotional response system [24]. Thus, music stimuli have been widely used by psychology and afective computing researchers. ...
Conference Paper
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Music is a universal medium that can elicit strong emotion, and can significantly help us in gaining focus while doing specific tasks. However, it is unclear what types of music can help to improve focus while doing other activities. In this paper, we investigate the effects of six different music stimuli on participants’ verbal and physiological responses while identifying genuine and acted emotions from video clips. Initial analysis was conducted on the comments participants made on the different stimuli in order to identify emerging patterns. Then, participants’ verbal and EEG responses were collected, processed and analyzed to classify two types of emotion. Empirical analysis of the results show that binaural beats, which are believed to increase focus on tasks, can often cause discomfort and therefore hinder focus. On the other hand, music containing a sombre tone, or familiar popular music with high level valence can help improve focus. Identifying which music stimuli can improve focus can be highly beneficial in managing day-to-day tasks and activities. This study will also be useful in broadening the range of music stimuli used in affective computing studies.
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This research was to study the effect of using relaxing imagery with three types of music on heart rate, electromyography (EMG) of trapezius muscle and time into a state of relaxation in athletes. The participants were 40 athletes (age 18-22 yrs) who were experienced in sport competition and engaged in training. The subjects were selected by advertising and word of mouth. Then, a simple random sampling was used to determine the 4 groups: imagery with Mozart music, imagery with Thai classical music, imagery with natural sounds, and control group. Experimental design: participants listen to guided imagery for relaxation from an audio source from a computer. Participants listened to the guided imagery for relaxation audio for 16 minutes. Data was collected and separated into four 4-minute segments. A t-test was used to compare before and after session and ANOVA to compare time into a state of relaxation. The results found that the reduction of heart rate before and after was significant at 0.05 for all four groups. Meanwhile, electromyography measuring trapezius muscle tension showed that using Mozart music, Thai classical music and natural sound effects, the decreased heart rate before and after the experiment was significant at 0.05. However, the control group was not significant. Likewise, time into a state of relaxation found that only the Mozart music group and the Thai classical music group were significant. Therefore, the integration of the effect of imagery with music affected the heart rate, electromyography of trapezius muscle and time into a state of relaxation more effectively than imagery alone. Then this research showed the way to improve the athlete's psychophysiological state. Moreover, this research had just one session: it should be investigated over a longer period of time to observe the influence of relaxation imagery with music even more, and we need to study athlete performance in future research. (Journal of Sports Science and Technology 2015; 15(2); 389-404)
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Music affects performance in both sensory and motor tasks. It can also provide a significant form of therapy for some mental illness, particularly anxiety. This study investigated the effects of music on anxiety between: (1) music and nonmusic majors; (2) females and males of each group; and (3) females and males, regardless of sex, to determine the combined interaction effect. Results showed that there were significant differences in responses between each of the stated groups. Moreover, the female responses to music were more consistent than the male responses in all groups.
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of three conditions— EMG biofeedback paired with music, EMG bio-feedback only, and sedative music only—on the ability of normal tensive adults to relax the frontalis muscle. The mean decrease in microvolts from pretest to postcheck served es the dependent variable for all conditions. Ten subjects made up each group (total n = 30). The resulting change of each group was then compared among treatment conditions. The experimental group receiving both EMG biofeedback and sedative music experienced a mean decrease of 1.18 microvolts (p < .001). The experimental group receiving EMG bio. feedback training only experienced a mean decrease of 0.53 microvolts (p > .05). The experimental group receiving sedative music only to aid relaxation experienced a mean decrease of 1.01 microvolts (p < .01). A one-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in the mean percentage of change in microvolts among the three groups. Resulting data showed a trend suggesting that sedative music enhan ced the EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training.
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Thirty-five adolescent subjects from a psychiatric facility participated in a study to determine the effects of listening to heavy metal versus rock music on affect shifts and to determine the relationship between music preference and shifts in affect. In addition, primary diagnoses of the subjects were examined in relation to type of music and subsequent affect shifts. Short-term fluctuations in mood were measured before and after music listening, and music preference was assessed with a rating sheet completed during testing. Overall, no significant pre-post differences were found in the affect shifts of the subjects; however, when grouped according to music preference, those subjects preferring heavy metal music after listening to heavy metal music were found to have significant increases in positive affect. The affect of those preferring mainstream rock did not show a parallel shift after listening to rock music. Subjects' primary diagnoses had no significant bearing on shifts in affect after music listening.
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The present report describes three experiments that examined the effects of sedative and stimulative music on performance decrement following frustration. A five-group design was used in the first experiment: No Treatment (NT), Frustration only (F), Frustration and Sedative music (F-SD), Frustration and Stimulative music (F-ST), and Frustration and Waiting (F-W). The second experiment assessed the differences in emotions associated with the two types of music, sedative and stimulative. After listening to each excerpt, subjects were required to report their feelings about each one, on a 15-point Semantic-Differential-type scale. The third experiment employed a three-group design: F-SD, F-ST, and F only. Music was also played during frustration manipulation. Results for the first experiment showed that while frustration plus sedative music reduced decrement in performance as compared with frustration only, stimulative music had no effect. The results of the second experiment showed that sedative music was highly correlated with calmness, tenderness, and contentedness, while stimulative music was related to tension, anger, boldness, and salience. The results of the third experiment were similar to those of Experiment 1 for effects of sedative music. Stimulative music, however, seemed to enhance the decrement in performance following frustration. The results are discussed with regard to the effects of music on performance, and the interaction of emotions and properties of sedative music in reducing the decremental effects of frustration on performance.
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66 college students enrolled in a psychology class took their first examination of the semester, a multiple-choice test, under conditions of stimulative music, sedative music, or no music. One of the five following types of music was played during each section of the test for the two treatment groups: classical, jazz and blues, country-bluegrass, easy listening, and rock/rock and roll. Before and after each of the five sections of the test, subjects responded to a 5-item questionnaire designed to assess (a) worry about the test, (b) emotionality or physiological-affective arousal, (c) ability to concentrate, (d) expectancy of performance, and (e) like or dislike of the music. Stimulative music significantly increased both worry and emotionality while sedative music had no effect on anxiety relative to that of the control group. Test performance was not affected by the music.
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The relative contribution of the instructions and the music to the effects of the Musical Mood Induction Procedure (MMIP) were investigated. Using an experimental procedure which minimised covert experimenter bias, subjects performed under both elation and depression mood inductions in one of four conditions: music present or absent by mood change instructions present or absent, using a crossover design. Results indicated that instructions were both necessary and sufficient to produce change on mood sensitive measures. Mood change effects were reduced by controlling for the effect of subjects who responded so as not to 'louse-up' the experiment. The MMIP seems to be much less musical than the name implies. Further research is needed to determine which aspects of the instructions contribute most to the changes on mood sensitive measures.
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This research was carried out in 45 bereaved people who were the close relatives of a bus accident victims. Their mental and physical conditions, IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were measured. It reveals that mental and physical conditions of the investigated group declined and the incidence of infectious diseases increased in comparison with the control group. Subjects antibody and complement functions were inhibited after bereavement. The social support they perceived functions in the way of buffering the stress as well as improving the immunity.
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During open brain surgery under local anesthesia for the treatment of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy we have recorded neuronal activity from the lateral temporal lobe with microelectrodes while the patients listened to short pieces of music. Three groups of music were tested: A) Simple familiar or unknown classical tunes at a simple rhythm and harmony, played on piano; B) Orchestrated folk music; C) Drumming without a tune. All types of music lead to changes of neuronal discharge rate. Musical pieces of type A produced a decrease in 48% of the recordings, an increase in about 17% and had no effect in 30%. A similar distribution of effects was found during type B-music (48%, 22%, 30%, respectively). During type C, only 26% showed a decrease and 74% an increase. When music was turned off, usually the reverse change from that caused by music was seen. In addition to changes of discharge rate, a slight entrainment of activity by single, regularly appearing notes (rhythm) was seen in some neurons. A few neurons showed a change of activity related to musical phrases (activation towards the end of a 4-bar 4/4 phrase). In contrast to the effects of verbal stimuli and overt speech, the effects of music on discharge rates did not show obvious topographical differences between superior, middle and inferior temporal gyrus. They also were bilateral with no significant right-left differences.
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This study compared the efficacy of five relaxation training procedures, four of which employed EMG auditory feedback: biofeedback only (BF), autogenic training phrases (ATP), music (MU), autogenic training phrases and music (ATP & MU), and a control group, in developing self-regulation of a "cultivated low arousal state" as a countermeasure to tensed muscular reaction to stressful imagery. Twenty subjects established a pre- and posttraining frontalis region EMG biofeedback baseline measurement. Sixteen subjects were assigned at random to the 25-minute taped relaxation training procedure. After eight training sessions (4 weeks), MU and ATP & MU groups achieved highly significant differences when compared with the control group. The ATP & MU group attained the lowest postbaseline arousal level measured by the EMG. EMG as a physiological measure for transfer of training functioned well in detecting the psychophysiological affect of stressful imagery.
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Stress hormones, tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, left-ventricular diastolic function and mood immediately before and after listening to three different kinds of music (a waltz by J. Strauss, a piece of modern classic by H. W. Henze, and meditative music by R. Shankar) were measured in 20 healthy persons (10 women, 10 men; mean age 25 [20-33] years) and 20 hypertensives (8 women, 12 men; mean age 57.5 [25-72] years). To recognise haemodynamic effects, mitral flow by Doppler ultrasound was used as a measure of left-ventricular diastolic function. Atrial filling pressure (AFF) was calculated from the flow integral (VTI) of the early E and the late A waves. The Zerssen scale was used to estimate the immediate mood of the subjects. In hypertensives the levels of cortisol (74 vs 78 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and t-PA antigen (4.3 vs 4.5 ng/ml; P < 0.05) were lower after than before the Strauss waltz. The muscle by Henze lowered the concentrations of cortisol (70 vs 84 ng/ml; P < 0.05), noradrenaline (203 vs 224 ng/l; P < 0.05) and t-PA antigen (4.1 vs 4.6 ng/ml; P < 0.05). After listening to the piece by Shankar the concentrations of cortisol (71 vs 78 ng/ml; P < 0.05), adrenaline 14.5 vs 24.5 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and t-PA antigen (4.2 vs 4.3 ng/ml; P < 0.05) were lower. In healthy subjects AFF (29 vs 26%; P < 0.05) rose after the Strauss music, VTI-E fell (69 vs 73 mm; P < 0.05, while natriuretic peptide rose (63 vs 60 pg/ml; P < 0.05.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)