Association between Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Seropositivity among Male Factory Workers in Zimbabwe

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 03/1998; 177(2):481-4. DOI: 10.1086/517381
Source: PubMed


To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify correlates of infection, and to describe
the correlation with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity, 224 HIV-negative and 191 HIV-positive male factory
workers in Zimbabwe were screened for HSV- 2-specific antibodies. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 35.7% among HIV-negative subjects
and 82.7% among HIV-positive subjects. The weighted estimate of HSV-2 seroprevalence in this population is 44.6%. The correlation
between HIV and HSV-2 remained significant after controlling for multiple sex partners, paying for sex, and history of sexually
transmitted disease (adjusted odds ratio, 8.0; 95% confidence interval, 4.8–13.1). If the association between HSV-2 and HIV
is causal, then the high seroprevalence of HIV and HSV-2 suggests that suppressive HSV-2 treatment should be considered as
a strategy to reduce HIV transmission in this population. HSV-2 seroconversion may be a suitable surrogate end point to evaluate
HIV prevention interventions.

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    • "HSV-2 infection is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the HIV-1 epidemic. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher incidence and prevalence rates of HIV-1 among HSV-2-infected populations and vice versa [2-5]. Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest prevalence of HIV-1 has about 80% prevalence rate of HSV-2 among its adult population [6,7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) epidemic. The objective of our study was to identify the risk factors of HSV-2 and HIV-1 infections and to examine the association between the two infections. Methods The study participants were recruited through a community based cross-sectional study that was conducted from November 2002 to March 2003 in the Moshi urban district of Northern Tanzania. A two-stage sampling design was used in recruiting the study participants. Information on socio-demographics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs symptoms were obtained. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Results The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among all study participants was 43%. The prevalence rate of HSV-2 among the HIV-negative and HIV-positive women was 40% and 65%, respectively. We found 2.72 times odds of having HIV-1 in an HSV-2 positive woman than in an HSV-2 negative woman. Furthermore, HIV-1 and HSV-2 shared common high-risk sexual behavior factors such as early onset of sexual debut, and testing positive for other STIs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HSV-2 may be both a biological and risk-associated cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition. In resource-limited countries, where both infections are prevalent efforts at symptomatic and diagnostic screening and treatment of HSV-2 should be part of HIV-1 prevention programs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "In 1999, the estimate of the number of sufferers to these infections worldwide was approximated as 86 million people (Halioua and Malkkin, 1999) and since then, the prevalence of HSV infection has been increasing (Smith and Robinson, 2002). In sub-Saharan Africa high seroprevalence rates of between 60 -80% in young adults have been recorded in population based studies (Wagner et al., 1994; Gwanzura et al., 1998; Obasi et al., 1999; WHO, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl, were subjected to bioactivity guided phytochemical analysis for identification of biological makers of activity. Pure compounds; lupeol, oleuropein, carissol and beta-amyrin were subsequently isolated. In vitro evaluations of the compounds against viral strains of Herpes simples virus types 1 revealed a significant activity for lupeol at EC(50) of between 2.98 - 4.2 mu g/ml for both sensitive and resistant strains with a high therapeutic index (TI > 38). A concentration of the compound at 10.0 mu g/ml was virucidal, reducing viral yields in Vero E6 cells by 98.3%. On oral administration to mice at 20.0 mu g/ml following a cutaneous viral infection, a delayed onset of infections of slow progression to mild and sever zosteriform lesions were observed (p <= 0.05 test vs. control by repeated measures ANOVA). The mice receiving treatment with the compound also exhibited increased mean survival times as opposed to control (p <= 0.05 test verses control by Student's t-test) with a therapeutic index > 5 (LD(50) > 100.0 mu g/ml). The results indicate promising antiviral activity of lupeol and necessitate further examinations of efficacy and safety in higher mammals.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of medicinal plant research
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    • "Considerable biologic and epidemiologic evidence links genital herpes with HIV transmission . Epidemiologic studies have found a strong association between HIV and HSV-2 seropositivity [41, 42]. Furthermore, detection of HIV RNA in HSV-2 lesions suggests that HIV transmission is enhanced in the presence of HSV-2 [43] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of genital herpes requires accurate diagnosis, patient support, and effective treatment. Diagnosis is usually straightforward for classic presentations characterized by vesicular lesions but can be challenging for atypical presentations, which are more common. Diagnosis of asymptomatic infection requires access to molecular technology or type-specific serologic assays. Misconceptions about herpes simplex infection are common and patient education is essential. Patient concerns extend beyond disease frequency and severity—the psychological impact should not be underestimated. Antiviral therapy is relevant at all stages of infection. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective and well tolerated for genital herpes treatment. Continuous suppressive therapy controls all symptoms of recurrent disease and helps to relieve disease complications. The prodrugs valacyclovir and famciclovir offer easier, less-frequent dosing than required for acyclovir. Valacyclovir achieves effective suppression when taken once a day. Interventions to prevent genital herpes transmission and to control the global problem are urgently required
    Preview · Article · Nov 2002 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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