Reliability and Validity of Physical and Mental Health Summary Scores from the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Medical Care (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/1998; 36(2):126-37. DOI: 10.1097/00005650-199802000-00003
Source: PubMed


Health-related quality of life measures are used to evaluate patient outcomes in clinical trials of new treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Summary index scores, rather than profiles of scale scores, would simplify data analysis and interpretation of findings from clinical trials and comparison across studies.
Baseline MOS HIV Health Survey scores from two clinical trials of new antiretroviral medications in HIV/AIDS patients (total n = 2253) and an observational study (n = 162) were used to develop physical health summary (PHS) and mental health summary (MHS) scores. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to identify the factor structure of the summary scores based on MOS HIV Health Survey scales. Physical health summary and MHS scores were derived and the factor structure proved invariant across the two groups.
Reliability of the PHS score was 0.90 to 0.92 and MHS score was 0.91 to 0.94. Mean PHS and MHS scores differed in patient groups defined by HIV disease stage, HIV disease severity, Karnofsky performance status scores, and global ratings of health status. Mean PHS and MHS scores in patient reporting worsening health status were significantly lower than scores of patients reporting stable or improving health status.
The PHS and MHS were reproducible across different samples of HIV/AIDS patients and are reliable and valid measures for demonstrating treatment impact on patient functioning and well-being.

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Available from: Albert W Wu, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "Summary scores (scales: 0–100) were constructed for each of physical and mental HRQoL (Revicki, Sorensen, & Wu, 1998). These two summary scores demonstrate a good internal consistency and a convergent and discriminate construct validity among people living with HIV (Lubeck & Fries, 1992; Revicki et al., 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of people living with HIV who are homeless or unstably housed show a high prevalence of food insufficiency (>50%) and associated poor health outcomes; however, most evidence is in the form of cross-sectional studies. To better understand this issue, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of food insufficiency and housing instability on overall physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV in Ontario. Six hundred and two adults living with HIV were enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study and followed from 2006 to 2009. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, and generalized linear mixed-effects models constructed to examine longitudinal associations between food insufficiency, housing instability and physical and mental HRQoL. At baseline, 57% of participants were classified as food insufficient. After adjusting for potential confounders, longitudinal analyses revealed a significant, negative association between food insufficiency and physical and mental HRQoL outcomes, respectively [effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI): (ES = −2.1, CI = −3.9,−0.3); (ES = −3.5, CI = −6.1,−1.5)]. Furthermore, difficulties meeting housing costs were shown to have additional negative impacts on mental HRQoL. Food insufficiency is highly prevalent among people living with HIV in Ontario, particularly for those with unstable housing. This vulnerable group of individuals is in urgent need of changes to current housing programmes, services and policies, as well as careful consideration of their unmet nutritional needs.
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    • "Combining some of the dimensions, MOS-HIV physical health summary (PHS) and mental health summary (MHS) scores are also generated on a scale of 0–100, with higher scores indicating better health status [8]. The use of summary index scores rather than multiple scale scores simplifies data analysis and the interpretation of findings from clinical trials and aids in comparisons across studies [9]. While all scales contribute to the calculation of the PHS and MHS scores, certain scale scores contribute most strongly. "
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    ABSTRACT: Selection of an appropriate patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument for a clinical trial requires knowledge of the instrument’s responsiveness to detecting treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the responsiveness of two health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments used in clinical trials involving HIV-infected adults: the HIV-targeted Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), and a generic measure, the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). A systematic review identified clinical trials using the MOS-HIV or EQ-5D to assess outcomes for HIV-infected adults. Data abstracted from each study included study type, treatment regimen(s), PRO results, and effect size (either reported or calculated). Effect size was calculated as the difference between baseline and follow-up mean scores divided by the baseline standard deviation. Magnitude was categorized as small (d=0.20), medium (d=0.50), and large (d=0.80). Between 2005 and 2010, the MOS-HIV was administered in 12 trials. Significant differences were observed between groups and over time in physical health summary (PHS) and mental health summary (MHS) scores (P<0.05) in subjects switching therapy after experiencing Grade-2 adverse events. Effect sizes were medium (0.55 and 0.49 for PHS and MHS, respectively) among treatment-naïve adults beginning therapy (two studies), but negligible among treatment-experienced adults (0.04 and 0.13 for PHS and MHS, respectively; three studies). The EQ-5D was used in five trials between 2001 and 2010. It was responsive to occurrences of adverse events and opportunistic infections, with small-to-medium effect sizes (range 0.30–0.50) in each of its five dimensions. A systematic review of PRO study results showed both the MOS-HIV and EQ-5D were responsive to changes between groups and/or over time in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. These instruments may be used either individually or together in clinical trials to measure changes in HRQL.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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    • "In press; Wu, Revicki, Jacobson, & Malitz, 1997) Subscales transformed on 0–100 scale to have mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10(Revicki, Sorensen, & Wu, 1998) Factor analysis used to construct Physical and Mental Health Summary scores (Revicki et al., 1998) Range from mental health subscale=0.62 to health distress subscale=0.92 (6, 0.001%) "
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    ABSTRACT: Disclosure of positive HIV status in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with safer sexual practices and better antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but associations with psychosocial function are unclear. We examined patterns and psychosocial correlates of disclosure in a Zimbabwean community. Two hundred HIV positive women at different stages of initiating ART participated in a cross-sectional study examining actual disclosures, disclosure beliefs, perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, and quality of life. Ninety-seven percent of the women disclosed to at least one person, 78% disclosed to their current husband/partner, with an average disclosure of four persons per woman. The majority (85-98%) of disclosures occurred in a positive manner and 72-95% of the individuals reacted positively. Factors significantly correlated with HIV disclosure to partners included being married, later age at menses, longer duration of HIV since diagnosis, being on ART, being more symptomatic at baseline, ever having used condoms, and greater number of partners in the last year. In multivariate analysis, being married and age at menses predicted disclosure to partners. Positive disclosure beliefs, but not the total number of disclosures, significantly correlated with lower perceived stigma (ρ = 0.44 for personalized subscale and ρ = 0.51 for public subscale, both p<0.0001), higher self-esteem (ρ = 0.15, p=0.04), and fewer depressive symptoms (ρ = -0.14, p=0.05). In conclusion, disclosure of positive HIV status among Zimbabwean women is common and is frequently met with positive reactions. Moreover, positive disclosure beliefs correlate significantly with psychosocial measures, including lower perceived stigma, higher self-esteem, and lower depression.
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