Production of cytokines in patients infected by hepatitis C virus
T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines play an important role in antiviral defence. The purpose of this study was to quantify by ELISA IL2, soluble receptor of IL2 (IL2Rs), IFNgamma TNFbeta, IL4, IL6 and IL10 levels in the sera of 134 HCV-positive patients, 69 of whom were coinfected with HIV, and in 54 HIV-HCV-negative patients. The mean IL2Rs and IFN serum levels were much higher in patients with anti-HCV than in the control group, whereas the mean IL4 and IL6 levels were lower in patients infected with HCV. There were no significant differences in cytokine levels between patients with and without HIV. There were significantly less patients with HCV than controls with IFNgamma levels under cut-off, and significantly more patients with HCV with IL4 levels under cut-off. Although serum level of cytokines must be interpreted with caution, the results suggest that Th1 response is enhanced in HCV infection.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessing whether hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with increased inflammation is complex. The liver, integral to inflammatory biomarker synthesis, is compromised by HCV and alcohol abuse. Using single liver-synthesized biomarkers (e.g. C-reactive protein) to represent inflammation may not be appropriate in HIV/HCV co-infection. We hypothesized that 1) detectable HIV/HCV RNA was independently associated with increased inflammation; 2) a composite inflammation measure describes inflammation differently from single inflammatory biomarkers. We compared inflammation by HIV/HCV group in a cohort of 361 HIV infected participants from the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study. Inflammatory biomarkers >75th percentile were considered elevated. Associations between HIV/HCV group and elevated biomarkers were analyzed as a composite measure (inflammatory burden) or individually. We defined inflammatory burden as number of concurrently elevated biomarkers. Biomarkers included interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, serum amyloid-A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-10 (IL-10). Covariates: alcohol, liver fibrosis, comorbidities, CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy, substance use. Detectable HIV and HCV RNA (OR = 2.49; 95%CI = 1.05--5.89) and detectable HCV RNA alone (2.95; 1.08--8.01) were independently associated with increased odds of having a greater inflammatory burden compared to undetectable viremia. Elevated IL-10 (7.79; 1.90--31.97) and TNF-alpha (7.70; 1.42--41.83) were independently associated with detectable HIV and HCV RNA. Elevated IL-10 was also associated with detectable HCV RNA alone (5.51; 1.17, 25.84). Detectable HIV and HCV replication versus undetectable replication was associated with inflammatory burden and certain inflammatory biomarkers independently of alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis and other comorbidities.0Comments 11Citations
- "Additionally, our results may be more definitive than these prior studies because of our detailed data on alcohol consumption and the inclusion of a validated measure of liver fibrosis. Findings from our study are consistent with those from prior studies investigating the association between HIV/HCV status and TNF-α27282930, CRP [31,32], IL-10 [30,33], IFN-γ [30,34,36], IL-6  and cystatin C . However, some differences between our work and these prior studies may reflect different biomarker outcome categorization (quartiles versus detection, secretion, orFigure 1 Inflammatory burden scores (number of elevated biomarkers) and individually elevated biomarkers by HIV/HCV group. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-helper (Th) lymphocyte cytokine production may be important in the immune pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Th1 cytokines such as; interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) are necessary for host antiviral immune responses, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) can inhibit the development of these effector mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the serum profile of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in treated and non-treated HCV infected individuals. This study was carried out in 63 HCV infected patients (31 under treatment and 32 untreated) and 32 matched HCV-sero negative healthy subjects. Serum samples were checked with an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) for IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Levels of circulating IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma were significantly elevated in HCV patients versus normal controls (2 822.6 ± 1 259.92 vs. 950.8 ± 286.9 pg/mL; 1 987 ± 900.69 vs. 895.91 ± 332.33 pg/mL; 1 688.5 ± 1 405.1 vs. 519.03 ± 177.64 pg/mL and 1 501.9 ± 1 298 vs. 264.66 ± 71.59 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). The serum levels of all cytokines were significantly lower in the patients under treatment than those of the untreated patients (P < 0.001). On the basis of our data, the simultaneous increase of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines may indicate that both Thl and Th2 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of HCV infections. Moreover, this activated T-cell response in HCV infected patients may be regulated by treatment.0Comments 9Citations
- "Recent studies have demonstrated conflicting results on the levels of Thl and Th2 cytokines in HCV infections (10-14). While some reports have demonstrated elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma (11, 15), IL-4 and IL-10 (14, 16), others have reported no increase in the levels of Thl (13, 17) and/or Th2 cytokines (15). Viral Therapy may be regulating an activated T-cell response in HCV infected patients and this creates a decreased viral load (11). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunopathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a matter of great controversy and has been suggested to involve a complex balance between cytokines with pro and anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the expression of inflammatory cells and cytokines in the liver and serum of 51 chronically HCV infected patients and compared them to data from two sets of normal controls: 51 healthy blood donors and 33 liver biopsies of healthy liver donors. We also assessed the relationship between selected cytokines and cell populations in hepatic compartments and the disease stage. Compared with controls, hepatitis C patients had a greater expression of portal TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and CD4(+) and acinar IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-4, as well as a higher serum concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TGF-beta. Significant positive correlations were found between portal CD4+ and TNF-alpha, portal CD8(+) and TGF-beta, portal CD45(+)RO and TNF-alpha, acinar CD45(+)RO and IFN-gamma and acinar CD57(+) and TGF-beta. In conclusion, we have shown that (i) in this sample of predominantly mild disease, the immune response was associated with a pro-inflammatory response pattern, (ii) CD4(+) T-lymphocytes played a major role in orchestrating the immune response and (iii) these events primarily took place in the portal space.0Comments 7Citations
- "Interestingly , in this study, IL-6 was not associated with either chronic HCV infection or with the stage of disease. Our results are in contrast to those of other researches, but agree with those of Cribier et al. (1998) , who found similar patterns in serum IL-6 between HCV-infected and non-infected patients. Although, it should be noted that IL-6 was above the cut-off value in only 11 patients, possibly due to the overall lower severity of disease sample. "