Six isolates of Mycoplasma synoviae, identified as WVU 1853, K1968, K1858, 92D8034, F10-2AS, and FMT, were compared for pathogenicity in broiler chickens. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated, in two groups of 20, with each isolate by footpad or eyedrop inoculation at 1 day of age and were examined at necropsy 7, 14, 28, and 42 days postinoculation. Specimens were taken for histopathology, culture, polymerase chain reaction assay, and hemagglutination-inhibition serology. Isolates were grouped according to pathogenicity on the basis of differences in lesion development and tissue distribution in the respiratory system, other viscera, and the skeletal system. K1968 (pathogenic) induced lesions in all sites examined in both the footpad and eyedrop inoculation groups. It was detected in all sites following footpad inoculation and in all sites except viscera following eyedrop inoculation. WVU 1853, K1858, and 92D8034 (moderately pathogenic) induced lesions and were detected in all sites following footpad inoculation. With eyedrop inoculation, lesions were identified only in upper and lower respiratory sites, and organisms were detected only in upper respiratory sites. F10-2AS (moderately pathogenic) was similar; however, footpad inoculation failed to induce visceral lesions or permit organism detection in any site. F10-2AS was detected in upper and lower respiratory tissues following eyedrop inoculation. FMT (mildly pathogenic) induced only upper respiratory lesions when either footpad or eyedrop inoculation was used, and detection was restricted to upper respiratory sites following eyedrop inoculation. These results are useful in comparative evaluations of the virulence of other M. synoviae isolates and form a basis for characterization of virulence factors of M. synoviae.
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"M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae cause chronic respiratory disease (CRD), MScause infectious synovitis while air saculitis caused by both MG and MS with MM, however chronic and symptomatic infections are the most common and of a major concern ,due to the losses they cause (Keleven, 1997 and Morrow et al.,1990 ) . In our study 3 MS strains were isolated from 103 samples collected from birds showing lesions as in photo 2&3 that matched with what described by (Lockaby et al.,1998 and Moreira et al., 2014) who compared the pathogenicity of 6 stains of MS in broiler chicken 2 from layer hens and 1 from broiler chicken (photo 1A which illustrate the characteristic appearance of Mycoplasma, fried egg appearance and film & spot formation characteristic of MS photo 1B) and "
"The depletion of lymphocytes in the various organs in the present study might reflect the above hypothesis. In group III, spleen showed depletion of lymphocytes as reported earlier by Lockaby et al. (1998) but did not show the changes as of group II. Group IV showed similar lesions as in the group II. "
"Less commonly, M. synoviae can be found infecting additional tissues in galliform birds (e.g. spleen, liver, central nervous system, skeletal muscle, and eye)1234 and respiratory tissues or synovial membranes of distantly related avian species such as ducks, geese, pigeons, and sparrows . Attachment to sialylated receptors on host cells is mediated by the M. synoviae variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin VlhA67. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma synoviae depends on its adhesin VlhA to mediate cytadherence to sialylated host cell receptors. Allelic variants of VlhA arise through recombination between an assemblage of promoterless vlhA pseudogenes and a single transcription promoter site, creating lineages of M. synoviae that each express a different vlhA allele. The predicted full-length VlhA sequences adjacent to the promoter of nine lineages of M. synoviae varying in avidity of cytadherence were aligned with that of the reference strain MS53 and with a 60-a.a. hemagglutinating VlhA C-terminal fragment from a Tunisian lineage of strain WVU1853T. Seven different sequence variants of an imperfectly conserved, single-copy, 12-a.a. candidate cytadherence motif were evident amid the flanking variable residues of the 11 total sequences examined. The motif was predicted to adopt a short hairpin structure in a low-complexity region near the C-terminus of VlhA. Biotinylated synthetic oligopeptides representing four selected variants of the 12-a.a. motif, with the whole synthesized 60-a.a. fragment as a positive control, differed (P<0.01) in the extent they bound to chicken erythrocyte membranes. All bound to a greater extent (P<0.01) than scrambled or irrelevant VlhA domain negative control peptides did. Experimentally introduced branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) substitutions Val3Ile and Leu7Ile did not significantly alter binding, whereas fold-destabilizing substitutions Thr4Gly and Ala9Gly tended to reduce it (P<0.05). Binding was also reduced to background levels (P<0.01) when the peptides were exposed to desialylated membranes, or were pre-saturated with free sialic acid before exposure to untreated membranes. From this evidence we conclude that the motif P-X-(BCAA)-X-F-X-(BCAA)-X-A-K-X-G binds sialic acid and likely mediates VlhA-dependent M. synoviae attachment to host cells. This conserved mechanism retains the potential for fine-scale rheostasis in binding avidity, which could be a general characteristic of pathogens that depend on analogous systems of antigenically variable adhesins. The motif may be useful to identify previously unrecognized adhesins.