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This study tested the hypothesis that the amount (weight or volume) of food consumed affects the satiating potency of a food, independent of its energy content. Normal-weight young men (n = 20) were tested in a within-subjects design. Subjects were served a milk-based drink or no drink (control), followed 30 min later by a self-selected lunch and > 4 h later by a self-selected dinner. Milk drinks were equal in energy content (2088 kJ, or 499 kcal) and had similar proportions of fat (30.3%), carbohydrate (54.7%), and protein (15%) across three volumes: 300, 450, and 600 mL. Ratings of palatability, sensory properties, and energy content of the drinks and of hunger completed before consumption of the preloads were not significantly different among conditions. The results showed that preload volume affected energy intake at lunch (P < or = 0.009) such that energy intake was less after the 600-mL preload than after the 300-mL preload. This effect was still present when energy intake at dinner was included (P < or = 0.022). At lunch, including energy from the preload, subjects overate relative to the control condition (4323 +/- 322 kJ) after the 300- (5263 +/- 321 kJ) and 450-mL (5011 +/- 300 kJ) preloads but not after the 600-mL (4703 +/- 353 kJ) preload. Thus, the best adjustment for the energy in the preloads was with the largest, least energy-dense drink. Consistent with the effects on intake, the volume of the drinks affected ratings of hunger and fullness. These results indicate that the volume consumed is an important determinant of satiety after milk drinks under these conditions.
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ABSTRACT This study tested the hypothesis that the
amount (weight or volume) of food consumed affects the satiat-
ing potency of a food, independent of its energy content. Nor-
mal-weight young men (n = 20) were tested in a within-subjects
design. Subjects were served a milk-based drink or no drink
(control), followed 30 min later by a self-selected lunch and
>4 h later by a self-selected dinner. Milk drinks were equal in
energy content (2088 kJ, or 499 kcal) and had similar propor-
tions of fat (30.3%), carbohydrate (54.7%), and protein (15%)
across three volumes: 300, 450, and 600 mL. Ratings of palata-
bility, sensory properties, and energy content of the drinks and of
hunger completed before consumption of the preloads were not
significantly different among conditions. The results showed that
preload volume affected energy intake at lunch (P 0.009) such
that energy intake was less after the 600-mL preload than after
the 300-mL preload. This effect was still present when energy
intake at dinner was included (P 0.022). At lunch, including
energy from the preload, subjects overate relative to the control
condition (4323 ± 322 kJ) after the 300- (5263 ± 321 kJ) and
450-mL (5011 ± 300 kJ) preloads but not after the 600-mL (4703
± 353 kJ) preload. Thus, the best adjustment for the energy in the
preloads was with the largest, least energy-dense drink. Consis-
tent with the effects on intake, the volume of the drinks affected
ratings of hunger and fullness. These results indicate that the vol-
ume consumed is an important determinant of satiety after milk
drinks under these conditions. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;
KEY WORDS Energy density, humans, food intake, hunger,
satiety, volume, Eating Attitudes Test, Beck Depression Invento-
ry, Zung Self Rating Questionnaire
The high incidence of obesity in affluent societies indicates that
many individuals are consuming more energy than they are
expending. Food intake is affected by a variety of factors, includ-
ing environmental influences and those related to the psychologic
or physiologic characteristics of the individual. In particular,
attributes of the available food, such as palatability (1), energy or
macronutrient content (2), or energy density (3), can affect intake.
We showed previously in a series of studies that some people,
especially lean young men, can adjust their intake in response to
the energy content of a preload that is either ingested (4, 5) or
infused intragastrically (6) before a meal. The type of macronu-
trients, ie, fat or carbohydrate, in the preload did not affect sub-
sequent energy compensation, a measure of satiety, in the lean
men (2, 4–6). In these experiments, the sensory properties and the
weight or volume of the preload were held constant while the
energy or macronutrient content, or both, varied. The purpose of
the present study was to explore further the properties of food that
can affect satiety by keeping the sensory properties and the
energy and macronutrient contents of preloads constant and sys-
tematically varying the volume or weight consumed.
The volume consumed could affect satiety through mechanore-
ceptors or chemoreceptors in the oropharyngeal or gastrointesti-
nal tracts (7). Additionally, the volume of a preload could affect
satiety by affecting the perception of how much has been con-
sumed (3). People may equate portion size with energy content
and adjust subsequent intake accordingly. The present study was
the first to test directly the effects of volume consumed on satiety
in humans when the energy and macronutrient contents and the
sensory properties of the preloads are similar.
The experiment used four conditions in a counterbalanced,
within-subjects design. Subjects came to the laboratory on 4 sep-
arate days to eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner. On three of the
days, subjects received a milk-based preload before lunch and on
1 d no preload was served. Test days were separated by 1 wk.
We recruited participants through advertisements in local and
university newspapers, posters, and mailings. Potential subjects
Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men
Barbara J Rolls, Victoria H Castellanos, Jason C Halford, Arun Kilara, Dinakar Panyam, Christine L Pelkman,
Gerard P Smith, and Michelle L Thorwart
From the Nutrition Department and the Department of Food Science,
Pennsylvania State University, University Park; the Department of Dietetics
and Nutrition, Florida International University, Miami; the Department of
Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom; and
the Edward W Bourne Behavioral Research Laboratory, New York Hospi-
tal–Cornell Medical Center, White Plains, NY.
Supported by NIH grants DK50156 and DK08926.
Address reprint requests to BJ Rolls, Nutrition Department, 226 Hender-
son Building, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
16802–6501. E-mail:
Received October 30, 1997.
Accepted for publication December 15, 1997.
Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1170–77. Printed in USA. © 1998 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
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were initially screened through a telephone interview to deter-
mine whether they ate breakfast regularly, were regular milk
drinkers, did not smoke, did not have any food allergies or
restrictions, were not athletes in training, were not dieting to
gain or lose weight, and were not taking any medications or
dietary supplements that could affect appetite. Potential subjects
completed the following questionnaires in our laboratory: the
Eating Attitudes Test (EAT; possible score: 0–140), which
detects symptoms of an eating disorder (8); the Eating Inventory
(EI; 9), which measures dietary restraint (possible score: 0–21),
perceived hunger (possible score: 0–14), and disinhibition (pos-
sible score: 0–16); the Beck Depression Inventory (10; possible
score: 0–63) and the Zung Self Rating Questionnaire (11; possi-
ble score: 20–80), both of which detect depression; a detailed
demographic questionnaire; and a family weight-history ques-
tionnaire. Weight, height, waist, and hip measurements were
taken at this time. Subjects were included in the study only if
their body mass index (BMI; in kg/m
) was between 20 and 25.
Subjects were excluded if they scored > 40 on the Zung Self Rat-
ing Questionnaire, > 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, > 30
on the EAT, or > 10 on the cognitive restraint subscale of the EI.
Finally, subjects were excluded from the study if they disliked
two or more of the foods to be served in any of the test meals.
All aspects of the study were approved by the Institutional
Review Board of Pennsylvania State University.
Subjects were asked to keep their evening meals and activity
levels on the day before each test day as similar as possible. Sub-
jects were also asked to refrain from drinking alcohol on the day
before each test day and throughout each test day. Food and activ-
ity diaries were used to monitor compliance. On each test day, sub-
jects consumed breakfast 3 h before the start of the lunch meal.
Subjects were instructed to not consume any food or beverages,
except water, in the interval between breakfast and 1 h before their
scheduled lunch. During the hour before their lunch, subjects were
instructed to refrain from eating or drinking any foods, including
At the start of the lunch session, subjects tasted and rated a sam-
ple of the preload or were notified that there would be no milk drink
served on that day. On days when a preload was served, subjects
were instructed to consume the preload over a 15-min period. Preset
timers were given to assist subjects in pacing their consumption of
the preload. Subjects were permitted to read magazines before
lunch, except when consuming the preload. Magazines were
screened to exclude any articles pertaining to food, weight loss, or
body image. Lunch was served 30 min after the presentation of the
preload or 30 min after arrival for the no-preload condition. Finally,
subjects returned to the laboratory for dinner 4 h after lunch
began. Subjects were asked to not consume any foods or energy-
containing beverages outside the laboratory during the experimental
day until after dinner. During all meals, subjects were tested alone
in private cubicles.
Three vanilla-flavored, milk-based drinks were developed for
use as preloads. Initial formulation and testing of the drinks was
conducted in the Department of Food Science at Pennsylvania
State University. After these initial tests, we recruited men and
women (n = 18) to taste and rate samples of the final formulations
in our laboratory. These subjects were excluded from participation
in the current preload study. No differences were found for ratings
of perceived energy content of the food, pleasantness of taste,
creaminess, sweetness, thickness, or how much subjects were will-
ing to consume. The preloads were equal in energy and macronutri-
ent contents but varied in volume (300, 450, or 600 mL) (Table 1).
The preloads were chilled (3 °C, 37 °F) and presented to the sub-
jects in a large, clear glass with a straw.
Test meals
Subjects selected their breakfast foods before the study began.
They chose either bagels (served with an assortment of jelly, jam,
and cream cheese) or cereal (there were a variety of choices) and
their beverages (coffee, tea, orange juice, or milk). Subjects
received the same breakfast at the start of each test day.
Lunch and dinner were individual, buffet-style, self-selected
meals that allowed participants to choose ad libitum from a variety
of meal-appropriate foods. The foods varied in fat, carbohydrate,
and protein contents to allow subjects to vary their energy intake
and proportions of macronutrients. The lunch consisted of sliced
turkey breast, bologna, American cheese slices, bread, lettuce,
tomato slices, potato chips, pretzels, applesauce, and cookies. Din-
ner included cooked pasta shells, meatless spaghetti sauce,
Ingredients and macronutrient and energy contents of preloads
Preload condition
300 mL 450 mL 600 mL
Ingredients (g)
Skim milk
110.0 110.0 110.0
Instant nonfat dry milk
20.0 20.0 20.0
Sweet cream, 40%
39.5 39.5 39.5
Total milk protein
9.0 9.0 9.0
Corn syrup solids (36 DE)
30.0 30.0 30.0
20.5 14.5 8.3
0.0 24.0 49.0
Water 100.0 222.0 352.0
(g) 16.8 16.8 16.8
(% of energy) 30.3 30.3 30.3
(g) 68.3 68.3 68.3
(% of energy) 54.7 54.7 54.7
(g) 18.7 18.7 18.7
(% of energy) 15.0 15.0 15.0
(kJ) 2088 2088 2088
(kcal) 499 499 499
Energy density
(kJ/g) 6.3 4.5 3.4
(kcal/g) 1.5 1.1 0.8
The preloads were pasteurized in a high-temperature, short-time pas-
teurizer at 80
C for 25 s and homogenized in a two-stage homogenizer at
6.9 MPa in the first stage and 3.45 MPa in the second stage. In the 450-mL
and 600-mL drinks, 0.02% carrageenan (SeaKem IC 611; FMC Food Ingre-
dients, Philadelphia) was used. Guar gum (Germantown International,
Broomall, PA) was used in the 450- (0.13%) and 600-mL (0.18%) drinks.
The Pennsylvania State University Creamery, University Park, PA.
Maryland and Virginia Milk Producers Association Inc, Laurel, MD.
Milk Pro800; American Dairy Specialties Ltd, Burlington, NJ.
Cerestar USA Inc, Hammond, IN. DE, dextrose equivalents.
US Biochemical Corporation, Cleveland
Litesse (4.2 kJ/g); Pfizer Chemical Division, New York.
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breaded chicken fillets, broccoli, rolls, butter, pound cake, choco-
late bars, and mixed fruit cups. At both meals, a variety of condi-
ments and chilled water were served. To avoid the possibility of
subjects eating to “clean their plates,” we presented more food
than they were likely to consume. More information about the
foods offered at breakfast, lunch, and dinner is available from the
corresponding author on request. During all meals, subjects were
instructed to eat as much or as little of any food item as they
desired and to ask for more if desired. All food items were
weighed before and after consumption to obtain the amount con-
sumed to the nearest 0.1 g. Energy and macronutrient intakes were
calculated by using information from the manufacturers and from
Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used (12).
Visual analogue scales
Subjects rated their hunger, thirst, nausea, fullness, and
prospective consumption (ie, how much food they thought they
could eat) on visual analogue scales (VAS; in mm) (13). For
example, hunger was rated on a 100-mm line preceded by the
question, “How hungry are you right now?” and anchored on the
left by “not at all hungry” and on the right by “extremely hun-
gry.” Other anchors consisted of the phrases “not at all... and
“extremely...” combined with the adjectives “thirsty,” “nause-
ated,” and “full.” Ratings were performed before and after break-
fast, before and after the preload (or at equivalent times in the
no-preload condition), before and after lunch, hourly for 3 h after
lunch, and before and after dinner.
Subjects also rated samples of each preload on 100-mm VAS.
The following attributes were rated: pleasantness of taste, per-
ceived energy content, sweetness, creaminess, thickness, and
prospective consumption. Ratings were performed before con-
sumption of the preload. Subjects were given a 15-mL sample of
the preload to taste and rate. After the ratings were completed,
subjects were served their preload.
Subjects completed a debriefing questionnaire at the end of
the study. They were asked to state the purpose of the study,
whether they noticed any differences between the test days, and
whether there were any factors that affected their responses.
They were also asked whether they noticed any differences in the
milk drinks in terms of color, smell, fat content, energy content,
amount, taste, texture, and other qualities.
Statistical analyses
Data were analyzed by using SAS-PC for Windows (version
6.10; SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). One-way analysis of variance
was performed by using the general linear model (GLM) proce-
dure. The percentage of energy from macronutrients was ana-
lyzed by using an equivalent multivariate analysis of variance
procedure with condition entered as a within-subjects factor.
Tukey’s honestly significant difference test was used for post hoc
comparisons of significant effects. Results were considered
significant at the P < 0.05 level. Power analyses were conducted
by using the statistical package nQuery Advisor (version 2.0;
Statistical Solutions, Ltd, Los Angeles) with alpha set to 0.05.
Food intake
Energy intakes (kJ) and amounts consumed (g), with and with-
out water, and the percentage of energy from macronutrients from
lunch and from lunch plus dinner, with and without the preload,
were analyzed. Analyses were also performed excluding the no-
preload (control) condition. The percentage of energy compensa-
tion at lunch was calculated by dividing the energy intake at lunch
in the control condition by the energy intake at lunch (including
energy from the preload) in each of the preload conditions and
multiplying by 100. The percentage energy compensation over
the rest of the day was calculated by dividing energy intake at
lunch and dinner in the control condition by the energy intake at
lunch and dinner in each of the preload conditions and multiply-
ing by 100. For these calculations, values > 100% indicated over-
compensation (undereating) and values < 100% indicated under-
compensation (overeating). Individual t tests were used to test
whether percentage energy compensation scores were different
from 100%. For these tests, results were considered significant at
P < 0.025, based on a modified Bonferroni correction for multi-
ple comparisons.
Satiating efficiency
The satiating efficiency of the preloads based on Kissileffs
model (14) was also examined. We calculated the negative of the
slope generated by plotting attributes related to preload size (kJ
or g) against the average amount consumed at lunch (kJ or g). A
satiating efficiency of 1 represents a reduction in lunch intake of
1 unit per unit of preload, a satiating efficiency > 1 represents a
reduction in lunch intake of > 1 unit per unit of preload, and a
satiating efficiency < 1 represents a reduction in lunch intake of
< 1 unit per unit of preload. Two attributes of the preloads were
used in these analyses: weight and hypothetical energy content.
The hypothetical energy content of the preload is the estimated
energy content that would result if subjects assumed that a dif-
ferent volume of the same drink was served on each occasion and
thus volume was an indicator of the energy content (ie, that the
energy density of the drinks remained constant). Using the drink
in the condition in which the best energy compensation was
observed (ie, the 600-mL condition), we calculated the hypo-
thetical energy content of the 300-mL drink to be 50% (1044 kJ)
of that of the 600-mL drink, and the hypothetical energy content
of the 450-mL drink to be 75% (1566 kJ) of that of the 600-mL
drink (2088 kJ).
Visual analogue scale ratings
Subjective ratings of hunger, fullness, thirst, nausea, and
prospective consumption made before the preload was consumed
were analyzed to ensure that systematic differences did not exist
between test days. Changes in ratings due to preload consump-
tion were calculated for each participant by subtracting the rat-
ings taken before preload consumption from the ratings taken
immediately after preload consumption (15 min later). A nega-
tive value indicates a decline in these subjective sensations,
whereas a positive value indicates an increase. Ratings of the
preloads, completed before consumption, were analyzed to con-
firm that subjects could not detect differences between preloads.
Twenty-four subjects were selected; however, four were dropped
from the study: one subject failed to report to the laboratory on the
first day of the study, one subject did not follow the experimental
procedures, one subject reported gastrointestinal disturbance (unre-
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lated to the study protocol), and one subject reported increased nau-
sea after consuming the preloads. The final sample consisted of
20 lean men aged 22–42 y (mean age: 28 ± 1.5 y). They weighed
75.4 ± 2.2 kg, were 1.8 ± 0.02 m tall, had a BMI of 23.3 ± 0.3, and
had a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.9 ± 0.01. According to the EI, subjects
scored low in restraint (4.9 ± 0.7), perceived hunger (3.8 ± 0.6), and
disinhibition (3.3 ± 0.4). In addition, the EAT indicated no signs of
an eating disorder (mean score: 6.9 ± 0.6). The two tests used to
assess depression indicated low scores: the Zung Self Rating Ques-
tionnaire (mean score: 27.3 ± 1.0) and the Beck Depression Inven-
tory (meanscore: 08 ± 0.2).
Energy intake
Mean energy intakes at each meal are presented in Table 2.
Subjects consumed significantly less energy at lunch after con-
sumption of the preloads than in the no-preload condition
= 19.86, P < 0.0001). When energy from the preloads was
added to lunch intake, there was still a main effect of condition
= 5.48, P < 0.002). Subjects overate, compared with the no-
preload condition (4323 ± 322 kJ), in the 300-mL (5263 ± 321 kJ)
and 450-mL (5011 ± 300 kJ) conditions but not in the 600-mL
condition (4703 ± 353 kJ) (Figure 1). When the control condition
was excluded from the analysis, the volume of the preload signifi-
cantly affected energy intake at lunch (F
= 5.33, P < 0.009)
such that intake was reduced 17.6% more after consumption of the
600-mL preload than after the 300-mL preload. These results indi-
cate that the volume ingested affected satiety.
When energy intakes at lunch and dinner were combined, subjects
consumed significantly less energy after consumption of the preloads
than in the no-preload condition (F
= 15.83, P < 0.0001). When
energy intake from the preload was added to energy intakes at lunch
and dinner, no differences were detected among the four conditions.
When the no-preload condition was excluded from the analysis we
found that subjects ate significantly more at lunch and dinner com-
bined after the 300-mL preload (10309 ± 537 kJ) than after the 600-
mL preload (9410 ± 588 kJ). Because no significant differences in
energy intake were found for dinner when the no-preload condition
was excluded, these results indicate that subjects did not adjust their
energy intake at dinner to compensate for differences among the
three preload conditions at lunch.
Energy compensation after the preloads
At both lunch and dinner, energy compensation after the
300-mL preload was significantly different from energy com-
pensation after the 600-mL preload. At lunch, energy compensa-
tion after the 300-mL (84%) and 450-mL (88%) preloads was
significantly different from 100% (P < 0.008 and 0.02, respec-
tively). However, energy compensation after the 600-mL preload
(96%) was not significantly different from 100%. At dinner,
compensation scores were not significantly different from 100%
after any of the preloads (95%, 99%, and 104% after the
300-mL, 450-mL, and 600-mL preloads, respectively).
Satiating efficiency
The satiating efficiency of preload weight was 0.30 for food
intake at lunch and 0.35 for water intake at lunch. The satiating effi-
ciency for intake of food and water combined was 0.64. Thus,
adjustments in lunch intake for preload weight were not made on a
strictly one-to-one basis. For each gram of preload consumed, sub-
jects reduced their intake of food and water at lunch by
0.64 g. As shown in Figure 2, a satiating efficiency of 1.0 would
result if subjects assumed that changes in energy content of the pre-
loads occurred in direct proportion with changes in volume (ie, vol-
ume cues overrode energy cues) and adjusted their energy intake
Intakes of food and water
Preload condition
No preload 300 mL 450 mL 600 mL
Energy intake (kJ) 2658 ± 194 2761 ± 181 2827 ± 180 2676 ± 187
Energy intake (kJ) NA 2088 2088 2088
Amount consumed (g) NA 329 469 618
Energy intake (kJ) 4323 ± 322
3175 ± 321
2923 ± 300
2615 ± 353
Amount consumed (g)
588 ± 35
452 ± 34
b 4
423 ± 32
366 ± 37
Water consumed (g) 552 ± 70
496 ± 53
469 ± 55
396 ± 57
Energy intake (kJ) 5405 ± 362
5046 ± 338
4752 ± 261
4708 ± 300
Amount consumed (g)
814 ± 48 782 ± 46 744 ± 42 726 ± 45
Water consumed (g) 578 ± 55 578 ± 68 538 ± 52 495 ± 70
Total (preload + lunch + dinner)
Energy intake (kJ) 9728 ± 627 10309 ± 537 9763 ± 518 9410 ± 588
Amount consumed (g)
1402 ± 76
1563 ± 65
1635 ± 64
1711 ± 73
Water consumed (g) 1131 ± 120
1073 ± 118
1007 ± 100
891 ± 123
Fat (% of energy) 22 ± 1.2 22 ± 0.8 22 ± 0.9 23 ± 1.0
Carbohydrate (% of energy) 65 ± 1.4 64 ± 0.9 65 ± 1.1 65 ± 1.1
Protein (% of energy) 13 ± 0.5 14 ± 0.4 14 ± 0.5 13 ± 0.4
Data were analyzed with and without data from the no-preload condition. Values within a row with different superscript letters are significantly
different when models included the no-preload condition, P < 0.05. NA, not applicable.
Significantly different from 300 mL when the no-preload condition was excluded, P < 0.05.
Amount consumed excluding water.
Significantly different from 600 mL when the no-preload condition was excluded, P < 0.05.
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accordingly. A satiating efficiency of 0.0 would result if subjects
relied on energy cues only, ie, all preloads would reduce intake at
lunch by the same amount (kJ). A satiating efficiency of 0.54 was
found when the hypothetical energy content of the preload was
regressed against actual energy intake at lunch. Thus, subjects
reduced their energy intake at lunch by 0.54 kJ for every kJ of
hypothetical preload. These results indicate that volume cues par-
tially overrode energy cues.
Macronutrient energy intake and weight of food consumed
There were no significant differences in the macronutrient
composition of lunch and dinner. Consumption of the preload
reduced both food and water intakes at lunch (Table 2). Subjects
consumed less food (g) in the three preload conditions than in
the control condition (F
= 23.5, P < 0.0001). Subjects con-
sumed less food and water at lunch after the 600-mL preload
than after the 300-mL preload. Effects of volume were also noted
when the weight of the preload was added to the weight of food
and water intakes at lunch. Subjects consumed a greater total
weight of food and water in the 450- and 600-mL conditions than
in the control condition, and consumed more food and water (g)
in the 600-mL condition than in the 300-mL condition.
VAS ratings
Subjective sensations
No significant differences were found for subjective ratings of
hunger, fullness, thirst, nausea, or prospective consumption reported
before the preload was served. Thus, subjects did not differ system-
atically across conditions. Differential changes in ratings due to con-
dition were detected in the interval between when the preload and
lunch were served (Table 3). Subjects reported greater reductions in
hunger and prospective consumption and greater increases in full-
ness after consumption of the 600-mL preload than after consump-
tion of the 300-mL preload. These results show a clear effect of vol-
ume consumed on subjective ratings of satiety. No effect of condition
was noted for changes in ratings of nausea. Ratings were low before
preloads were served (between 3.2 and 2.2 mm) and changed little
after the preloads were consumed (Table 3).
Preload ratings
Ratings of the preloads, completed on each test day before
subjects were aware of the volume to be consumed, were not
FIGURE 1. Mean (± SEM) energy intake at lunch in each of the four
conditions (n = 20). Means with different letters are significantly differ-
ent, P < 0.05.
FIGURE 2. Satiating efficiency of volume consumed. For each
regression line, intake at lunch (kJ) was regressed against the hypotheti-
cal energy content of the preloads, which was calculated on the basis of
the energy content estimates that would result if subjects equated
changes in volume with changes in energy content. Using the 600-mL
drink as a reference, we calculated the hypothetical energy content of the
300 mL drink to be 50% (1044 kJ) of and the 450-mL drink to be 75%
(1566 kJ) of the energy content in the 600 mL drink (2088 kJ). Theoret-
ically, a satiating efficiency of 1.0 would result if lunch intake was
adjusted in direct proportion to changes in volume, and a satiating effi-
ciency of 0.0 would result if no adjustments were made.
Change in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after preload consumption
Preload condition
No preload 300 mL 450 mL 600 mL
“How hungry are you right now?” 5.1 ± 3.3
29.5 ± 4.1
217.9 ± 3.4
228.5 ± 3.4
“How thirsty are you right now?” 3.8 ± 3.5
211.6 ± 5.2
212.8 ± 5.0
217.8 ± 5.9
“How much food do you think you could eat right now?” 2.1 ± 3.4
28.6 ± 2.5
212.5 ± 3.2
226.0 ± 3.5
“How nauseated are you right now?” 0.2 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.9
“How full are you right now?” 20.4 ± 2.4
11.9 ± 4.6
23.2 ± 3.8
39.7 ± 3.8
Values within a row with different superscript letters are significantly different, P < 0.05. x
± SEM. Change determined by subtracting the value before
the preload from the value 15 min after the preload.
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significantly different among conditions (Table 4). This indi-
cates that the sensory properties of the milk drinks were well-
matched and confirmed the results of the sensory testing per-
formed during formulation of the drinks.
Power analyses
We conducted analyses based on current data to determine
whether sufficient power was obtained to detect meaningful dif-
ferences in energy intake at lunch. We estimated the power to
detect differences in lunch intake in a situation in which subjects
adjusted their intake in response to a hypothetical preload
amount (Figure 2). The power to detect a difference of 522 kJ
(the hypothetical difference in energy content between preloads)
was 0.74 for comparisons between the 600- and 450-mL condi-
tions and between the 450- and 300-mL conditions. The esti-
mated power to detect a difference of 1044 kJ between the 600-
and 300-mL conditions was 0.99.
We also conducted analyses to ensure that the sample size was
sufficient to detect meaningful differences in ratings of the pre-
loads. We found that differences of 7 mm between the 300- and
450-mL preloads and between the 450- and 600-mL preloads
would result in power estimates 0.80 for ratings of pleasant-
ness of taste, energy content, creaminess, sweetness, thickness,
and prospective consumption. These results indicate that failure
to detect differences in ratings of the milk drinks was not due to
a lack of statistical power.
Forty percent of the subjects correctly stated that the purpose
of the study was to examine intake after consumption of drinks
differing in volume. Two subjects failed to notice a difference in
the amount that was served. Most subjects (70–90%) reported no
differences in the milk drinks with respect to color, fat content,
temperature, energy content, smell, sweetness, texture, or taste,
confirming the results obtained with VAS ratings.
The results show clearly that the weight or volume of a liquid
food affects satiety independent of its sensory properties or its
energy or macronutrient content. Consistent with the effects on
food intake, the volume consumed in the preload affected ratings
of hunger, fullness, and the amount subjects wanted to eat. In this
study we tested only lean, nondieting young men, a group that
was shown in previous studies to be sensitive to the energy con-
tent of preloads (4, 5). However, the visual, cognitive, and physi-
ologic cues from the volume consumed were sufficient to modu-
late the effect of energy content on satiety in these young men.
The three formulations of milk drinks were matched for total
energy content and macronutrient composition (percentage of
energy). The main difference in the drinks was in water content
(Table 1). Because the energy content of the drinks was held con-
stant and the volume was varied by adding water, energy density
(kJ/g) also varied. Thus, we could not separate the effects of vol-
ume from the effects of energy density. This result was obviously
unavoidable because total energy content and energy density
cannot be controlled for simultaneously while varying volume.
Small amounts of carrageenan (0.02% in the 450-mL and 600-
mL drinks) and guar gum (0.13% in the
450-mL drink and 0.18% in the 600-mL drink) were added to
maintain thickness in the more dilute drinks. These small
amounts of thickener were unlikely to have affected satiety (15).
Differences in sensory properties and palatability were not
confounding variables in this study because no significant dif-
ferences in pleasantness of taste, sensory qualities, and prospec-
tive consumption were detected among the three versions of the
drink. Thus, we specifically tested the effects of the volume of
the drinks because the sensory properties, palatability, and
energy and macronutrient contents were controlled for. Further-
more, we showed that the number of subjects tested in this study
was adequate to detect meaningful differences between drinks;
therefore, the failure to detect differences between ratings was
not due to a lack of statistical power.
Several previous studies examined the role of volume or
weight of food consumed in the control of food intake (16–18).
Holt et al (16) compared preloads of isoenergetic servings of
38 different foods and found that serving weight was the factor
most positively correlated with ratings of satiety and subse-
quent food intake in a test meal. However, in another study, De
Graaf and Hulshof (17) investigated the relative effects of
weight and energy content of preloads of dairy products on
intake 2 h after they were consumed and found that the effect
of energy content was greater than that of the weight of the pre-
loads. The results of these studies, although provocative, do not
directly indicate an effect of weight or volume of food on sati-
ety because other qualities of the preloads varied. For example,
in these previous studies the preloads were not matched for
palatability and macronutrient content (16, 17). Also, the test
meal was not given for several hours after the preload, although
one would expect the effects of volume on satiety to peak some
time during the first hour after consumption, when cognitive
cues, oropharyngeal stimulation, and gastrointestinal disten-
sion are greatest (19).
One way in which the volume consumed could affect satiety
is via receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. Several studies in
animals that examined the influences of gastric fullness or dis-
Sensory and prospective consumption visual analogue scale (VAS) scores before preload consumption
300 mL 450 mL 600 mL
“How pleasant is the taste of this food right now?” 67.5 ± 2.9 66.1 ± 4.3 67.6 ± 4.6
“How many calories do you think this food has?” 59.6 ± 4.1 59.5 ± 4.1 55.7 ± 4.2
“How sweet does this food taste?” 71.6 ± 3.4 70.4 ± 3.7 70.8 ± 4.8
“How creamy does this food taste?” 66.7 ± 3.6 68.5 ± 4.2 68.4 ± 4.5
“How thick is this food?” 57.6 ± 5.2 67.4 ± 3.7 54.4 ± 4.3
“How much of this food could you eat right now?” 49.8 ± 4.1 54.1 ± 5.2 50.6 ± 4.7
± SEM. There were no significant differences.
by guest on July 14, 2011www.ajcn.orgDownloaded from
tension and the modulatory effects of gastric emptying suggest
that mechanical and nutrient stimulation of gastric and postgas-
tric compartments can play an important role in the regulation of
food intake (20, 21). In humans, this hypothesis is supported by
the results of studies in which the level of gastric distension was
manipulated, usually through the use of gastric balloons, and
subsequent intake was examined. The findings showed that
expansion of a gastric balloon to a volume of 400 mL reduced
subsequent food intake (22). It is not clear in humans how sensi-
tive the stomach is to volume cues, although a recent study in
rats showed that the stomach is sensitive to its contents when it
contains only a small proportion of its capacity (23). Future stud-
ies should examine further the role of gastrointestinal factors in
the effects of volume on satiety by intubating directly into the
stomach drinks similar to those consumed in the present study.
It is of interest that in the present study the best compensation
for the energy in the drinks was seen after consumption of the
drink with the largest volume and lowest energy density, ie, the
600-mL preload. There are many possible explanations for this.
One is that the 600-mL drink may have been the one to best con-
form to the participants’ expectations of the energy content.
Another is that the more concentrated drinks of lower volume
(300 and 450 mL) may have been below a threshold required to
stimulate volume receptors. It could be that there is an optimal
energy density of foods for the maintenance of energy balance
and that consumption of foods with higher energy density will
contribute to the development of obesity, whereas those of lower
energy density will aid in weight loss.
Kissileff (14) proposed calculating satiating efficiency as a
means for comparing the satiating potency of different foods.
Numerous attributes of foods that are postulated to affect satiety,
can be evaluated by comparing the magnitude of the chosen
attribute of a preload with intake of a subsequent test meal. We
used this strategy in a previous study to compare the satiating
effects of preloads varying in macronutrient content and found
that fat in yogurt was slightly less satiating than was carbohy-
drate in some individuals (5). However, lean, nondieting young
men compensated remarkably well for the energy content of pre-
loads regardless of the macronutrient composition: satiating effi-
ciency scores were close to 1.0 for both high-fat and high-carbo-
hydrate preloads (5).
Although satiating efficiency is often used to relate energy
content in a preload to energy consumed at lunch (24), it is also
possible to relate other attributes of preloads, such as weight or
the perceived energy content, to lunch intake (14). We calculated
how much energy the subjects should have consumed if the
energy density of the drinks had remained constant and the vol-
ume actually reflected the energy content of the drinks, ie, the
hypothetical energy content. The resulting satiating efficiency
(0.54) indicated that subjects were responsive to volume cues but
not on a one-to-one basis. That is, the reduction in intake was
<50% less than what may have been expected if the subjects
equated the doubling in volume to a doubling in energy content.
These results suggest that for lean, young men, cues related to
volume only partially override cues related to energy content in
the short term. Further research is warranted to investigate how
volume may affect intake in other populations and over longer
time periods. For example, we showed that obese men and
women and individuals highly concerned with diet and body
weight (ie, restrained eaters) are less responsive to the energy
content of preloads than are lean, young men (5). We also
showed that women are highly responsive to cognitive cues
about food (25). Thus, it is conceivable that the satiating effi-
ciency of volume may be greater in these groups because they
have been shown to be less responsive to energy cues than the
young men tested in this study.
The present study was designed to maximize the effects of
volume on satiety rather than to distinguish any separate effects
of visual, cognitive, and physiologic cues related to the volume
of the drinks. Several studies showed that beliefs about the
energy or fat content of a preload can affect satiety (25, 26).
Because we emphasized the visual differences in the drinks by
serving them in clear glasses, both visual and cognitive cues
could have affected the results. We did not ask subjects how
much energy they thought they had consumed in the drinks
because we did not want to draw their attention to the energy
content of the preloads. However, it is likely that they thought
that the volume of the drinks was related to total energy content
because the sensory properties such as thickness and creaminess
were perceived to be similar. Also, when the subjects were asked
to rate the energy content of the drinks based on the 15-mL sam-
ple tasted at the start of lunch, they indicated no significant dif-
ferences between the drinks.
In the present study, we showed that the effect of a given level
of energy in a preload on satiety can be affected by adding water
and thickeners to increase the volume while maintaining the sen-
sory characteristics. The finding that the volume of food ingested
can affect satiety has important health implications. Because of the
high incidence of obesity in the United States, strategies are needed
to help individuals reduce their energy intake. The results from this
study showed that the amount eaten after consumption of isoener-
getic preloads varied with the volume of the preload. In addition,
eating a food of high volume helped to suppress hunger and to
increase fullness. The reduction in energy intake at lunch after the
high-volume preload was not compensated for by an increased
intake at dinner. Clearly, it is of interest to conduct a longer-term
study in which a high-volume, low-energy preload precedes every
meal over a longer time period to determine whether this would be
an effective strategy for weight loss. Increasing the volume con-
sumed by adding water or foods with a high water content, such as
fruit or vegetables, to the diet can be a safe and easy approach to
controlling hunger and reducing food intake.
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... This was well illustrated by a study which served participants different volumes of a milkshake with exactly the same overall energy. Despite the number of calories ingested remaining constant, those who consumed a 600ml preload (vs. a 300ml preload) consumed 12-18% less as the next meal (Rolls et al., 1998(Rolls et al., , 2000. Those who consumed a larger preload volume also felt more sated, than those who consumed the smaller portion. ...
... The more food is consumed as a preload (i.e. before a meal) in terms of volume, the less food is subsequently ingested, irrespective of the caloric content of the preload (Rolls et al., 1998). Visual portion cues are frequently more powerful at reducing intake, than the actual energy content of the food consumed, and sometimes even more powerful than internal satiety signals e.g. from stomach distention (Wansink et al., 2005). ...
Full-text available
The present thesis investigated the meal-recall effect, wherein remembering a recent meal reduces subsequent snack intake. A review of the literature suggested that the meal-recall effect might be driven by a temporary increase in interoceptive ability, which could then help individuals to perceive lingering satiety signals more strongly and to resolve ambiguous gastrointestinal signals (Chapter 2). A laboratory-based replication of the meal-recall effect was attempted, however, due to testing restrictions, data collection was prematurely ceased (Chapter 3). Instead, the effect was replicated online, with food photographs used as a proxy for intake (Chapter 4). The effect was not elicited in Experiment 1, potentially due to methodological issues, but changes to the design in Experiment 2 resulted in the meal-recall effect being successfully replicated. There was no evidence to support the idea that improved interoception was the mechanism underlying the meal-recall effect. Imagining a recent meal as bigger than in reality was shown to be an effective method of reducing biscuit intake, but visualising details of a previous meal disrupted the manifestation of the meal-recall effect (Chapter 5). Two weight loss interventions based on the meal-recall effect were tested for usability, by asking users for feedback (questionnaires and interviews) after using the interventions for a week (Chapter 6). Finally, the feasibility of a memory-based weight loss intervention was tested over a six-week period, and a number of potential improvements were identified (Chapter 7). The difference in weight loss between the intervention (1.81kg) and the control group (1.07kg) was not significant. The results suggest that a weight loss intervention based on the meal-recall effect has the potential to be feasible and acceptable to users, however more research is required to understand why the effect occurs and why it seems easily disrupted by contextual factors.
... 2016). Previously, it was shown that the volume of food consumed was an important determinant of satiety, independent of its energy content (Rolls et al., 1998). Although the test meals prepared with chia, amaranth, or quinoa had lower volumes than the control meal, this did not affect the resulting area under curve data of VAS scores related to hunger, satiety, prospective food consumption, and amount of food that could be consumed in this study. ...
Objectives: The pseudo-cereals chia, amaranth, and quinoa have received increasing attention due to their advantageous nutritional features in recent years. However, their influence on subjective satiety and consecutive energy intake in humans is mainly unknown. The purpose of this research was to determine whether subjective food consumption and satiety during an open buffet meal were different after consuming test meals prepared with chia, amaranth, or quinoa seeds. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=35) were given four mid-morning snacks in a randomized cross-over design. On various test days, participants received plain yogurt (CON), yogurt containing 14 g of chia (CHI), amaranth (AMA), or quinoa (QUI). After subjects were told to report visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes, they were provided an ad libitum meal and their energy intake was recorded. Results: VAS scores were similar between the test meals. Area under curve data of VAS scores indicated similar hunger, satiety, prospective food consumption and amount of food that could be consumed between the study groups. On the other hand, the area under curve data of desire for sugary snacks was significantly lower in QUI in comparison to CON and CHI. Individuals in all groups had similar energy intake during ad libitum lunch. No difference was determined between chia, amaranth, and quinoa test meals. Conclusion: Iso-caloric test meals prepared with yogurt and chia, amaranth, or quinoa seeds showed similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and subjective appetite sensations.
... Studies also suggest that solid foods are more satiating than liquids (148). In addition, cessation of eating is more strongly related to volume of food consumed rather than energy content of the food (149,150). The general thought is that people stop eating when they are full or are in a state of biological homeostasis-a point when they don't need any more kilocalories or nutrients. ...
Full-text available
The ASN Board of Directors appointed the Nutrition Research Task Force to develop a report on scientific methods used in nutrition science to advance discovery, interpretation, and application of knowledge in the field. The genesis of this report was growing concern about the tone of discourse among nutrition professionals and the implications of acrimony on the productive study and translation of nutrition science. Too often, honest differences of opinion are cast as conflicts instead of areas of needed collaboration. Recognition of the value (and limitations) of contributions from well-executed nutrition science derived from the various approaches used in the discipline, as well as appreciation of how their layering will yield the strongest evidence base, will provide a basis for greater productivity and impact. Greater collaborative efforts within the field of nutrition science will require an understanding that each method or approach has a place and function that should be valued and used together to create the nutrition evidence base. Precision nutrition was identified as an important emerging nutrition topic by the preponderance of task force members, and this theme was adopted for the report because it lent itself to integration of many approaches in nutrition science. Although the primary audience for this report is nutrition researchers and other nutrition professionals, a secondary aim is to develop a document useful for the various audiences that translate nutrition research, including journalists, clinicians, and policymakers. The intent is to promote accurate, transparent, verifiable evidence-based communication about nutrition science. This will facilitate reasoned interpretation and application of emerging findings and, thereby, improve understanding and trust in nutrition science and appropriate characterization, development, and adoption of recommendations.
... Perception of satiety and fullness is linearly associated with postprandial gastric volume (16,72). Studies have found that, when comparing milk-based drinks with identical nutritional contents, the incorporation of air and water reduced subjective appetite and nutritional intake at a meal served 30 minutes later (73,74). ...
Full-text available
Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are a clinically effective and relatively inexpensive way to supplement the diet of patients with, or at risk of, undernutrition. Good adherence is a primary determinant of the effectiveness of ONS. However adherence can be problematic for those with the greatest clinical need, such as undernourished older adults. This review aimed to appraise the available literature for the factors (contextual, personal and product related) affecting patient adherence and perceived palatability of ONS, identify areas requiring improvement and uncover gaps in the evidence to guide the focus of future research. Contextual factors identified were healthcare staff and the timing of administration. Personal factors included sensory changes and motivation which alter experience of and desire to consume ONS. The product’s sensory characteristics determined palatability and intake, but undesirable attributes, such as off-flavours, can stem from nutritional ingredients. The contribution made by aroma to older adults’ experience of ONS was a comparatively under-researched area. Further research should address this evidence gap to optimise the flavour, aroma profile and palatability for undernourished older consumers, thereby optimising intake. A combined multidisciplinary effort involving strategic expansion of research, industry development and clinical practice should simultaneously address the factors identified, to provide the best approach to improve adherence.
... This maximizes nutrient-dense, low-energy density foods, while limiting energy-dense foods (eg, processed foods and animal products). Decreasing dietary energy density with ad libitum consumption can result in weight loss while sating appetite [23][24][25], potentially by reducing passive intake of high-calorie or high-fat foods [26] by increasing the volume of food that cues fullness [27] or owing to the satiating effects of a high-fiber diet low in energy density [28]. Indeed, WFPBDs have been found to significantly decrease ad libitum consumption compared with other diets. ...
Background: Many traditional lifestyle interventions use calorie prescriptions, but most individuals have difficulty sustaining calorie tracking and thus weight loss. By contrast, whole food plant-based diets (WFPBD) have previously shown significant weight loss without this issue. However, most WFPBD interventions are face-to-face, time intensive, and do not leverage gold-standard behavioral strategies for health behavior change. Objective: This open pilot trial was the first to evaluate the feasibility of a fully-featured remotely delivered behavioral weight loss intervention using an ad libitum WFPBD. Methods: Over 12-weeks, participants (N = 15) with overweight/obesity received a newly-designed program that integrated behavioral weight loss and a WFPBD prescription via weekly online modules and brief phone coaching calls. Assessments occurred at baseline, mid-treatment, (6-weeks) and post-treatment (12-weeks). Results: The intervention was rated as highly acceptable (M = 4.40 out of 5), and attrition was low (6.7%). Sixty-nine percent of participants lost 5% weight (M = -5.89 kg, SE = .68). Predefined benchmarks of quality of life were met. Conclusions: A pilot digital behavioral weight loss intervention with a non-energy restricted WFPBD was feasible, and mean acceptability was high. Minimal contact time (100–150 minutes of study interventionist time per participant over 12 weeks) led to clinically relevant weight loss, dietary adherence, and quality of life improvements for most participants. We hope this work serves as a springboard for future larger scale randomized controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of such programs for weight loss, dietary change, and quality of life. Clinical Trial: identifier: NCT04892030
... Infant milk type was coded as breast milk or formula (breast milk = 0; formula = 1) at each timepoint. Time elapsed since last feeding was also included as a covariate, given well-established associations between feeding intervals and amount consumed (38)(39)(40). Mothers reported the time of the infant's last feeding prior to the start of the ATDG-FIT, from which time elapsed since last feeding was calculated. ...
Full-text available
Objective Eating behavior regulation emerges during early development and involves general self-regulation (emotional, behavioral), appetite regulation (homeostatic metabolic need) and appetite self-regulation (including both Bottom-Up Food Approach and Bottom-Up Food Avoidance and top-down purposeful self-control of eating). Limited research has investigated developmental trajectories of the regulation of eating behavior before the preschool years. The current study used a novel food delay task to assess infant distress as an early emerging marker of eating behavior regulation constructs across early infancy and examine associations with amount of milk consumed. Method Mother-infant dyads ( n = 179) completed the Ability to Delay Gratification for Food in Infants Task (ATDG-FIT) at 2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks of age. The ATDG-FIT required infants to wait before being fed while their bottle was present, but not accessible (3-min Pre-Feeding Delay). After this, the infant was fed for 1 min, then the feeding was paused for 30 s (Mid-Feeding Delay). Infant distress was coded during each feeding delay period and the amount of milk consumed was measured. Results The mean proportion of distress during the Pre-Feeding Delay period decreased from 8 to 16 weeks of age ( F (2,230) = 15.02, p < 0.001), whereas the mean proportion of distress during the Mid-Feeding Delay increased from 2 to 8 weeks of age ( F (2,230) = 27.04, p < 0.001). There was a positive interaction between distress during Mid-Feeding Delay and infant age predicting the amount consumed in the protocol (ß = 0.30, p = 0.022), suggesting that the association between distress during this part of the task and amount consumed strengthens as infants get older. Conclusion The ATDG-FIT may be an effective method to assess emerging eating behavior regulation constructs during early infancy.
... It might be explained that dietary daidzein may decrease food intake during the time when gastric contents remain to some extent. Clinical and basic studies suggest that delayed gastric emptying may accelerate satiety and decrease food intake [63][64][65][66]. We evaluated the contribution of gastric emptying to decreasing effect of dietary daidzein on food intake in daily two meal feeding in rats, applying a simpler system than three meal feeding. ...
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies suggest that regular intake of soy isoflavone exerts a preventive effect on postmenopausal obesity and other forms of dysmetabolism. Estrogens inhibit eating behavior. Soy isoflavones may act as estrogen agonist in estrogen-depleted conditions, whereas they may either act as an estrogen antagonist or be ineffective in estrogen-repleted conditions. We investigated the effects of dietary soy isoflavone on food intake under various estrogen conditions using male, ovariectomized (OVX), and non-OVX female rats, and compared the effects with those of estradiol. We found that soy isoflavones reduced food intake in females specifically, regardless of whether ovariectomy had been performed, whereas subcutaneous implantation of estradiol pellet did not reduce food intake in intact female rats, but did so in OVX female and male rats. Contrary to this hypothesis, the reduction in food intake may not be caused by the estrogenic properties of soy isoflavones. It is of great interest to understand the mechanisms underlying the anorectic effects of soy isoflavones. In this non-systematic review, we summarize our recent studies that have investigated the bioactive substances of anorectic action, pharmacokinetic properties of soy isoflavones, and the modification of central and peripheral signals regulating appetite by soy isoflavones, and selected studies that were identified via database mining.
... Early satiation, during consumption of a meal or supplement, Perception of satiety is linearly associated with postprandial gastric volume (Goetze et al., 2007, Nieuwenhuizen et al., 2010. Studies have found that, when comparing milk-based drinks with identical nutritional contents, the incorporation of air and water reduced subjective appetite and nutritional intake at a meal served 30 minutes later (Rolls et al., 1998, Rolls et al., 2000. ...
Within the increasing older population, there is a burden of undernutrition. The prescription of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) for those who are undernourished, or at risk of undernutrition, can help improve nutritional status, but the patient must consume an adequate quantity of ONS to gain the clinical benefits. This research first reviewed the literature to identify factors that influence adherence to ONS. Good palatability is crucial for adequate intake of ONS, but palatability challenges stem from both the product (undesirable sensory properties) and the consumer (age-related sensory changes). The contribution made by aroma compounds to the palatability of ONS was recognised as a comparatively underresearched area. Therefore, this work aimed to fill the evidence gap by investigating the role of intrinsic flavour quality (with emphasis on aroma) and age-related changes in oronasal physiology and sensory abilities on sensory perception and palatability of ONS. The characterisation of aroma-active compounds in a commonly prescribed ONS was a fundamental stage in the research. Esters (sweet, fruity) and diacetyl (sweet, buttery) were found to make a large contribution to the perceived flavour of the studied ONS. Sulfurous aroma compounds, likely stemming from the heat-treatment of protein ingredients, were also found to contribute to the perceived flavour of ONS. An orthonasal hedonic evaluation established that sulfurous aroma compounds are primarily unpleasant, whereas the fruity ester aroma (isoamyl acetate) and diacetyl are primarily pleasant. However, sulfurous aromas were rated more pleasantly by older adults who also had impairments in their ability to detect aromas at threshold concentrations. When aromas were combined in a mixture within a real-food matrix (a flavoured dairy beverage), sulfurous aroma compounds were shown to negatively impact consumer acceptance (for consumers aged 18 – 79 years). However, these sulfurous flavours were less objectionable for older adults. This is a novel finding because it suggests that olfactory impairments may benefit older consumers who need to consume protein-rich foods containing off-flavours. Furthermore, the addition of diacetyl increased the acceptability of the sulfurous flavours, demonstrating partial masking abilities of this compound. Older adults are also known to experience age-related changes in their oral and nasal physiology, such as reduced salivary flow rates which may influence the way flavours are released in the mouth. Therefore, the next stage of the research investigated differences in the temporal consumption experience (comprising in-mouth aroma release, sensory perception and subjective appetite) of a clinically relevant portion of ONS for groups differing in saliva flow rate, in which repeated measurements were made between sips. This study demonstrated that a lower saliva flow rate is associated with significantly more intense in-mouth aroma release (p=0.015), significantly higher aftertaste intensity (p<0.001), and greater increase in mouth drying over sips (p=0.02), compared to a medium- and high- saliva flow rate. These findings occurred concurrently with relatively lower hunger sensations in the low- and medium-flow rate groups. This research adds to the growing body of evidence on how best to optimise food and beverage palatability for older consumers. Many older patients who are prescribed ONS are likely to experience reduced salivary flow rates and olfactory impairments. The unique sensory experience of these individuals should be considered in both product development and clinical practice to optimise palatability, hence maximising nutritional intake from ONS and other nutritional foods and beverages whilst minimising wastage.
Remembering a recent meal reduces subsequent intake of palatable snacks (i.e. the meal-recall effect), however, little is known about the factors which can potentiate this effect. The present experiment investigated whether a stronger meal-recall effect would be observed if recent consumption would be recalled in greater detail, than if it was recalled briefly. Moreover, it was investigated whether imagining a meal as bigger and more satiating than in reality could potentiate the meal-recall effect, and lead to lower intake. It was also explored whether mental visualisation tasks of a recent meal would affect the remembered portion size. Participants (N = 151) ate lunch at the laboratory, and then returned three hours later to perform the imagination tasks and to participate in a bogus taste test (during which intake was covertly measured). Participants in the two main imagination task groups recalled the lunch meal and then either recalled the consumption episode in great detail or imagined the meal was larger and more filling than in reality. The results showed that imagining a recent meal as larger significantly reduced the quantity of biscuits eaten. However, contrary to the hypotheses, recalling a consumption episode in detail did not decrease snack intake. It was also shown that imagining a recent meal as larger than in reality did not lead participants to overestimate the true size of the meal. In fact, portion size estimations were significantly underestimated in that group. There were no significant estimation differences in any of the other groups. The results of this study suggest that the meal-recall effect can be an effective strategy to reduce food intake and may be amenable to strategic manipulation to enhance efficacy, but seems prone to disruption.
In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, the underconsumption of fiber is concerning due to its various associated health benefits such as weight management. Adding extracted or isolated dietary fibers into various consumer products is a practical strategy for addressing the fiber gap. This comprehensive review identified evidence on the efficacy of different types of extracted and isolated fibers in reducing appetite and energy intake. Published reports of randomized controlled trials assessing appetite or energy intake in healthy adults were systematically searched, and those investigating extracted and isolated fibers following acute or chronic intake were selected. A total of 136 studies, consisting of 107 acute studies and 29 chronic studies, were included in the review. Overall, most fiber types did not show significant effects on appetite ratings and energy intakes. Acute intakes of two viscous fibers, alginate or guar gum, as well as oat fiber, were observed to most frequently result in reductions in appetite ratings. Additionally, chronic, but not acute, intakes of resistant maltodextrin/dextrin were also beneficial for appetite ratings. Viscous fibers were more likely to improve appetite ratings compared to non-viscous fibers, and fermentability did not appear to affect appetite ratings. Unfortunately, the current evidence base is highly varied due to the many differences in methodology and limited research on many of the fibers. While the possible benefits of extracted and isolated fibers on appetite sensations, food intake, and ultimately body weight regulation should not be completely dismissed, our review highlights the complexity of this research area and the gaps that need to be addressed to improve the robustness of the evidence.
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Synopsis Data on the development of a 40-item measure of the symptoms in anorexia nervosa are reported. The scale (EAT) is presented in a 6-point, forced choice, self-report format which is easily administered and scored. The EAT was validated using 2 groups of female anorexia nervosa patients ( N = 32 and 33) and female control subjects ( N = 34 and 59). Total EAT score was significantly correlated with criterion group membership( r = 0·87, P < 0·001), suggesting a high level of concurrent validity. There was very little overlap in the frequency distributions of the 2 groups and only 7% of the normal controls scored as high as the lowest anorexic patient. Female obese and male subjects also scored significantly lower on the EAT than anorexics. Recovered anorexic patients scored in the normal range on the test, suggesting that the EAT is sensitive to clinical remission.
Experiments were undertaken to test the general hypothesis that some foods are more satiating than others, to find a mechanism for their differential satiating efficiencies, and to determine whether certain soups had a high enough satiating efficiency to recommend their addition to a meal as a way of reducing total caloric intake of that meal. In the first experiment it was found that intake of a test meal was lower after a large preload of tomato soup than after a small preload in women, but not in men. However, the total energy intake (soup plus test meal) was no less with meals which included the large soup preload than it was with meals that did not include a preload. Therefore adding a normal portion of tomato soup to a meal would not reduce its total energy intake. We noted the interesting incidental finding that total energy intake (i.e., preload plus test meal) of the meals which contained the larger amount of soup was less than the total energy intake of the meals which contained a combination of crackers , jelly, and juice. In the second experiment we confirmed this finding by showing that when equal weights of tomato soup preloads and a preload of crackers , cheese, and apple juice, which contains more energy, were given, total energy intake was less in meals which included soup. Therefore, substituting tomato soup for a more calorically dense first course could reduce total energy intake of that meal. In the third experiment, the hypothesis suggested by the second was confirmed. Two soups were more satiating than crackers , cheese, and juice. When two calorie levels were used for each preload, it was shown that calorie for calorie, these soups decreased intake of the test meal more than crackers , cheese, and juice. In the fourth experiment we showed that the mechanism for this differential satiating efficiency is not readily attributable to either bulk related factors or fat content. We suggest that the differential satiating efficiencies are related to differences in nutrient dispersion, orosensory cues, or temperature. Finally, reductions in intake were accompanied by reductions in the initial rate of eating and not by increases in the rate of deceleration. This reduction was small but consistent and suggests that foods which are more satiating reduce intake by decreasing desire to eat (i.e., hunger), not by accelerating the onset of meal termination (i.e., satiety). In fact the duration of meals was unaffected by the preloads.
A high-carbohydrate (CHO) yogurt (81% CHO) and a high-fat yogurt (65% fat), containing similar levels of protein, were given in equal volumes as preloads to 14 normal-weight, nondieting males and 14 normal-weight, nondieting females. The yogurts were formulated to have similar energy densities and sensory properties, so that differences in responses to the preloads would depend on postingestive physiological effects. Three intervals (30, 90, and 180 min) between the preloads and a self-selection meal consisting of a variety of foods were utilized. The self-selection meal was served at the subject's normal lunchtime under all conditions. In the 30-min-delay condition, subjects accurately compensated for the calories in the preloads compared with a no-preload condition, but as the interval increased, compensation was less precise. No significant differences in subsequent food intake were found between the high-CHO and high-fat yogurts at any time interval. Also, there were no differences in ratings of hunger and fullness between the yogurts. The macronutrient composition of the preloads did not affect the types of foods, or macronutrients, consumed at lunch.
Two studies were performed in the same subjects to explore the relationship between stomach capacity and food intake. In the first study, a balloon was passed orally into the stomach of four lean and four obese subjects before they ingested a liquid lunch meal. The balloon was filled with 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 ml of water in a random sequence on different days. The balloon was kept inflated during ingestion then deflated and removed. Food intake was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) by a balloon volume of greater than or equal to 400 ml. In the second study, another balloon was inserted into the stomach of these subjects to estimate stomach capacity. The balloon was gradually filled at the rate of 100 ml/min with 30 sec pauses. The subjects rated their discomfort as 1 to 10, from no discomfort to extreme discomfort. A rating of 10 was the main index for stomach capacity. Mean capacity (ml) for the lean subjects was 1100 +/- 185 (SE) and for the obese 1925 +/- 175 (SE), t = 3.24, p less than 0.02. When stomach capacity from the second study was correlated to spontaneous food intake at 0 balloon volume from the first study, r = .44, n.s. However, the relationship between stomach capacity and the balloon volume needed to suppress 50% of spontaneous intake was significant, r = .66, p less than 0.05. This may have implications for treatment of obesity with a gastric balloon.
This report describes the construction of a questionnaire to measure three dimensions of human eating behavior. The first step was a collation of items from two existing questionnaires that measure the related concepts of 'restrained eating' and 'latent obesity', to which were added items newly written to elucidate these concepts. This version was administered to several populations selected to include persons who exhibited the spectrum from extreme dietary restraint to extreme lack of restraint. The resulting responses were factor analyzed and the resulting factor structure was used to revise the questionnaire. This process was then repeated: administration of the revised questionnaire to groups representing extremes of dietary restraint, factor analysis of the results and questionnaire revision. Three stable factors emerged: (1) 'cognitive restraint of eating', (2) 'disinhibition' and (3) 'hunger'. The new 51-item questionnaire measuring these factors is presented.
SINCE the initial publications on the development and validation of the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),1,2 there has been continued interest in it. Diversity in the application of this tool is evidenced by its use in the programs of suicide prevention centers, alcoholism clinics, child guidance and adult psychiatric clinics, health and welfare agencies, and by various research groups, including the Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies in Psychiatry and the Early Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit of the Psychopharmacology Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health. In a series of studies exploring social structure and mental illness, Redlich et al3-6 reported highly significant relationships between social class position and aspects of psychiatric disorders, such as prevalence of psychiatric patients, types of psychiatric disorders, and choice of treatment modalities. If these relationships exist as such, is there a significant correlation between social status and results
The general hypothesis is proposed that foods vary along a small number of dimensions, such as nutrient composition, energy content, or weight, each of which makes a potentially measurable, but presently unknown, contribution to the satiation process. Because of the differential contributions of each of these dimensions (or factors), foods will vary in the effectiveness with which they induce satiety. Predictions of this hypothesis can best be tested by using the preloading strategy, in which preloads, varied along one dimension at a time, are given on different occasions in amounts which vary along the dimension being studied, and the experimental subject is permitted to eat the test meal following the preload until satiated. The contribution of that dimension is then assessed by the equation relating intake of the test meal to the magnitude of preload along the chosen dimension. The negative of the slope of the intake-preload equation is an index we call "satiating efficiency" of the magnitude of the satiating effect per unit of the chosen dimension. The satiating efficiency therefore provides a method of comparing the ability of different foods to induce satiety, along any dimension. This strategy can be used theoretically to measure the contribution of various dimensions of food to satiety. Practically it could be used to improve the satiating efficiency of foods designed for appetite control, by incorporating into the food, components which are high in satiating efficiency per unit of energy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)