Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults with HIV infection: implications for clinical management. International AIDS Society--USA Panel.
To review current knowledge of the biology and clinical implications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance to antiretroviral drugs, describe assays for measuring resistance, and assess their use in clinical practice.
The International AIDS Society-USA assembled a panel of 13 physicians with expertise in basic science, clinical research, and patient care relevant to HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs.
We reviewed available data from published reports and presented at national and international research conferences. Basic science research, clinical trial results, and expert opinions were used to form the basis of this report. Data on methods for and characteristics of specific genotypic and phenotypic assays were obtained from manufacturers and service providers.
The panel met regularly between October 1997 and April 1998. Panel subgroups developed and discussed different sections of the report before discussing them with the entire panel. Conclusions and suggested approaches to the use of resistance testing were determined by group consensus.
Plasma HIV RNA level and CD4+ cell count are the primary values that should be used to guide the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and subsequent changes in therapy. Possible causes of treatment failure other than development of drug resistance that should be considered are adherence, drug potency, and pharmacokinetic issues. Genotypic and phenotypic testing for HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs may prove useful for individual patient management. Assays under development need validation, standardization, and a clearer definition of their clinical roles. Possible current roles of resistance testing for choosing an initial regimen or changing antiretroviral therapy, as well as possible implications of the presence or absence of phenotypic resistance and genotypic changes, are discussed.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Finally, we found that lower baseline CD4 cell count and higher baseline viral load are significantly associated with incidence of drug resistance. Our results are consistent with previous studies reporting that initiating HAART at higher CD4 cell counts may decrease the risk of developing drug resistance ,  and that higher baseline viral load was a major predictor of drug resistance.  HIV viral load and CD4 cell count are the primary clinical indicators that should be used to guide the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and subsequent changes in therapy. "
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ABSTRACT: A critical indicator of the future success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the incidence of HIV drug resistance, which has not been studied in China on the national scale.
HIV drug resistance baseline survey was conducted in the eight provinces with the largest numbers of patients on HAART in 2009, and a prospective cohort study with 12-month follow-up was completed in 2010. Patients completed an interviewer-administrated questionnaire and provided blood for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count), HIV viral load (VL), and HIV drug resistance genotyping. Factors associated with incidence of HIVDR were identified by Cox regression analysis.
The overall prevalence of HIV RNA ≥1000 copies/ml and HIVDR at baseline was 12.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Incidence of HIVDR in the one year follow-up was 3.5 per 100 person years. Independently associated factors were started treatment with a didanosine-based regimen, received care at township hospital or village clinic, low baseline CD4 counts, and high baseline VL.
The incidence of HIVDR in China was higher than that of some developed countries. China urgently needs to provide comprehensive education and training to doctors at village clinics and township hospitals to improve quality community-based care and treatment.
Available from: Barbara Suligoi
- "In particular, the rate of progression to AIDS may differ according to the subtype [Kanki et al., 1999]; some non-B HIV-1 subtypes differ in co-receptor usage and syncytium-inducing capacity [Tscherning et al., 1998], which could potentially influence pathogenicity and disease progression. The subtypes may differ in terms of their resistance to antiretroviral drugs; although all HIV-1 subtypes appear to have a similar susceptibility, some are more prone to develop drug-related mutations [Hirsch et al., 1998]. Finally, potential vaccine candidates based on subtype B proteins may not induce immunity to other subtypes [Esparza and Bhamarapravati, 2000]. "
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ABSTRACT: In Italy, the prevalence of non-B HIV-1 subtypes ranges reportedly from 5.4% to 12.6%, yet there are no data on their circulation in prisons, where the prevalence of HIV infection is high. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the circulation of non-B subtypes and to characterize their determinants in five Italian prisons. To this end an aliquot of samples of blood was taken in the period 2001-2006 from all 262 HIV-positive inmates in whom antiretroviral treatment had failed. Complete HIV-1 PR and RT regions were sequenced for all samples and subjected to phylogenetic analysis; 250 (95.4%) sequences clustered with subtype B. The non-B subtype was found in 4% of Italian prison inmates and 16.7% of non-Italian prison inmates; the overall percentage increased from 1.8% for inmates infected in 1982-1990 to 4.4% in 1991-1999 and 21.9% in 2000-2006. Factors significantly associated with non-B subtypes were an exposure to other than injecting drug use and a first positive HIV test in 2000-2006. Non-B subtypes were distributed within five monophyletic clades. In all cases but one, it was possible to correlate the history of HIV-exposure to the origin of the clade, with high bootstrap values. In conclusion, although the sample may not be representative of the prison inmate population in Italy, the data suggest strongly that the circulation of non-B subtypes has apparently increased. Non-B subtypes were found to have been associated with heterosexual contact and time of the first HIV-positive test. Knowledge of the different subtypes circulating in prisons may be useful for tracking the epidemiology of HIV infection and for choosing antiretroviral therapy.
Available from: idpublications.com
- "Like most RNA viruses, HCV has a high mutation rate and exists as a complex population of genetically distinct, but closely related, variants commonly referred to as a quasispecies (Cabot et al., 2001; Farci et al., 2002; Martell et al., 1992). Pre-existing minor viral species, resistant to the selecting drug, would gain a growth advantage over the existing wild-type viral population and rapidly become the dominant genotype (Harrigan et al., 2001; Hirsch et al., 1998; Lech et al., 1996; Paolucci et al., 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: HCV NS3 protease variants resistant to the protease inhibitor SCH 503034 were selected. Three mutations, T54A, V170A and A156S mutations conferred low to moderate levels of resistance (<20-fold). Longer exposure (>10 passages) or selection with higher levels of compound led to the selection of a more resistant variant, A156T (>100-fold). [Lin, C., Lin, K., Luong, Y.P., Rao, B.G., Wei, Y.Y., Brennan, D.L., Fulghum, J.R., Hsiao, H.M., Ma, S., Maxwell, J.P., Cottrell, K.M., Perni, R.B., Gates, C.A., Kwong, A.D., 2004. In vitro resistance studies of hepatitis C virus serine protease inhibitors, VX-950 and BILN 2061: structural analysis indicates different resistance mechanisms. J. Biol. Chem. 279(17), 17508-17514; Lu, L., Pilot-Matias, T.J., Stewart, K.D., Randolph, J.T., Pithawalla, R., He, W., Huang, P.P., Klein, L.L., Mo, H., Molla, A., 2004. Mutations conferring resistance to a potent hepatitis C virus serine protease inhibitor in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48(6), 2260-2266.] Combination with IFN-alpha drastically reduced the number of emergent colonies. Resistant colonies showed no change in sensitivity to IFN-alpha. Although the A156T mutation conferred the highest level of resistance to SCH 503034, it significantly reduced the colony formation efficiency (CFE) of the mutant replicon RNA, and rendered replicon cells less fit than those bearing wild-type replicons. Replicon cells bearing mutation A156S were less fit than wild-type in co-culture growth competition assays but showed no impact on CFE. The V170A mutation, on the other hand, did not affect replicon fitness in either assay, which was consistent with its emergence as the dominant mutant after 12 months of continuous selection. The reduced fitness of the most resistant variant suggests that it may be rare in naïve patients and that development of high-level resistance may be slow. Combination therapy with IFN-alpha should also greatly reduce the potential emergence of resistance.
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