Urinary Tract Injuries After Hysterectomy

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 08/1998; 92(1):113-8. DOI: 10.1097/00006250-199807000-00022
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the nationwide incidence and characteristics of urinary tract injuries after laparoscopic hysterectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, supracervical abdominal hysterectomy, and vaginal hysterectomy.
We analyzed retrospectively 142 urinary tract injuries after hysterectomy, reported to the National Patient Insurance Association in Finland from 1990 through 1995. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register collects data on procedures from all hospitals, and 62,379 hysterectomies were carried out during the study period.
The total incidence of ureteral injury after all hysterectomies was 1.0 of 1000 procedures: 13.9 of 1000 after laparoscopic, 0.4 of 1000 after total abdominal, 0.3 of 1000 after supracervical abdominal, and 0.2 of 1000 after vaginal hysterectomy. Difficulties during an operation with a ureteral injury were encountered in 51%, 76%, 100%, and 100%; the failure rates of primary repair of a ureteral injury were 5%, 12%, 0%, and 0%; and the convalescence times after a ureteral injury were 86 days, 94 days, 71 days, and 47 days after laparoscopic, abdominal, supracervical abdominal, and vaginal hysterectomies, respectively. The incidence of bladder injury was 1.3 of 1000 procedures. Sixty-five percent of reported bladder injuries were fistulas, giving an incidence of vesicovaginal fistula of 0.8 of 1000 procedures after all hysterectomies: 2.2 of 1000 after laparoscopic, 1.0 of 1000 after total abdominal, 0 of 1000 after supracervical abdominal, and 0.2 of 1000 after vaginal hysterectomy. Difficulties during an operation with a bladder injury were encountered in 53%, 37%, 100%, and 0%; the failure rates of primary repair of a simple bladder injury were 5%, 18%, 0%, and 0%; the failure rates of primary repair of a vesicovaginal fistula were 17%, 20%, 0%, and 0%; and the convalescence times after a bladder injury were 51 days, 118 days, 71 days, and 99 days after laparoscopic, abdominal, supracervical abdominal, and vaginal hysterectomy, respectively.
The risk of ureteral injury is higher after laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with traditional hysterectomies.

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    ABSTRACT: Background A vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is an abnormal fistulous tract between the bladder and vagina, causing continuous loss of urine via the vagina. VVF is a relatively uncommon condition, but there is a drastically higher prevalence in the developing world. Furthermore, iatrogenic postoperative VVF is most common in developed countries, compared to mainly obstetric trauma in developing countries. In this review we focus on the development of current management techniques for VVF. Methods Medline was searched to identify articles related to urogenital fistulae, including VVF. Based on these reports we focus on the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of VVF. This in-depth review includes the optimal surgical timing, different surgical approaches (including minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic and robotic surgery), recommendations for postoperative care, surgical complications, and the need for further research in the use of robotic surgery to treat this condition. Results In all, 60 articles were identified and included in this review; eight were related to the aetiology, 12 to diagnosis, and 40 to the management of VVF. A thorough evaluation of VVF is imperative for planning the repair. Although the surgeonís experience typically influences the surgical approach, special situations will dictate the best approach. Conclusion The treatment of genitourinary fistulae with robotic assistance continues to develop, but further research is necessary to fully understand the use of this technology.
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