Factors that affect social cue recognition in schizophrenia
University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Tinley Park, IL 60477, USA. Psychiatry Research
(Impact Factor: 2.47).
06/1998; 78(3):189-96. DOI: 10.1016/S0165-1781(98)00013-4
Earlier research (Corrigan and Green, Am. J. Psychiatry, 150 (1993) 589-594) showed fairly symptomatic persons with schizophrenia give more false-positive responses when answering questions about abstract cues in a social situation (i.e. affect, rules, and goals inferred about an interpersonal situation) than concrete cues (i.e. actions and dialogue observed in a situation). It is unclear, however, whether differential cue recognition is due to schizophrenia per se, or some aspect of the illness commensurate with significant symptoms and in-patient care. Moreover, the abstract and concrete dimension in the earlier study had not been independently validated. In this study, the 288 items of the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT) were divided into three sets based on abstraction ratings provided by 38 college students. The SCRT was then completed by 48 participants with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants with schizophrenia were divided into low and high symptom groups using scores from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results showed both low symptom and high symptom groups exhibited a differential deficit in cue recognition. False positives were greater for items rated as more abstract. Implications for understanding the social cognitive deficits of persons with schizophrenia are discussed.
Available from: Graham Pluck
- "All participants were also interviewed by a neuropsychologist. Premorbid IQ was estimated with the National Adult Reading Test (Corrigan and Nelson, 1998), and current IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999). Sustained attention was measured using a computerized continuous performance test (CPT) (Birkett et al., 2007), and frontal executive function with the Trail Making Test (Reitan, 1958). "
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ABSTRACT: Self-harm, such as self-cutting, self-poisoning or jumping from height, regardless of intentions, is common among people with schizophrenia. We wished to investigate brain activations relating to self-harm, in order to test whether these activations could differentiate between schizophrenia patients with self-harm and those without. We used event-related functional MRI with a go/no-go response inhibition paradigm. Fourteen schizophrenia patients with a history of self-harm were compared with 14 schizophrenia patients without a history of self-harm and 17 healthy control participants. In addition, we used standard clinical measures and neuropsychological tests to assess risk factors associated with self-harm. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left posterior cingulate cortex differentiated all three groups; brain activation in these regions being greatest in the control group, and the self-harm patient group being greater than in the non-self-harm patient group. In the self-harm patient group, right DLPFC activity was positively correlated with severity of suicidal thinking. In addition, both patient groups showed less activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex, left ventral anterior cingulate cortex and right thalamus. This is the first study to report right DLPFC activation in association with self-harm and suicidal thinking in patients with schizophrenia. This area could be a target for future neuromodulation studies to treat suicidal thinking and self-harm behaviors in patients with schizophrenia.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Available from: Martin Paulus
- "Failure of inhibitory control, e.g., using the prepulse inhibition paradigm, has been proposed as one of the key endophenotypes of schizophrenia (SZ) (Cadenhead et al., 2002). Individuals with SZ have difficulty overcoming prepotent response tendencies (Ford et al., 2004), and some inhibitory paradigms using explicit predictive cues have demonstrated longer reaction times (RTs) and more errors in SZ subjects than in healthy comparison subjects (HC) (Fallgatter et al., 2003; Fallgatter and Muller, 2001; Fallgatter, 2001; Javitt et al., 2000).Other studies have found that SZ subjects present impaired cue recognition in a social context (Corrigan and Nelson, 1998; Ito et al., 1998; Hall et al., 2004), particularly in those with positive symptoms (Hall et al., 2004; Crider, 1997). "
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ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the neural correlates of implicit cueing during an inhibitory task in schizophrenia when performance accuracy was matched with healthy comparison subjects.
We compared 17 individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SZ; medicated, 13.9 average years of illness) and 17 healthy comparison subjects (HC) matched for hit and false alarm rates, age, and education on a visual Go/Nogo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, one of the go stimuli also served implicitly as a cue predictive of a subsequent inhibitory (Nogo) trial.
Findings suggest that even when matched for overall performance accuracy, individuals with SZ exhibit difficulties with inhibition and cue processing that may relate to core deficits in cognitive control and stimulus processing. In particular, these findings point towards an important role of the parietal cortex for cued inhibitory processes in healthy populations.
Available from: Tom F D Farrow
- "One factor that leads to this deficit is miscommunication with others. For example, patients may misidentify social information (rules, affect and goals in social situations) especially when asked abstract, rather than concrete, questions about social situations (Corrigan & Green, 1993; Corrigan & Nelson, 1998). Some current models of schizophrenia postulate that it can be best understood as a disorder of the representation of mental states (i.e. the inability to represent what others are thinking) (Frith, 1992 ; Broks, 1997). "
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ABSTRACT: A better understanding of the neural basis of social cognition including mindreading (or theory of mind) and empathy might help to explain some deficits in social functioning in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to review neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies on social cognition, as they may shed light on the neural mechanisms of social cognition and its dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.
A selective literature review was undertaken.
Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies suggest convergence upon specific networks for mindreading and empathy (the temporal cortex, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex). The frontal lobe is likely to play a central role in enabling social cognition, but mindreading and empathic abilities may require relatively different weighting of subcomponents within the same frontal-temporal social cognition network.
Disturbances in social cognition may represent an abnormal interaction between frontal lobe and its functionally connected cortical and subcortical areas. Future studies should seek to explore the heterogeneity of social dysfunction within schizophrenia.
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