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Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome

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Abstract

Overtraining is primarily related to sustained high load training, often coupled with other stressors. Studies in animal models have suggested that unremittingly heavy training (monotonous training) may increase the likelihood of developing overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to extend our preliminary observations by relating the incidence of illnesses and minor injuries to various indices of training. We report observations of the relationship of banal illnesses (a frequently cited marker of overtraining syndrome) to training load and training monotony in experienced athletes (N = 25). Athletes recorded their training using a method that integrates the exercise session RPE and the duration of the training session. Illnesses were noted and correlated with indices of training load (rolling 6 wk average), monotony (daily mean/standard deviation), and strain (load x monotony). It was observed that a high percentage of illnesses could be accounted for when individual athletes exceeded individually identifiable training thresholds, mostly related to the strain of training. These suggest that simple methods of monitoring the characteristics of training may allow the athlete to achieve the goals of training while minimizing undesired training outcomes.

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... Warm up, cool down and intra-session rest were included in the training session duration. The session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) method was used to calculate TL, monotony, and strain for each player [20,22,23]. TL for each session was calculated by multiplying session duration and RPE [20]. ...
... For each week, the mean daily TL divided by the standard deviation (SD) was used to calculate monotony, which reflects TL variability throughout the week [2,22]. Monotony and total weekly TL were multiplied to calculate strain, which reflects general training stress and training variability [5,23]. The mean TL, monotony and strain were calculated for IW and TW. ...
... The differences between IW and TW for all the TL variables (TL, monotony, and strain), RPF, well-being indices and TQR were examined using Student's paired t-tests. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were used to interpret the magnitude of the differences between training weeks [23], which were as follows: trivial (0 < d ≤ 0.20), small (0.20 < d ≤ 0.50), medium (0.50 < d ≤ 0.80), or large (d > 0.80) [25]. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. ...
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Background: Monitoring physical freshness is essential in assessing athletes’ conditions during training periods, training sessions, or competitions. To date, no single physical freshness scale has been successfully validated against training load variables and widely used scales measuring different facets of physical freshness. Objective: In this study, we develop and test the practical utility of a perceived physical freshness (RPF) scale to monitor the condition of the athletes and to prevent excessive fatigue and insufficient recovery during training sessions or competitions. Methods: Sixteen professional male soccer players (mean ± SD age 26 ± 4 years) were enrolled. Training load (TL), monotony, strain, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), well-being indices (sleep, stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness), total quality recovery (TQR) and RPF were determined each day for two weeks of training, including a week intensified training (IW) and a week taper (TW). The validity of the RPF scale was assessed by measuring the level of agreement of a player’s perceived physical freshness relative to their TL variables, recovery state and well-being indices during each training phase (IW and TW) and during the overall training period (TP). Results: RPF increased during the TW compared to IW (ES = 2.31, p < 0.001, large). For the TP, IW and TW, weekly RPF was related to weekly TL (r = −0.81, r = −0.80, r = −0.69, respectively), well-being (r = −0.91, r = −0.82, r = −0.84, respectively) and TQR (r = 0.76, r = 0.91, r = 0.52, respectively), all p < 0.01. For the TP, IW and TW, daily RPF was related to TL (r = −0.75, r = −0.66, r = −0.70, respectively), well-being (r = −0.84, r = −0.81, r = −0.78, respectively) and TQR (r = 0.82, r = 0.81, r = 0.75, respectively), all p < 0.01. Conclusions: RPF was effective for evaluating the professional soccer players’ physical freshness and may be a strategy for coaches to monitor the physical, psycho-physiological, and psychometric state of the players before training session or matches.
... It is known that too low a training load can result in detraining status [21]. On the other hand, too high a training load and poor recovery can result in overtraining syndrome [4,22] and developing overuse injuries [23]. Therefore, the balance between training load and recovery represents a significant challenge for coaches and athletes. ...
... However, there is no knowledge about the influence of these small changes on the accuracy of the tool's use by coaches [52]. In this sense, these different questions do not seem to influence the results [22,53]. Thus, there is no ideal scale but the need for familiarization and good verbal anchoring [54]. ...
... The tendency of the training load to regress to the mean rather than remain polarized (e.g., easy days and hard days) is considered a common training error [17]. It has been suggested that this decrease in the daily variability of the training load increases monotony [19], a known risk factor for overtraining [22]. Additionally, imprecision in the prescription and training load monitoring are essential factors that increase the risk of injuries and illnesses [22,69]. ...
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Background Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and session RPE (sRPE) has been widely used to verify the internal load in athletes. Understanding the agreement between the training load prescribed by coaches and that perceived by athletes is a topic of great interest in sport science. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate differences between the training/competition load perceived by athletes and prescribed/intended/observed by coaches. Methods A literature search (September 2020 and updated in November 2021) was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases. The protocol was registered in the Open Science Framework (osf.io/wna4x). Studies should include athletes and coaches of any sex, age, or level of experience. The studies should present outcomes related to the RPE or sRPE for any scale considering overall training/competition sessions (physical, strength, tactical, technical, games) and/or classified into three effort categories: easy, moderate, and hard. Results Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. No difference was found between coaches and athletes for overall RPE (SMD = 0.19, P = 0.10) and overall sRPE (SMD = 0.05, P = 0.75). There was a difference for easy RPE (SMD = − 0.44, small effect size, P = 0.04) and easy sRPE (SMD = − 0.54, moderate effect size, P = 0.04). No differences were found for moderate RPE (SMD = 0.05, P = 0.74) and hard RPE (SMD = 0.41, P = 0.18). No difference was found for moderate (SMD = -0.15, P = 0.56) and hard (SMD = 0.20, P = 0.43) sRPE. Conclusion There is an agreement between coaches and athletes about overall RPE and sRPE, and RPE and sRPE into two effort categories (moderate and hard). However, there were disagreements in RPE and sRPE for easy effort category. Thus, despite a small disagreement, the use of these tools seems to be adequate for training monitoring.
... For instance, two traditional indexes known as training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) have been used to analyse such week variations. TM is used to analyse the intensity variability within the week, while TS is used to analyse the intensity variability multiplied by the accumulated intensity of the week [8]. The relationship between both indexes is supported by their formulas where TM is calculated by dividing the daily mean load by the standard deviation while TS is calculated through the product of weekly load by TM [8]. ...
... TM is used to analyse the intensity variability within the week, while TS is used to analyse the intensity variability multiplied by the accumulated intensity of the week [8]. The relationship between both indexes is supported by their formulas where TM is calculated by dividing the daily mean load by the standard deviation while TS is calculated through the product of weekly load by TM [8]. Usually, both indexes are based on the training duration multiplied by RPE (s-RPE) [8]. ...
... The relationship between both indexes is supported by their formulas where TM is calculated by dividing the daily mean load by the standard deviation while TS is calculated through the product of weekly load by TM [8]. Usually, both indexes are based on the training duration multiplied by RPE (s-RPE) [8]. ...
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Simple Summary In this study, we analyse the relationship of the in-season variations of external, internal and well-being measures across different periods of a semi-professional soccer season (early-, mid- and end-season) and describe TM and TS for the entire period of the analysis. The main findings of our study revealed that increasing the training intensity affects the well-being of the players and consequently the training intensity management. Coaches and their staff should consider the results of this study, because despite the relationship between external and internal intensity, each has a unique effect on the perception of the player’s training intensity management. Abstract The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to describe and analyse the relationship of the in-season variations of external and internal intensity metrics as well as well-being measures across different periods of a semi-professional soccer season (early-, mid- and end-season); and (b) to describe training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) for 20 weeks in a semi-professional soccer season. Eighteen semi-professional players (age: 29 ± 4.1) from the Asian First League team participated in this study. The players were monitored for 20 consecutive weeks during in-season for external training intensity, internal training intensity and well-being parameters. The in-season was organized into three periods: early-season (weeks 1–7); mid-season (weeks 8–13); and end-season (weeks 14–20). Total distance (TD), high-speed running distance (HSRD), sprint distance, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), session-RPE (s-RPE), TM, TS, heart rate average and maximum, as well as sleep quality, stress and muscle soreness were collected. Results revealed that TD, HSRD and sprint distance (total values) were meaningfully greater during end-season than in the early-season. RPE showed a significantly highest value during the end-season (4.27 AU) than in early- (3.68 AU) and mid-season (3.65 AU), p < 0.01. TS showed significant differences between early-season with mid-season (p = 0.011) and end-season (p < 0.01), and the highest value occurred in week 17 during end-season (6656.51 AU), while the lowest value occurred in week 4 during early-season (797.17 AU). The average TD periods showed a moderate to large correlation with RPE, sleep and s-RPE at early-, mid- and end-season. Increasing the training intensity without considering the well-being of the players affects the performance of the team. Examining processes of the relationship between training intensity and other psychological indicators among players will probably be effective in training planning. Sports coaches and fitness professionals should be wary of changes in TM and TS that affect players performance. Therefore, to better control the training, more consideration should be given by the coaches.
... Examples of training intensity variables are heart rate or the session rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE, as internal dimension) and distances covered at different speed intensities or accelerations and decelerations (as external intensity) [6,7]. Moreover, the session-RPE (s-RPE) is accepted as a valuable global indicator of internal training intensity in team sports [8,9] and it had shown to be reliable in soccer [10]. Monitoring these measures allows coaches to identify the physical and physiological effects of training drills and sessions and may allow them to standardize the training stimulus based on the individual responses to the exercise [11]. ...
... However, additional analyses can be performed to specific data obtained. As an example, the training monotony (TM, mean of the week training load/standard deviation of the mean of the week training load), and training strain (TS, accumulated load of the week x monotony) were developed by Foster [9] to provide a visualization of the variability of the week intensity (TM) and the strain promoted in the players (relationships between variability and the acute intensity imposed in the week). Later, the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) was proposed to provide an idea of between-week variation in training intensity imposed, namely comparing the intensity imposed in a week with the previous four weeks [17]. ...
... The analysis of internal intensity measured by psychophysiological variables such as s-RPE is usually highly preferred because of its potential to integrate different stimulus types, being easye of use and considered as a global measure of intensity in team sports [8,9]. However, Haddad et al. [41] recommended that s-RPE was not susceptible enough to identify indicators of wellness such as subjective fatigue, DOMS, stress, and sleep levels in junior soccer players. ...
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Background: The aims of this study were to describe the variations of training monotony (TM), training strain (TS), and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) through Hooper Index categories (fatigue, stress, DOMS, and sleep quality) and to compare those variations between player status and player positions. Methods: Seventeen male professional soccer players participated in this study. Considering player status, participants were divided in nine starters and eight non-starters. Additionally, participants were divided by playing positions: three wide defenders, four central defenders, three wide midfielders, four central midfielders, and three strikers. They were followed during 40-week in-season period. TM, TS, and ACWR were calculated for each HI category, respectively. Data were grouped in 10 mesocycles for further analysis. Results: Results showed variations across the mesocycles. In general, starters showed higher values for TM, TS, and ACWR calculations than non-starters, although there were some exceptions. Regarding player positions, significant differences were found in stress between wide defenders vs central midfielders for TM (p = 0.033, ES = 5.16), central defenders vs wide defenders for ACWR (p = 0.044, ES = 4.95), and in sleep between wide defenders and strikers for TM (p = 0.015, ES = 5.80). Conclusions: This study revealed that an analysis of players' well-being parameters according to player status and positions can provide clear information to the coaches and their staff to complement the tasks of training monitoring.
... Previously, session-RPE was reported to be an effective, safe, and low-cost tool, sensitive to behaviour changes of ItL in collective sports [10] and for individual modalities such as HIFt [8]. Session-RPE is one of the most applied and popular instruments for ItL monitoring [11]. the training load control method based on session-RPE was proposed with the consideration of data of weekly mean, monotony, and strain [11]. ...
... Session-RPE is one of the most applied and popular instruments for ItL monitoring [11]. the training load control method based on session-RPE was proposed with the consideration of data of weekly mean, monotony, and strain [11]. the method has been popularized and session-RPE is widely used in various sports [11]. ...
... the training load control method based on session-RPE was proposed with the consideration of data of weekly mean, monotony, and strain [11]. the method has been popularized and session-RPE is widely used in various sports [11]. In particular, ItL monitoring is extremely relevant for daily adjustments in training sessions in accordance with the individuality of each athlete [12]. ...
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Purpose: The present study aimed to analyse the behaviour of training loads and evaluate specific aspects of physical fitness during a period of 6 weeks in high-intensity functional training (HIFt) practitioners. Methods: The study included 12 practitioners (4 men and 8 women; age: 31.08 ± 4.80 years) of HIFt. the session rating of perceived exertion was routinely collected after each training session for 6 weeks. the sum and average of the weekly loads of training, strain, monotony, and acute/chronic workload ratio were recorded for analysis. In addition, the athletes underwent sprint, countermovement jump, and handgrip strength tests before and after the 6 weeks of HIFt. Results: A constant dynamic of the weekly internal training loads and the mean internal training loads was observed, with difference in the results from weeks 1 to 3 (F = 3.283; p = 0.02). In addition, the practitioners obtained superior results in countermovement jump (t = 3.573; p = 0.005) and lower limb muscle power (t = 3.536; p = 0.005) after the 6 weeks. Conclusions: The internal training load varied significantly only from weeks 1 to 3 over the 6 weeks. In addition, we observed that the 6-week HIFt was able to generate functional adaptations only in countermovement jump and lower limb muscle power.
... ACWR values exceeding 1.5 have been shown to lead to a 2-4 times greater injury risk over the following week, with an optimal range for ACWR suggested as between 0.85 and 1.35. Session load [18] is the product of RPE of training sessions and the duration of those sessions. "Overtraining syndrome" occurs when session loads exceed a player's ability to fully recover [18], and the related concept of monotony (i.e. the ratio of the mean and standard deviation of training loadsthe sum of all session loads-recorded each week) has been noted as a strong risk factor for injury in studies of skating, basketball, and football [18][19][20]. ...
... Session load [18] is the product of RPE of training sessions and the duration of those sessions. "Overtraining syndrome" occurs when session loads exceed a player's ability to fully recover [18], and the related concept of monotony (i.e. the ratio of the mean and standard deviation of training loadsthe sum of all session loads-recorded each week) has been noted as a strong risk factor for injury in studies of skating, basketball, and football [18][19][20]. Finally, the ratio of internal (e.g. ...
... Session load [18] is the product of RPE of training sessions and the duration of those sessions. "Overtraining syndrome" occurs when session loads exceed a player's ability to fully recover [18], and the related concept of monotony (i.e. the ratio of the mean and standard deviation of training loadsthe sum of all session loads-recorded each week) has been noted as a strong risk factor for injury in studies of skating, basketball, and football [18][19][20]. Finally, the ratio of internal (e.g. ...
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Attempts to better understand the relationship between training and competition load and injury in football are essential for helping to understand adaptation to training programmes, assessing fatigue and recovery, and minimising the risk of injury and illness. To this end, technological advancements have enabled the collection of multiple points of data for use in analysis and injury prediction. The full breadth of available data has, however, only recently begun to be explored using suitable statistical methods. Advances in automatic and interactive data analysis with the help of machine learning are now being used to better establish the intricacies of the player load and injury relationship. In this article, we examine this recent research, describing the analyses and algorithms used, reporting the key findings, and comparing model fit. To date, the vast array of variables used in analysis as proxy indicators of player load, alongside differences in approach to key aspects of data treatment—such as response to data imbalance, model fitting, and a lack of multi-season data—limit a systematic evaluation of findings and the drawing of a unified conclusion. If, however, the limitations of current studies can be addressed, machine learning has much to offer the field and could in future provide solutions to the training load and injury paradox through enhanced and systematic analysis of athlete data.
... Thirty minutes after the end of the training session, each player reported his RPE for each session confidentially without knowledge of other players' ratings. As a measure of internal load, the session-RPE was derived by multiplying RPE and session duration (min) [33]. Players were previously familiarized with the scale during two years at the club. ...
... These 15 weeks of the full competitive season were divided into two periods: early-season = W1 to W8 and end-season = W9 to W15 ( Figure 2). derived by multiplying RPE and session duration (min) [33]. Players were previously familiarized with the scale during two years at the club. ...
... The COD early-season performance was significantly correlated with TM early-season. The TM was developed by Foster (1998) [33] in order to measure the fluctuation in the daily training load in a week. The TM in this study was found to be higher during the early-season (1.94) compared to the end-season (0.94). ...
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Background: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between training workload (WL) parameters with variations in the change of direction (COD) in under-16 soccer players. Methods: Twenty-seven under-16 elite soccer players were daily monitored for their WL across 15 weeks during the competitive soccer season. Additionally, players were assessed two times for anthropometric measures (weight, height, sitting height and leg length), COD performance (modified 505 test) and maturity offset measured using the peak height velocity (PHV). Results: A correlational analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the variation in COD performance and accumulated WL parameters. Moreover, a regression analysis was executed to explain the variations in the percentage of COD performance considering the accumulated WL parameters and PHV of the season (r = 0.93; p ≤ 0.01) and training monotony during the early-season (r = 0.53; p ≤ 0.05). There were associations between the acute workload during the start of the season and the COD during the end of the season (r = 0.47; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that 55% of the variation in COD performance between the early and end of season could be explained by the acute or chronic WL, training monotony or strain and the PHV. Conclusions: This information might be useful for practitioners and coaches aiming to improve the COD performance in youth soccer players during an entire competitive season.
... Week 3 will consist of HIFT rehearsal bouts at ¾ of phase 1 volume (see Fig. 1). Load or resistance will be added to the exercise on an individual basis, aiming for a target perceived effort of ≥ 7 on the Borg Session RPE CR10 Scale (sRPE) [76][77][78][79]. Examples of load or resistance are bodyweight, suspension bands, medicine balls, kettlebells, dumbbells, elastic bands, and stability balls. ...
... Progression of volume will follow the characteristics in Table 1. Progression of load will be individualized for each exercise using the session RPE (sRPE) method, with a target sRPE ≥ 7 (Borg CR10) after each set within the workout [76][77][78][79]. The aerobic intensity target (HR ± 5 beats of VT2) will remain throughout. ...
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Background Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at a greater risk for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) than those without MetS, due to underlying endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Exercise is an effective primary and secondary prevention strategy for MetS; however, less than 25% of adults meet the minimum stated public recommendations. Barriers often identified are lack of enjoyment and lack of time. High-intensity functional training (HIFT), a time-efficient modality of exercise, has shown some potential to elicit positive affectivity and elicit increased fitness and improved glucose metabolism. However, the effects of HIFT on dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction have not been explored nor have the effects been explored in a population with MetS. Additionally, no studies have investigated the minimal dose of HIFT per week to see clinically meaningful changes in cardiometabolic health. The purpose of this study is to (1) determine the dose-response effect of HIFT on blood lipids, insulin resistance, and endothelial function and (2) determine the dose-response effect of HIFT on body composition, fitness, and perceived enjoyment and intention to continue the exercise. Methods/design In this randomized, dose-response trial, participants will undergo a 12-week HIFT intervention of either 1 day/week, 2 days/week, or 3 days/week of supervised, progressive exercise. Outcomes assessed at baseline and post-intervention will be multiple cardiometabolic markers, and fitness. Additionally, the participant’s affective response will be measured after the intervention. Discussion The findings of this research will provide evidence on the minimal dose of HIFT per week to see clinically meaningful improvements in the risk factors of MetS, as well as whether this modality is likely to mitigate the barriers to exercise. If an effective dose of HIFT per week is determined and if this modality is perceived positively, it may provide exercise specialists and health care providers a tool to prevent and treat MetS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05001126 . August 11, 2021.
... (Montalvo et al., 2017;Moran et al., 2017) Dessa maneira, assim como em outros esportes e programas de exercícios, o CrossFit® se beneficia da incorporação de estratégias de monitoramento das cargas de treinamento com o intuito de verificar se o atleta está se adaptando ao treinamento, evitar lesões e overtraining, observar respostas individuais e prescrever as intensidades do treinamento físico. (Bompa, e Haff, 2012;Fox et al., 2018;Haddad et al., 2017) Nesse contexto, a carga interna de treinamento quantificada pela percepção subjetiva de esforço da sessão (PSEsessão) (Foster, 1998) tem sido apontada como um método válido e simples para monitorar atletas em diversos esportes (Haddad et al., 2017;Halson, 2014). Além disso, questionários, tal como o Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes (DALDA) (Rushall, 1990), também têm sido muito utilizados como alternativa para monitorar as respostas de fontes e sintomas de estresse impostas pelas cargas de treinamento. ...
... (Crawford et al., 2018;Tibana et al., 2018;Tibana et al., 2019) Por exemplo, Crawford et al. (2018) Dentro desse contexto, é importante destacar que uma menor monotonia indica uma maior variabilidade das cargas de treinamento durante as semanas (Foster, 2001;Nakamura et al., 2010). Além disso, vale destacar que no presente estudo os valores de monotonia foram altos, visto que Foster et al. (2005) apontam Especificamente sobre o esforço semanal de treino, obtido a partir da multiplicação da monotonia pelo somatório das cargas da semana, este índice também está associado ao nível de adaptação ao treinamento, no qual períodos com carga elevada associado a uma alta monotonia podem aumentar a incidência de doenças infecciosas e lesões (Foster, 1998). Em nosso estudo, os valores de esforço foram aumentando no decorrer das quatro semanas monitoradas. ...
Article
O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas da carga de treinamento obtidas a partir da percepção subjetiva de esforço da sessão (PSEsessão) e dos sinais e sintomas de estresse a partir Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes (DALDA) durante quatro semanas de treinamento de CrossFit®. Participaram da pesquisa 10 atletas de CrossFit® que foram monitorados durante quatro semanas de treinamento. Durante as semanas de monitoramento foram avaliadas as cargas internas de treinamento de cada atleta, no qual ao final de todas as sessões a PSEsessão foi obtida a partir da resposta da escala CR-10 de cada atleta. Além disso, ao final de cada semana de treinamento os participantes responderam ao questionário DALDA. Os resultados demonstraram que as respostas da carga de treinamento e do DALDA não apresentaram diferenças significantes (p>0,05) entre as quatro semanas de treinamento monitoradas. Portanto, conclui-se que as cargas de treinamento as respostas do DALDA não foram diferentes nas quatro semanas de treinamento de CrossFit®, indicando uma possível relação entre as variáveis, visto que não foram observadas grandes alterações nas respostas das cargas e das fontes e sintomas de estresse. Em relação a aplicação prática, o estudo reforça a importância do monitoramento do treinamento utilizando-se de métodos válidos e que auxiliam treinadores, atletas e praticantes do CrossFit® a prescrever de maneira adequada as cargas de treinamento.
... Após a sessão de karatê shotokan o técnico merece apresentar para os lutadores a escala de percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE) adaptada de Foster para saber a intensidade do treino e a escala de dor muscular para identificar a fadiga da sessão, ambas as escalas são expostas na figura 3. Os valores da escala de PSE adaptada de Foster são inseridos em três cálculos para saber a carga interna (CI) em unidades arbitrárias (UA), a monotonia das cargas em UA e o estresse das cargas em UA (Foster, 1998). A monotonia das cargas é importante calcular porque estabelecem que cargas acima de 2 UA significam que ocorreram poucas oscilações das cargas, podendo ocasionar adaptações psicofisiológicas negativas (risco de lesão, piora da performance, estagnação da performance, risco de sobretreino etc). ...
... O estresse das cargas também são importantes de serem calculados porque essa conta determina o quanto de fadiga a carga de treino ou da competição causou no esportista. Esses cálculos propostos por Foster (1998) Classificação do nível de lesão calculado pela razão da CT entre agudo:crônico. ...
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Combat sports began in ancient Greece during the Olympic Games, and these fights became widespread with their introduction to the Olympic Games of the modern era. The sporting aspect also reached shotokan style karate, the first championship of this fight occurred in 1936 in Japan. The objective of the review was to elaborate a theoretical content of periodization for the shotokan karate. Shotokan karate has three pillars for excellent development of the karateka, which are kihon, kata, and kumite. All shotokan karate training is centered on these three contents. The characteristic of the training of shotokan karate is a load concentrated on technique and tactics. The technical and tactical concentrated load in this periodization occurs in kihon, kata and kumite. This conception of periodization has a block of technical and tactical concentrated load that usually occurs in most training sessions. In this periodization there are microcycles, mesocycles, and periods, which can be prescribed according to the trainer's needs. In conclusion, the technical and tactical concentrated load periodization makes the structuring of the shotokan karate training with scientific standards, but this content is still just a theory that needs field studies to verify the effectiveness of this conception of periodization.
... According to the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study, an internal measure was chosen to quantify the training workload. In this sense, the internal load was evaluated using the session-RPE method, (McCall et al., 2016) which has been validated in football, (Impellizzeri et al., 2004) multiplying the intensity determined by the Borg CR-10 scale (modified by Foster;Foster, 1998) by the duration of the session for each player and for each training session or match. They were asked for their RPE individually using a custom-designed Quantum Sports Analytics (QSA-RPE) application on a tablet (iPad, Apple Inc, California, USA). ...
... According to the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study, an internal measure was chosen to quantify the training workload. In this sense, the internal load was evaluated using the session-RPE method, (McCall et al., 2016) which has been validated in football, (Impellizzeri et al., 2004) multiplying the intensity determined by the Borg CR-10 scale (modified by Foster;Foster, 1998) by the duration of the session for each player and for each training session or match. They were asked for their RPE individually using a custom-designed Quantum Sports Analytics (QSA-RPE) application on a tablet (iPad, Apple Inc, California, USA). ...
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Purpose: It has been hypothesized that sports injury risk is explained by muscle metabolism. The objective was to evaluate the muscle oxygen saturation slopes (ΔSmO2 slopes) and muscle oxygenation asymmetry (MO2Asy) at rest and to study their associations with injuries during the pre-season. Methods: A total of 16 male and 10 female footballers participated in this study. Injuries were diagnosed and classified by level of severity during the pre-season. The workload was also evaluated using the rate of perceived exertion × training time, from which the accumulated loads. The SmO2 was measured at rest in the gastrocnemius muscle using the arterial occlusion method in the dominant and non-dominant legs. The repeated measures ANOVA, relative risk, and binary logistic regression were applied to assess the probability of injury with SmO2 and workload. Results: Higher MO2Asy and ΔSmO2 Slope 2 were found among footballer who suffered high-severity injuries and those who presented no injuries. In addition, an MO2Asy greater than 15% and an increase in accumulated load were variables that explained a greater probability of injury. Conclusion: This study presents the new concept of muscle oxygenation asymmetry in sports science and its possible application in injury prevention through the measurement of SmO2 at rest.
... Ratings of perceived exertion scores were collected by means of the Borg 15-grade scale (Borg, 1970), which is considered a valid method to evaluate players' training load in team sport-based conditioning drills (Coutts et al., 2009). The score given for this psychophysiological scale represents the exertion which the athlete experiences during the exercise (Foster, 1998). ...
Article
The effect of a 40-min nap opportunity on physiological responses and specific abilities was investigated. Twelve high-level professional basketball players (26.33±5.2 years; 193.17±7.1 m; 87.48±11.2 kg) undertook randomly 40-min nap opportunity (NAP) and control condition (CON). Wellness (Hooper Index) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were measured before and after both conditions. Defensive (DA) and offensive (OA) agility and upper body power (UBP) were assessed after both conditions. Shooting skill (SST) performance was evaluated prior and after a fatiguing task (FT). Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during SST-test, FT and SST-retest. ESS, Hooper's stress and fatigue score were significantly lower after nap compared to those before nap (0.009 ≤ p ≤ 0.03). Better performance was obtained in NAP compared to CON condition for DA, OA and UBP (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.02). SST performance was significantly higher in NAP compared to CON in the retest session (p = 0.003, Δ = 20.2%). The improved performance was associated with significant lower HRpeak (p = 0.01, Δ = 5.25%) and RPE (p = 0.003, Δ = 15.12%). In conclusion, NAP reduced sleepiness and stress and fatigue and enhances physical outcomes of specific skills in elite basketball players.
... 15 During the weeks with 2 matches per week, the training sessions were planned every morning at 10:30 AM and lasted between 30 and 60 minutes with a level of intensity of 1 (very easy) to 2 (easy) on the session rating of perceived exertion Borg CR-10 scale. 16 The recovery monitoring procedure started before the training session at 10 AM the day (M +1 day ) and 2 days (M +2 days ) after the match. When the period between the 2 matches was 4 days (eg, Saturday to Wednesday), an additional recovery monitoring procedure was also implemented 3 days (M +3 days ) after the match. ...
Purpose: To analyze the relationships between the recovery kinetics experienced by professional football players and noncontact injury. Methods: A cohort of 46 professional football players (age 24.2 [4.7] y) from the same team (French Ligue 1) was monitored each day between matches when the team played twice a week. The recovery monitoring procedure was implemented after 38 matches and included some questionnaires: duration of sleep, Hooper scale (quality of sleep, level of stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness), perceived recovery status scale, creatine kinase concentrations, a countermovement jump, and an isometric force test. Noncontact injuries were collected during these periods. Results: Noncontact injuries were associated with perceived fatigue and muscle soreness 2 days (relative risk [RR] = 1.89 and 1.48, respectively) and 3 days following the matches (RR = 2.08 and 2.08, respectively). An increase of sleep quantity during the 2 nights following a match was significantly associated with a lower RR (RR = 0.65), as well as a lower decrement score on the isometric force test on each of the 3 days after the matches (RR = 0.97, RR = 0.99, and RR = 0.97, respectively). No other association was reported for the variables sleep quality, stress, perceived recovery, creatine kinase concentrations, countermovement jump, and noncontact injuries. Conclusion: During a congested schedule, implementing a recovery monitoring protocol including questionnaires about fatigue, muscle soreness, quantity of sleep, and a physical test of isometric force could help practitioners prevent injuries.
... Para Nakayama (2012b) a capacidade motora condicionante mais importante para o karateca é a velocidade. Verkhoshanski (1995) Os valores da escala de PSE adaptada de Foster são inseridos em três cálculos para saber a carga interna (CI) em unidades arbitrárias (UA), a monotonia das cargas em UA e o estresse das cargas em UA (Foster, 1998 ...
Article
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Other designs of the paper of the periodization.
... The internal intensity monitoring in soccer has been used more in recent years in men's football, however, in women's soccer, the existing literature is still scarce. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to describe the weekly variations of training monotony (Foster, 1998), training strain and acute:chronic workload ratio (Murray et al., 2017) through session Rated Perceived Exertion (s-RPE); (b) to describe weekly variations of Hooper Index [stress, fatigue, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and sleep] (Hooper & Mackinnon, 1995); and (c) to compare those variations between playing positions and player status. Nineteen players (24.1±2.7 years) from a Portuguese BPI League professional team participated in this study. ...
Presentation
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Os movimentos migratórios e a globalização potenciaram os contactos entre pessoas com diferentes línguas e culturas, levando a desafios na convivência pela complexidade de diferentes realidades em contacto (Oliveira, 2020), nomeadamente ao nível das imagens que os sujeitos têm das línguas e do Outro (Faneca et al., 2018). Enquanto conceito da Didática de Línguas, as imagens entendem-se como formas de compreender o mundo que são influenciadas pelos percursos individuais e sociais dos sujeitos e que podem influir no processo de aprendizagem de línguas, bem como nos contactos que se estabelecem (ou evitam) com as línguas e os indivíduos de diferentes culturas (Araújo e Sá et al., 2019; Castellotti et al., 2001; Melo-Pfeifer & Pinto, 2009). A presente revisão de literatura de tipo exploratório surge, assim, no âmbito de um projeto de doutoramento na área das imagens, tendo sido definidos os seguintes objetivos: i) identificar as imagens das línguas e do Outro dos diferentes atores educativos e ii) analisar o impacte das mesmas nas interações e contactos linguísticos e interculturais desses mesmos indivíduos. Paratal, foram consultadas três bases de dados (Scopus, ERIC e SciELO) e selecionado um corpus de 12 artigos dos últimos 10 anos de diferentes países, que foram analisados de acordo com as seguintes categorias de análise emergentes: imagens dos alunos, imagens dos professores, imagens dos futuros professores e imagens da restante comunidade. Os principais resultados sugerem que os alunos e os futuros professores associam a língua a um instrumento e a aprendizagem das mesmas a poder económico e estatuto social. No que concerne às imagens dos professores, estas estão relacionadas com dificuldades na interação com alunos de diferentes culturas. Na restante comunidade, existe uma imagem do Outro enquanto sujeito distante, numa dicotomia nós/eles provocada por i) falta de contactos pessoais diretos com outras culturas, ii) contactos prévios não satisfatórios e/ou iii) influência dos media. Considerando estes resultados, surge a necessidade de investir na cocriação para o estabelecimento de pontes entre os diferentes espaços (escola, academia, media) e atores educativos (professores, alunos, futuros professores) com vista a promover uma sensibilização à diversidade linguística e cultural a partir de e para a sociedade.
... This training basis and the avoidance of monotony during the training process may be useful in order to prevent nonfunctional overreaching and to maintain a sufficient recovery period allowing for adaptive responses such as the gene expression for mitochondrial proliferation. 12,44 This specific training pattern is also followed by other highly trained and elite long-and middle-distance runners. 27,31,32,45 Training Volume ...
Article
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Purpose: This review aimed to determine (1) performance and training characteristics such as training intensity distribution (TID), volume, periodization, and methods in highly trained/elite distance runners and (2) differences in training volume and TID between event distances in highly trained/elite distance runners. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria. Highly trained/elite distance runners typically follow a pyramidal TID approach, characterized by a decreasing training volume from zone 1 (at or below speed at first ventilatory/lactate threshold [LT]) to zone 2 (between speeds associated with either both ventilatory thresholds or 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 LTs [vLT1 and vLT2, respectively]) and zone 3 (speed above vVT2/vLT2). Continuous-tempo runs or interval training sessions at vLT2 in zone 2 (ie, medium and long aerobic intervals) and those in zone 3 (ie, anaerobic or short-interval training) were both used at least once per week each in elite runners, and they were used to increase the number of either vLT2 or z3 sessions to adopt either a pyramidal or a polarized approach, respectively. More pyramidal- and polarized-oriented approaches were used by marathoners and 1500-m runners, respectively. Conclusions: Highly trained and elite middle- and long-distance runners are encouraged to adopt a traditional periodization pattern with a hard day-easy day basis, consisting in a shift from a pyramidal TID used during the preparatory and precompetitive periods toward a polarized TID during the competitive period.
... The Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (session-RPE) was used to quantify the athletes perceived training intensity, according to Foster (Foster, 1998). The athletes were asked "how was your training?" ...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of training load on stress tolerance (ST) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in male and female high-intensity functional fitness (HIFF) athletes during two different 10 and consecutive weekly training volume loads [higher (week 1) and lower volume (week 2)]. Methods: 14 athletes [7 males: 29.3 (±5.8) years; 86.3 (±8.2) kg and 176.8 (±3.8) cm and 7 females: 32.7 (±4.4) years; 60.0 (±6.7) kg and 162.5 (±5.9) cm] participated. The ST, assessed by Daily Analysis of Life Demand in Athletes questionnaire (DALDA) and Saliva sampling were performed in four time-points (pre (T1) and post (T2) week 1; pre (T3) and post (T4) week 2). Results: Female athletes showed a decrease in ST (symptoms of stress) from 15 T1 to T3 [F(3,36) = 7.184, p˂ 0.001, ηp2 = 0.374], without difference in male athletes (p > .05). There is a significant difference of SIgA concentration [F(3.36) = 3.551; p = .024; ηp2 = 0.228], with a significant decrease in female athletes group in T2 compared to T1 (p = .013) and T4 (p = .023). In addition, the different training volume loads did not impact mucosal immunity in male athletes (p > .05). Conclusion: The current findings suggest that higher HIFF volume results in decreased ST and SIgA concentration in female 20 athletes and a subsequent decrease in training volume loads contributed to restoring these variables.
... One feature of KAMA that is of particular interest is it accounts for the volatility, or the standard deviation, of TL values in the smoothing period. This is important considering that an undulation in TL is conceptually desirable in performance periodization [54] and the link between strain (which is a product of TL standard deviation) and injury/illness outcomes [55,56]. Regarding the measures of TL, both TSB and differential load appear adequate measures of change in TL but, due to their nature, may not be easily interpreted by, or intuitive for, coaches and athletes (e.g., a TSB score of + 50 may indicate quite different TL situations for different athletes in the same training squad). ...
Article
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This article addresses several key issues that have been raised related to subjective training load (TL) monitoring. These key issues include how TL is calculated if subjective TL can be used to model sports performance and where subjective TL monitoring fits into an overall decision-making framework for practitioners. Regarding how TL is calculated, there is conjecture over the most appropriate (1) acute and chronic period lengths, (2) smoothing methods for TL data and (3) change in TL measures (e.g., training stress balance (TSB), differential load, acute-to-chronic workload ratio). Variable selection procedures with measures of model-fit, like the Akaike Information Criterion, are suggested as a potential answer to these calculation issues with examples provided using datasets from two different groups of elite athletes prior to and during competition at the 2016 Olympic Games. Regarding using subjective TL to model sports performance, further examples using linear mixed models and the previously mentioned datasets are provided to illustrate possible practical interpretations of model results for coaches (e.g., ensuring TSB increases during a taper for improved performance). An overall decision-making framework for determining training interventions is also provided with context given to where subjective TL measures may fit within this framework and the determination if subjective measures are needed with TL monitoring for different sporting situations. Lastly, relevant practical recommendations (e.g., using validated scales and training coaches and athletes in their use) are provided to ensure subjective TL monitoring is used as effectively as possible along with recommendations for future research.
... Before the beginning (Pre), immediately following the running cessation (post-RHIR) and intervention or control conditions (Post), measures referring to ratings of perceived exertion were collected, using the 0-10 Borg scale (Foster, 1998); subjective perception of pain, using a 10-point Likert scale (0 = no soreness and 10 = very, very sore) (Pointon et al., 2011) and perception of recovery, based on another 10-point Likert scale (0 = very poorly recovered/extremely tired and 10 = very well recovered/highly energetic) (Paul et al., 2019). The skin surface temperature, at the . ...
Preprint
Repeated high-intensity running (RHIR) exercise is known to affect central and peripheral functioning. Declines in RHIR performance are exacerbated by environmental heat stress. Accordingly, the use of post-exercise cooling strategies (COOL) is recommended as it may assist recovery. The present study aimed to investigate, in a hot environment (> 30ºC), the effects of local COOL following RHIR on indices of soccer kicking movement and performance in youth soccer. Fifteen academy under-17 players (16.27 ± 0.86 years-old; all post-PHV), acting as their own controls, participated. In #Experiment 1, players completed an all-out RHIR protocol (10 × 30 m bouts interspersed with 30 s intervals). In #Experiment 2, the same players performed the same running protocol under two conditions, 1) 5 minutes of COOL where ice packs were applied to the quadriceps and hamstrings regions and, 2) a control condition involving only passive resting. In both experiments, perceptual measures [ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), pain and recovery], thigh temperature and kick-derived video kinematics (hip, knee, ankle and foot) and performance (ball speed and placement) were collected at baseline and post exercise and intervention. In the first experiment, RHIR led to moderate-to-large increases ( p < 0.03) in RPE ( d = 4.08), ankle eversion/inversion angle ( d = 0.78) and mean radial error ( d = 1.50) and small-to-large decreases ( p < 0.04) in recovery ( d = -1.83) and average/peak ball speeds ( d = -0.42–-0.36). In the second experiment RPE ( p < 0.01; Kendall’s W = 0.30) and mean radial error ( p = 0.057; η ² = 0.234) increased only post-control. Significant small declines in ball speed were also observed only post-control ( p < 0.05; d = 0.35). Post-intervention CM foot velocity was moderately faster in COOL as compared to control ( p = 0.04; d = 0.60). RHIR acutely impaired kicking movement, ball speed and placement in youth soccer players. However, a short period of local cryotherapy may be beneficial in counteracting declines in indices of kicking performance in hot environment. Trial registration number #RBR-8prx2m - ReBEC Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry
... There was a lower risk of prolonged ARill (symptom days) for elite athletes. [27][28][29] One study hypothesised that the individual training load threshold, above which the risk of illness increases, 30 is lower in national level athletes than in international athletes. Other studies concluded that the differences may relate to underlying genetic predispositions for better resistance to infections 31 32 or lower proinflammatory responses to infection that present as a reduced incidence of ARill. ...
Article
Objective To review risk factors associated with acute respiratory illness (ARill) in athletes, including non-infectious ARill and suspected or confirmed acute respiratory infections (ARinf). Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic databases: PubMed-Medline, EbscoHost and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria Original research articles published between January 1990 and July 2020 in English were searched for prospective and retrospective full text studies that reported quantitative data on risk factors associated with ARill/ARinf in athletes, at any level of performance (elite/non-elite), aged 15–65 years. Results 48 studies (n=19 390 athletes) were included in the study. Risk factors associated with ARill/ARinf were: increased training monotony, endurance training programmes, lack of tapering, training during winter or at altitude, international travel and vitamin D deficits. Low tear-(SIgA) and salivary-(IgA) were immune biomarkers associated with ARill/ARinf. Conclusions Modifiable training and environmental risk factors could be considered by sports coaches and athletes to reduce the risk of ARill/ARinf. Clinicians working with athletes can consider assessing and treating specific nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin D. More research regarding the role and clinical application of measuring immune biomarkers in athletes at high risk of ARill/ARinf is warranted. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020160928.
... There is an obvious scientific interest regarding the influence of training variables manipulation on such neuromuscular adaptations. Planned variations in training stimulus together with rest periods are required to modulate fatigue, reducing the 45 risk of injury and overtraining (Foster, 1998;Fry & Kraemer, 1997). As athletes are closer to their maximum potential, programming implies a more precise manipulation, both in type and magnitude, of training variables (Cormier et al., 2020). ...
Article
Background: A main goal of programming is to structure the optimal variations in training factors to optimize athletes' adaptations. Nevertheless, it remains unknown the optimal programming model leading to greater neuromuscular adaptations. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of three different magnitudes of variability within resistance training programs on performance adaptations. Methods: Forty participants were assigned to three different groups differing in the frequency of change in training contents: a weekly model (WM; n = 12), a daily model (DM; n= 14), and a session model (SM; n = 14). The training intervention lasted for six weeks, performing two sessions per week of back-squat exercise. Total training load (volume and intensity) of the six-week intervention was equated for all groups. Maximum dynamic strength (1RM) in the back-squat, countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) were measured pre- and post-training intervention. Results: All groups showed significant increases (p< .05) in 1RM, with the SM showing greater increases than the WM (20.5 vs 13.6%; p= .022). Although not reaching statistical significance, the magnitude of the increases in CMJ tended to be greater for DM and SM group (9.5% and 8.1%, respectively,) than in the WM (4.4%). All groups showed similar increases in the SJ (7.7-9.9%). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the use of more frequent stimuli variations within resistance training programming is a key factor to achieve concomitant increases in strength and jumping performance.
... In addition to intra-week variations, the monitoring of training intensity is usually considered to determine inter-week intensity variations on the players. 63 Some of the measures implemented to provide this information are of training monotony (the mean load by the standard deviation) or strain (multiplication of the monotony by the sum of intensity of the week) as introduced by Foster,64 or acute:chronic workload ratio (week-to-week variation across the weeks comparing with the previous intensities). 65 However, although these indices have been related to injuries, some criticism highlights the limitations of these metrics. ...
Article
Training intensity (TI) monitoring has become a necessary aspect of professional soccer training. This study systematically reviewed the original investigations that have reported values regarding TI across macrocycles, mesocycles, and one-, two-, and three-match day (MD) microcycles in professional soccer, to analyze TI variations among months, weeks, and training sessions, respectively. A systematic review of PubMed, and FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. The articles were included following these criteria: (i) professional soccer players, (ii) players monitored for TI values, (iii) TI distribution in, at least, 3 days, weeks, or months, (iv) variables related to TI (physical/physiological), and (v) original studies. The quality assessment of included articles was done using MINORS checklist. From the 473 studies initially identified, 19 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. In microcycles, most articles showed lower values in MD+1 and progressively incremented until MD-4 or MD-3. As the number of days between matches decreased, TI values decreased, with values in MD-1 lower than 50% of MD’s intensity, or even values <50% in all sessions between matches in 3 MD microcycles. The variability standard in mesocycles was less clear. In macrocycles, TI was greater in the preseason than the values in the last stages of the in-season period. In conclusion, coaches may design a post-match recovery strategy followed by an increase in intensity until MD-3. Regarding mesocycles, a week-to-week TI prescription was the most common due to the different demands that are experienced during a match with different contextual factors. Finally, despite slight variations in intensity/volume between preseason and in-season periods during macrocycles, overall TI is similar for both time periods. However, training volume is usually reduced while intensity is kept high.
... İç yük takibinde en çok kullanılan yöntemler arasında kalp atım hızı ve algılanan zorluk düzeyi bulunmaktadır (Foster, Rodriguez-Marroyo ve De Koning, 2017). AZD, Algılanan zorluk düzeyinin belirlenmesinde kullanılan geçerliliği olan bir yöntem olarak belirlenmiştir (Foster, 1998;Foster ve diğerleri, 2001) ve hem bireysel hem de takım sporlarında egzersiz yükünün belirlenmesinde kullanılmaktadır (Haddad, Padulo ve Chamari, 2014). Bu nedenle, futbolda iç yükün izlenilmesinde GPS verileri ile AZD yanıtları birlikte kullanılabilir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the economic capital created by the football sport, the importance given to high-level performance in soccer is increasing. The use of GPS, a wearable technology product used for the improvement and tracking of athlete and team performance, is becoming increasingly important. Thanks to GPS technology, researchers can investigate the physical, technical and tactical skills of athletes. This study was written using the traditional compilation method. Different databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and YÖK Thesis) were searched using the keywords “football/ soccer”, “GPS”, “football/ soccer and GPS”, “performance analysis in soccer”, and the studies using GPS in soccer players between the years 2015-2022 were compiled and summarized. As a result of the studies examined, it is seen that the match loads (inside-outside), positions, movement patterns and speed data of the athletes are mostly analyzed. In this research, in the light of the information given, the most used devices and frequencies, analysis programs, obtained parameters are presented. Futbol sporunun yarattığı ekonomik sermaye nedeniyle, futbolda üst düzey performansa verilen önem artmaktadır. Sporcu ve takım performansının iyileştirilmesi ve takibi için kullanılan giyilebilir teknoloji ürünü olan GPS kullanımı giderek önem kazanmaktadır. GPS teknolojisi sayesinde araştırmacılar sporcuların fiziksel, teknik, taktik becerilerini araştırılabilmektedir. Bu çalışma geleneksel derleme yöntemi kullanılarak yazılmıştır. Farklı veri tabanlarında (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science ve YÖK Tez) “futbol”, “GPS”, “futbol ve GPS”, “futbolda performans analizi” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak arama yapılmış ve 2015-2022 yılların arasında futbol oyuncularında GPS kullanılan çalışmalar derlenerek özetlenmiştir. İncelenen çalışmalar neticesinde en fazla sporcuların maç yükleri (içdış), pozisyonları, hareket modellerinin ve hız verilerinin analiz edildiği görülmektedir. Bu araştırmada, verilen bilgiler ışığında sporcu performans takibinde en çok kullanılan cihazlar ve frekanslar, analiz programları, elde edilen parametreler sunulmaktadır.
... 14,15 All internal and external measures can also be calculated weekly using volume as an "acute load," training monotony, or training strain. 16 Between-week comparisons can also be made to calculate the "acute: chronic workload" measure or the "acute-chronic workload index". 17,18 Regardless of whether intensity measures are controlled by session or by week, much research has described the typical values of training intensity in different competitive contexts (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the possibilities for organising different studies and providing some reference values or benchmarks is to summarise all information. Such a possibility could help coaches and practitioners identify typical values based on specific conditions and eventually use benchmark values to compare players against The current systematic review was carried out to identify and summarise studies that have examined external and internal training intensity monitoring and to provide references values for the main measures in professional male soccer players. A systematic review of EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 2404 studies initially identified, 25 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analysed. From these, the following range intervals by overall team were found: session rated perceived exertion (s-RPE)=26–936 AU, total distance=2143–9540 m and distance >14 km/h=410–1884 m, distance >18 km/h=7–541 m, distance >24 km/h=1–190 m, acceleration number >3 m.s−2=9–195, deceleration number >-3 m.s−2=10–157 and player load=310–774 AU. Additionally, range intervals for player positions and a match�day minus approach were provided. This study provided reference values of professional male players for the main internal and external intensity measures. Altogether, they can be used by coaches, their staff, or practitioners to achieve desired competitive levels. They can replicate such values or even increase the numbers presented in training sessions.
... La méthode sRPE est probablement la plus utilisée pour quantifier CE i nt . Elle est basée sur le principe de la perception subjective de l'effort qui peut représenter un bon indicateur au regard des réponses physiologiques de l'organisme pendant l'effort (Borg et Borg, 1987 (Foster, 1998) ...
Thesis
Ce travail de thèse avait pour objectif d'analyser l'influence d'une saison sportive sur les caractéristiques physiques, physiologiques et psychologiques des joueurs de handball du club de Montpellier Agglomération Handball, un des meilleurs clubs européens. Dans un premier temps (Etude 1), nous nous sommes intéressés à l'évolution du profil musculaire isocinétique des membres inférieurs pendant la phase de préparation pré-compétitive (Pc2P). Bien que cette période soit courte (8 semaines), nos résultats montrent que la plupart des valeurs de force, de puissance (à 30±.s¡1, 60±.s¡1 et 240±.s¡1, en concentrique et en excentrique), et des différents ratios (agoniste vs antagoniste, dominant vs non dominant ainsi que le ratio mixte) augmentent significativement pendant Pc2P. Dans un deuxième temps (Etude 2), nous nous sommes intéressés à l'évolution du profil musculaire isocinétique des membres inférieurs pendant la période de compétition. Nos résultats montrent qu'une saison de compétition n'impacte pas significativement l'évolutionde la plupart des paramètres isocinétiques suscités. Enfin, au cours de notre 3e travail, nous avons étudié l'évolution de certains marqueurs (biologiques, physiologiques et psychologiques) au cours d'une saison sportive. Les principaux résultats de nos travaux montrent (i) une baisse des valeurs moyennes de VFC concernant les valeurs de HF et de RMSSD, couplée à une légère augmentation de FC en T4, laissant supposer une baisse de l'activité parasympathique en position couchée, (ii) une augmentation des valeurs au questionnaire d'état de forme en T4 et (iii) une diminution des valeurs de [C]sg , [F]sg , IGF-1 et Hématocrite,respectivement en T5 et T4. Les résultats des valeurs de Testostérone montrent une augmentation significative en T5. Ils ne montrent aucune modification significative des valeurs de CPK et d'IGFBP-3. Ces travaux soulignent la nécessité de développer les qualités de force et de puissance le plus efficacement possible pendant Pc2P et de cibler les marqueurs les plus pertinents pour le suivi longitudinal des joueurs de handball
... RPE scores were collected at the end of SSG using the Borg 15-grade scale [39], which is considered a valid method to evaluate players' training load in team sports and has been widely used during basketball ball-drills [2,14]. This psycho-physiological scale given score represents the exertion that the athlete experiences during the exercise [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of 40-min nap (NAP) opportunity on psycho-physiological outcomes and technical performance during small-sided basketball game (SSG) was examined in ten professional basketball players. Nocturnal sleep and naps were monitored by actigraphic recording and sleep diaries. Nocturnal total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were analyzed. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with visual analogue scale (VAS). Profile of mood state (POMS) and simple reaction time (SRT) were measured before and after Nap and no-nap (CON) conditions. During both test sessions, participants played 10-min SSG. Technical and tactical performances were assessed using Team Sport Assessment Procedure. Volume of play (VP), attack with ball (AB), efficiency index (EI) and performance score (PS) were determined. Heart rate (HR) was measured during SSG, and rating of perceive excretion (RPE) after. Lower HR (p ≤ 0.03, d ≥ 0.78) and RPE (p = 0.007, d = 1.11) were obtained in NAP compared to CON. There was no significant difference in TIB, TST, SE, WASO and VAS between CON and NAP conditions. AB, EI and PS were higher in NAP compared to CON (0.0002 ≤ p ≤ 0.001, 1.3 ≤ d ≤ 1.8). A significant reduction was observed in POMS’ fatigue (p = 0.005, d = -1.16, Δ = -53.6%), anxiety (p = 0.02, d = -0.9, Δ = -32.1%), anger (p = 0.01, d = -0.94, Δ = -30.3%), and an improvement in vigor (p = 0.01, d = 0.99, Δ = + 23.8%); which may reflect better readiness after nap and more concentration to start a game-situation. In summary, NAP reduced fatigue, anger, anxiety and enhanced vigor, allowing better technical and tactical performances during basketball SSG.
... As shown by Foster et al. (2017), the simplicity and applicability of this tool should be highlighted and thus, from our findings, present a relationship between the different TRIMPs can also favor as a tool for measuring the state of high demand quickly in addition to being adaptable to different financial realities, where the evaluator can use according to their working condition or even the ease of application to the imposed environment. Foster (1998) demonstrated the individual correlation rates of moderate to strong between RPE and HR. However, our findings, when analyzed in isolation, do not show a correlation within them. ...
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Problem Statement: The motivation to increase performance or monitoring capacity shapes the findings and advances in the field. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the correlation between different training impulses and their relationship with isolated variables such as maximum heart rate (HRmax), lactate ([La-] b), glucose (GLU), rating of perceived exertion (PRE), the running time and the total number of repetitions. Purpose: This is a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four volunteers were recruited. They performed a strenuous exercise for the biceps brachii muscle with 75% of maximum repetition and the values of HRmax, [La-] b and glucose, rating of perceived exertion, execution time, and the total number of repetitions were collected. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used, followed by the Pearson (r) and Spearman (r s) correlation coefficients. The classification established by Munro for the magnitude of correlations was considered. Results: Total time seems to demonstrate a higher number of significant relationships with other measures, but with an outcome between weak and moderate (r/r s 0.408-0.821). HRmax was the variable with the lowest number of significant relationships. The TRIMP LAC and TRIMP GLU showed a strong relation relationship (r s 0.914). All TRIMPs presented at least a moderate relationship (0.70-0.89). Conclusions: Volunteers showed a moderate to a high correlation between TRIMP LAC , GLU , HR , and RPE. Compared to isolated load indices, the different TRIMPs showed impressive outcomes, especially for TRIMP LAC and TRIMP GLU. Thus, it is also possible to reproduce the method and the quality of the assessment for individuals who require practical and straightforward techniques in everyday life while remaining reliable for quantifying training demand.
... Based on the obtained s-RPE score, the weekly training load (TL) (the sum of the training loads of all training sessions during the week) was calculated. The training monotony (TM) score was obtained by taking the average load across a 7-day training week (including the day off) and dividing it by its standard deviation (Foster, 1998). Measurements of TM can be used as an indicator of training variability, with a score closer to one showing the highest level of variability (Rossi, Perri, Pappalardo, Cintia, & Iaia, 2019;Wing, 2018). ...
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Research within sport science disciplines seeks to enhance performance via the combination of factors that influences the team's periodization. The current study aimed to investigate the variations in training load (TL), and the consequential changes in fitness variables, based on the use of match difficulty prediction model (MDP), level of opposition (LOP), days between matches, and match location during 12 weeks in the competitive period I. Seventeen elite soccer players (age = 17.57 ± 0.49 years; body height 1.79 ± 0.05 m; body weight 72.21 ± 6.96 kg), have completed a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a running-based anaerobic sprint test, a soccer-specific repeated sprint ability, and a vertical jump test to identify changes in players fitness. TL was determined by multiplying the RPE of the session by its duration in minutes (s-RPE). Training monotony, strain, and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) were also assessed. A simple regression model was conducted and the highest variances explained (R 2) were used. The LOP score explained most of the variance in ACWR (r= 0.606, R 2 =0.37). TL declined significantly when compared the match-day by the first three days and the last three days of the week. No significant difference was found in s-RPE between the high and low MDP factor. Strong negative correlations were reported between ACWR and LOP (r=-0.714, p<.01). In addition, we found a significant improvement in repeated sprint ability, aerobic and anaerobic fitness variables between pre-and post-test in fatigue index (d=1.104), best testing time, ideal time, total time and mean-best (d=0.518-0.550), and aerobic and anaerobic fitness variables (p<.05), respectively. The MDP could facilitate the training prescription as well as the distribution of training intensities with high specificity, providing a long-term youth player's development and allowing teams to maintain optimal fitness leading into more difficult matches.
... Estos estímulos van a suponer que los sistemas corporales se adapten a múltiples factores requeridos en la competición. Por lo tanto, supervisar regularmente los datos que obtenemos de monitorear la carga de entrenamiento va a ayudar a jugadores y entrenadores a lograr los objetivos de entrenamiento y minimizar resultados no deseados (Foster, 1998). La investigación previa, en este sentido, muestra que la gestión precisa de la carga de entrenamiento es crucial para la planificación y periodización (Little & Williams, 2007). ...
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Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la relación que pudiera existir entre la capacidad de aceleración y de salto (CMJ) con la carga de esfuerzo percibida (GL) durante una pretemporada de cinco semanas en un equipo juvenil masculino. En este periodo, veinte jugadores (edad: 17,3 ± 0,9 años) valoraban día a día su nivel de fatiga mediante una escala de esfuerzo. Además, realizaron pruebas de sprint de 10 m y 20 m y CMJ antes del inicio de la pretemporada y justo antes del primer entrenamiento semanal. Los resultados mostraron que la oscilación en los valores de rendimiento en las variables físicas no es fácilmente predecible mediante un modelo de regresión combinado de datos, donde el esfuerzo se midió mediante GL. La estadística descriptiva y las correlaciones entre variables revelaron baja correlación entre GL y 10 m (r = 0,23), entre GL y 20 m (r = 0,21), y entre GL y CMJ (r = 0,16). Estos hallazgos permiten ampliar el conocimiento de las demandas en la pretemporada y, además, pueden ayudar a los técnicos en la planificación. Por último, se plantea la necesidad de otros procesos de monitorización para el control objetivo de la carga de entrenamiento. Palabras clave: fútbol; esfuerzo percibido; monitorización del entrenamiento; carga; rendimiento físico. Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship that could exist between acceleration ability and jumping capacity (CMJ) to perceived exertion load (GL) during a five-week preseason in a youth team. In this period, twenty male players (age: 17.3 ± 0.9 years) assessed their level of fatigue on a daily basis using an exertion scale. In addition, 10-m and 20-m sprint and CMJ were assessed before the start of the preseason and just before the first weekly training. The results showed that the oscillation in the physical performance variables is not easily predictable by means of a combined regression model of data, where the exertion was measured by GL. The global descriptive statistics and the correlations between variables revealed a low correlation between GL and 10 m (r = 0.23), between GL and 20 m (r = 0.21), and between GL and CMJ (r = 0.16). These findings allow us to broaden our understanding of internal and external demands during a soccer preseason and can also help coaches in the planning process. Finally, it also considers the need for other monitoring processes for the objective control of the training load.
... Session TL was defined as the duration of the session (min) × the rate of perceived exertion. 31 Standing Long Jump (SLJ), Standing Quintuple Jump (SQJ), and Running Quintuple Jump (RQJ) were the jumping tests monitored. To perform the SLJ, the athlete stood with his feet parallel at the edge of the sand pit, jumped as far as possible, and landed on both feet. ...
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The People's Republic of China obtained at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games its best historical performance in the triple jump, thereby winning the silver medal. The objective of this case study was to present how evidence-based knowledge was applied to improve selected factors that may have contributed to this result. The factors included running speed, strength, muscle power, jumping technique, body composition, mental preparation, training organization, and recovery. Short training blocks, monitoring of training sessions and athlete's status, individualized tapering, use of activation sessions the day before competition, and postactivation performance enhancement strategies used in training and at the event were concepts followed during the preparation to the Games. Improved performance in field tests and power training was accompanied by positive changes in approach speed, run-up accuracy, and jumping technique, which, together with mental preparation, enabled two personal records to be set in the Olympic final. The results in the field tests were among the best ever reported and could constitute a benchmark for world-class triple jumpers.
... The internal loads of the athletes were measured by the RPE method. The 10-point Foster scale 29,30 was used to monitor volleyball players' ratings of perceived effort after each training session and competition. Thirty minutes after each training session, the research team asked all athletes, ''How hard was the training for you?'' ...
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This study investigates the relationships between the internal and external load demands imposed on elite female volley- ball players during training and matches. Fourteen elite female world champion volleyball league players participated in this study (mean 6 standard deviation (SD); age, 22 6 0.9 years; height, 195.1 6 7.6 cm; body mass, 71.4 6 6.3 kg). The research lasted for 10months. Moderate positive relationships were found between match load and training load (r=0.48) and between high metabolic load distance (HMLD) in matches and HMLD in training (r=0.56). There were also strong positive relationships between local positioning system (LPS) recorded jumps in matches and during training (0.61), accelerations in matches and during training (r = 0.72), and decelerations in matches and during training (r = 0.68). A weak positive relationship was reported between training accelerations/decelerations and match accelerations/decel- erations (r = 0.28). The relationships between accelerations and decelerations in matches (r = 0.92) and between accel- erations and decelerations during training (r=0.90) were very strong. As a result, it is concluded that as the load, HMLD, jumps, accelerations, and decelerations values obtained during training increase, the values obtained in competi- tions also increase. The results of this study can help sports scientists and coaches understand the relationships between training and competition data obtained from electronic tracking devices.
... Several successful long-distance runners have supplemented their sport-specific training with alternative locomotion modalities, so-called cross-training, including swimming, biking, cross-country skiing, and workouts on elliptical machines [15,39,57,94]. Arguments supporting the inclusion of cross-training include injury prevention and avoidance of training monotony [138,139]. Because running is associated with lower total training duration and higher mechanical/ballistic load compared to other locomotion modalities [140], one could speculate if cross-training should be performed to a larger extent among highly trained long-distance runners to provide the same central and peripheral training stimulus with lower muscular mechanical load. ...
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In this review we integrate the scientific literature and results-proven practice and outline a novel framework for understanding the training and development of elite long-distance performance. Herein, we describe how fundamental training characteristics and well-known training principles are applied. World-leading track runners (i.e., 5000 and 10,000 m) and marathon specialists participate in 9 ± 3 and 6 ± 2 (mean ± SD) annual competitions, respectively. The weekly running distance in the mid-preparation period is in the range 160–220 km for marathoners and 130–190 km for track runners. These differences are mainly explained by more running kilometers on each session for marathon runners. Both groups perform 11–14 sessions per week, and ≥ 80% of the total running volume is performed at low intensity throughout the training year. The training intensity distribution vary across mesocycles and differ between marathon and track runners, but common for both groups is that volume of race-pace running increases as the main competition approaches. The tapering process starts 7–10 days prior to the main competition. While the African runners live and train at high altitude (2000–2500 m above sea level) most of the year, most lowland athletes apply relatively long altitude camps during the preparation period. Overall, this review offers unique insights into the training characteristics of world-class distance runners by integrating scientific literature and results-proven practice, providing a point of departure for future studies related to the training and development in the Olympic long-distance events.
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The aim of this study was to compare the two methods, Bulgarian and small sided games (1 VS 1 ; 2 VS 2), in the development of the explosive strength of the lower limbs and the technical abilities of the two western teams Etihad and Wydad of Tissemssilt, The sample included male U17 football players, randomly selected, and divided into two experimental groups of (21) players each group. The first group, trained according to the Bulgarian method was characterized by: - Age: (15.61 ± 0.49 years), age of training: (3.28 ± 0.64 years), weight: (66.76 ± 3.79 Kg), height: (1.71 ± 0.04 cm), body mass index: (22.66 ± 0.81 BMI = P / T²). The second group trained according to the small sided games method was characterized by: - the Age: (15.57 ± 0.50 years), the Age of training: (3.38 ± 0.66 years), the weight: (66,90 ± 3,72 kg), the size: (1.72 ± 0.04 cm), body mass index: (22.36 ± 0.87 BMI = P / T²). In this research, the researcher adopted the experimental method by proposing two training programs, the first according to the Bulgarian method applied on the Etihad of tissemssilt, and the second according to the small sided games (1X1 2X2) applied on the Widad of tissemssilt in the period from 01/08/2016 to 21/09/2016 which means a monthly plan including 06 weeks with 11 training sessions in each program during the specific preparation phase, After the application of the prospective physical and technical tests from 22 to 26/09/2016 the researcher recorded statistically significant differences between all the prospective and retrospective tests in favor of the prospective tests which underline the effectiveness of the two training programs in the development of the upper limbs strength, contre mouvement jump (relaxation, power and muscle strength), in addition to technical skills (hitting the ball with head, feet for the longest distance possible), whereas in the prospective comparison between the two samples the researcher did not conclude to statistically significant differences in the physical tests contrary to what he recorded in the technical tests by the presence of statistically significant differences for hitting ball with head, feet for the longest distance possible in favor of the first sample, and the differences were also statistically significant in favor of the second sample for the tests of ball interception and juggling. In the end, the researcher came up with a set of recommendations, the most important is the need to use both methods in the preparation of young players, because of its advantages in the development of the physical and technical level, and the results of our tests are enough to confirm it. Keywords: Bulgarian method; Small sided games; Explosive force; Technical capacity.
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It is popular for high-performance athletes to attend training camps at natural moderate altitude (1800–2500m), which may have direct and indirect effects on the quantity and quality of sleep athletes obtain. This can potentially influence the ability to maximise training responses and optimise recovery from exercise. This study aimed to compare objective and subjective markers of sleep quality between sea level (SL) and moderate altitude (ALT) in a sample of 14 (male n = 5, female n = 9) high-performance collegiate swimmers. Sleep was objectively (wristwatch actigraphy) and subjectively (Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire; ASSQ) assessed at SL and an ALT of 2,320m. A significant increase ( p = 0.028, d = 0.76) in the ‘sleep difficulty score’ calculated from the ASSQ was identified from SL (4.9 ± 1.7 au) to ALT (6.6 ± 2.3 au), with a greater number of the swimmers judged to have a more severe clinical sleep problem at ALT. Of the seven sleep characteristics assessed objectively, there were no significant differences identified between the two environments. Sleep disruption was found to substantially improve following rest/recovery days while at ALT. Although this study highlights possible inconsistencies between objective and subjective measures of sleep quality while at ALT, any suggestion of reduced sleep quality should be considered seriously. Practically, the present study demonstrates the importance of, at altitude, using both objective and subjective measures to monitor athlete sleep quality, and ensuring training schedules are carefully periodised, incorporating rest or recovery days within intense training blocks for optimal sleep quality to be achieved.
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Purpose : This study compared training loads and internal:external load ratios from an aerobic interval session at the highest perceptually sustainable intensity with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Methods : On separate days, 14 endurance cyclists/triathletes completed four 4-minute self-paced aerobic cycling intervals at their highest sustainable intensity, with and without BFR (60% of arterial occlusion pressure). Internal training load was quantified using 3 training impulses (TRIMP; Banister, Lucia, and Edwards) and sessional ratings of perceived exertion. External load was assessed using total work done (TWD). Training load ratios between all internal loads were calculated relative to TWD. Results : Lucia TRIMP was lower for the BFR compared with non-BFR session (49 [9] vs 53 [8] arbitrary units [au], P = .020, d z = −0.71). No between-conditions differences were observed for Banister TRIMP ( P = .068), Edwards TRIMP ( P = .072), and training load in sessional ratings of perceived exertion ( P = .134). The TWD was lower for the BFR compared with non-BFR session (223 [52] vs 271 [58] kJ, P < .001, d z = −1.27). Ratios were greater for the BFR session compared with non-BFR for Lucia TRIMP:TWD (0.229 [0.056] vs 0.206 [0.056] au, P < .001, d z = 1.21), Edwards TRIMP:TWD (0.396 [0.105] vs 0.370 [0.088] au, P = .031, d z = 0.66), and training load in sessional ratings of perceived exertion:TWD (1.000 [0.266] vs 0.890 [0.275] au, P = .044, d z = 0.60), but not Banister TRIMP:TWD ( P = .306). Conclusions : Practitioners should consider both internal and external loads when monitoring BFR exercise to ensure the demands are appropriately captured. These BFR-induced changes were reflected by the Lucia TRIMP:TWD and Edwards TRIMP:TWD ratio, which could be used to monitor aerobic BFR training loads. The Lucia TRIMP:TWD ratio likely represents BFR-induced changes more appropriately compared with ratios involving either Edwards or Banister TRIMP.
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Economic models predominate in life history research, which investigates the allocation of an organism's resources to growth, reproduction, and maintenance. These approaches typically employ a heuristic Y model of resource allocation, which predicts trade-offs among tasks within a fixed budget. The common currency among tasks is not always specified, but most models imply that metabolic energy, either from food or body stores, is the critical resource. Here, we review the evidence for metabolic energy as the common currency of growth, reproduction, and maintenance, focusing on studies in humans and other vertebrates. We then discuss the flow of energy to competing physiological tasks (physical activity, maintenance, and reproduction or growth) and its effect on life history traits. We propose a Ψ model of energy flow to these tasks, which provides an integrative framework for examining the influence of environmental factors and the expansion and contraction of energy budgets in the evolution of life history strategies.
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Training loads are important for improving performance and injury prevention. So the present study aimed to monitor training loads and investigate the prediction of non-contact injuries by parameters related to internal and external loads in a Premier League team during a season. 23 players of the Foulad Mobarakeh Sepahan soccer team participated in the study. The training load was measured using GPS and Borg’s questionnaire. The parameters of acute load, chronic load, internal load, acute to chronic load ratio, monotony, strain, and the number of non-contact injuries were calculated. Spearman and Pearson’s statistical tests were used to examine the relationship between variables. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the predictability of injury through load-related parameters. The results showed that acute load, monotony, and strain were directly and moderately related to non-contact injuries. However, these parameters could not predict non-contact injuries in soccer players. It seems that paying attention to these parameters can help coaches to reduce soccer non-contact injuries. However, more data is needed in this regard..
Thesis
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Athletic performance is mutually dependent upon individual constraints and practical interventions. Regarding the former, it is recognised that brain activity and sleep indices can modulate movement planning and execution. Concerning the strategies used in practice, contemporary short-term prescriptions have been adopted by conditioning professionals and physiotherapists with the primary intention to acutely enhance musculoskeletal power output or accelerate post-exercise recovery processes. These includes postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE)-based plyometric warm-up and induced cooling (COOL) through ice packs, respectively. However, it remain unknown whether measures of brain dynamics and natural sleep patterns influence skill-related performance in soccer. To date, the literature does not show a consensus for PAPE effectiveness in young populations. Generally, COOL also negatively affects subsequent lower limb movements requiring high force-velocity levels. Based on these assumptions, the general aim of the current thesis was to investigate the influence of internal individual constraints (EEG and sleep-derived indices) and effects of short-term practical interventions (PAPE and COOL) on the movement kinematics and performance aspects of soccer kicking in youth academy players. A series of six studies is presented. These include a literature review, one technical note and four original experimental research articles (two observational and two interventions) in an attempt to answer the questions defined in the research programme. From the data gathered here, it was possible to provide evidence that a) kick testing in studies systematically lacked resemblance to competition environments; b) occipital brain waves during the preparatory phase determines ball placement while late frontal signalling control both ankle joint in impact phase and post-impact ball velocity; c) poor sleep quality and late chronotype preference are linked to subsequent impaired targeting ability; d) acute enhancements achieved via PAPE/plyometric conditioning are purely neuromuscular, being slightly converted into kicking mechanics or performance improvements; e) in a hot environment, repeated high-intensity running efforts impair both ball placement and velocity whilst a local 5-minutes COOL application assists recovery of overall kick parameters and f) a markerless deep learning-based kinematic system appear as reliable alternative in capturing on-field kicking motion patterns. To conclude, both internal individual constraints (EEG and sleep quality) and a short-term practical intervention (cooling quadriceps/hamstrings with ice packs) have an acute impact in kicking performance in youth soccer context. A model integrating evidence from all papers is presented alongside limitations and recommendations for future studies in this field. Keywords: Technical skill; 3-dimensional kinematics; Accuracy; EEG; Human movement; Motor Control; Biomechanics.
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Since acute:chronic workload ratio and training monotony have been criticized as injury risk predictors, the use of intensity measures should be more oriented to understand the variations of intensity across the season. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the main evidence about the acute:chronic workload ratio and training monotony variations over the season in youth soccer players. The search was made in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 225 studies initially identified, 13 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. Nine analyzed acute:chronic workload ratio, seven analyzed monotony , and four studies analyzed both acute:chronic workload ratio and monotony. Overall, the range values for acute: chronic workload ratio were 0.58-17.5 AU, while for monotony were 0.83-23.0 AU which showed a higher variability. Few studies showed an association between higher values of acute:chronic workload ratio and/monotony with injury risk or to prevent health problems. These measures could be used to understand the variations of the data through the in-season periods. However, caution is necessary due to the scarce studies performed in young soccer players.
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The negative effect of prolonged cognitive demands on psychomotor skills in athletes has been demonstrated. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be used to mitigate this effect. This study examined the effects of tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a 30-min inhibitory Stroop task on cognitive and shooting performances of professional female basketball players. Following a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, cross-over design, players were assigned to receive anodal tDCS (a-tDCS, 2mA for 20 min) or sham-tDCS in two different sessions. Data from 8 players were retained for analysis. Response Time decreased significantly over time (p < 0.001; partial ƞ2 = 0.44; no effect of condition, or condition vs. time interaction). No difference in mean accuracy and shooting performance was observed between tDCS conditions. The results suggest that a-tDCS exert no additional benefits in reducing the negative effects of prolonged cognitive demands on technical performance compared to sham (placebo).
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Exercise and sport practitioners frequently utilize rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to evaluate the players’ psychophysiological strains during training sessions. The subjective rating of physical exertion level during sports training has been shown to have a reciprocal relationship with wellness status during periodic training or competitive seasons. However, the relationship between subjective physical exertions and wellness status during short-term overseas training camps (OTCs) has not been extensively investigated. This study aimed to examine the perceived responses of physical exertions [session-RPE (sRPE), training monotony, and training strain] and wellness status (fatigue, sleep, delayed onset muscle soreness, stress, and mood) measures in elite young adult futsal players from four separate OTCs with different training tasks. Twenty-seven U-20 male national team futsal players voluntarily participated in this study. The players recruited for OTCs were based on their performance during domestic training camps and the tactical demand of the team. The task of each OTCs was defined as: 1) 1 st OTC = game-based camp (n = 14); 2) 2 nd and 3 rd OTC = training-based camp (n = 20 and n = 17, respectively); and 3) 4 th OTC = pre-tournament camp (n = 14). The OTCs consisted of 11 training sessions (18.9 hours) and 16 friendly matches (23.8 hours). During daily training sessions and friendly matches, sRPE was used to quantify training load (TL). Additionally, a five-elements general wellness questionnaire was used to evaluate daily wellness status in the morning. The results demonstrated that the mean and sum sRPE in the game-based OTCs were significantly lower compared to the mean sRPE [ p < 0.01, effect size (ES) = -4.8; p < 0.01, ES = -2.9] and sum sRPE in the training-based OTCs ( p < 0.01, ES = -3.6; p < 0.01, ES = -3.1). The mean ( p = 0.01; ES = -2.0) and sum sRPE ( p < 0.01; ES = -3.4) in the game-based OTC were also lower than that in the pre-tournament OTC. Conversely, the wellness scores in the game-based OTC were higher compared to the training-based ( p = 0.01; ES = 1.8) and the pre-tournament OTCs ( p < 0.01; ES = 1.6). There was a negative relationship between mean and sum sRPE and all wellness scores (mean sRPE = r = -0.441 ~ -0.575, p < 0.001; sum sRPE = r = -0.41 ~ -0.559, p < 0.001). Our findings suggested that responses to training sessions, derived from mean and sum sRPE and wellness scores, are dependent upon the task-specific nature of OTCs among elite futsal players. Utilization of mean and sum sRPE and wellness measures to monitor the psychophysiological health during short-term OTCs is recommended.
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The purposes of this study were (a) to determine the variations in internal and external measures of training monotony (TM) and strain (TS) in professional soccer players according to periods of the season and playing positions, and (b) to analyze the relationships between internal and external measures of TM and TS. Twenty male professional players (age = 29.4 ± 4.4 years) were followed for 20 weeks through session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE), total distance (TD), high-speed running distance (HSRD) and sprint distance (SpD). Regardless of measure, highest mean TM and TS scores were observed in mid-season and end-season. In general, wingers and strikers tended to have greater values in TM. Midfielders exhibited greater TS of TD and SpD. Correlation results for TM revealed that s-RPE was positively associated with SpD in early-season (r = 0.608) and negatively associated in mid-season (r = − 0.506). Regarding the TS, result demonstrated that s-RPE is negatively associated with HSRD in early-season (r = − 0.464) and positively associated in mid-season (r = 0.476). In general, there different meanings in correlations between internal and external measures across the season. On the one hand, our findings highlighted that TM and TS of professional soccer players is sensitive to period of the season and player’s position, but on other hand, correlation analyses proved that changes in one external/internal measure does not cause changes in another external/internal measure which support the constant monitoring of these values across the season.
Thesis
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Identification of key point indicators (KPI) of young soccer players with a focus on objectifying and determining the possibility of achieving the highest level of performance.
Chapter
The outcomes of exercise-induced immune and inflammatory responses are varied and depend broadly on exercise mode, intensity, and duration. However, there is significant evidence supporting the positive outcomes of exercise on immune function. This chapter will discuss the physiological effects of exercise on the immune system, describing the immune and inflammatory responses to training. Exercise at strenuous intensity initiates inflammatory signaling pathways due to musculoskeletal microdamage; as a consequence, the elevation of pro-inflammatory biomarkers such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Interleukin (IL)6, pro-oxidative factors (free radicals), and M1 pro-inflammatory macrophage are commonly detected following intensive exercise. However, in turn, exercise-induced antiinflammatory signaling follows, allowing for tissue adaptation and healing. Additionally, regular exercise training adaptation can detoxify oxidative stress reactions via antioxidant enzymes. Regular exercise training can also enhance the mobilization of immune cells including lymphocytes and natural killer cells (NK cells) while elevating CD4 + helper T cells and CD8 + suppressor T cells (Treg). There are however immune challenges with chronic, high-intensity exercise, immunosuppression, and increased vulnerability to infectious threats.
Thesis
Le triathlon est un sport d’endurance en pleine expansion, connu pour son importante sollicitation cardio-vasculaire. Ce travail porte sur l’impact que peut avoir la pratique du triathlon longue distance (half-ironman et plus) sur le système cardio-vasculaire. Cette rédaction propose une étude descriptive de l’entraînement des triathlètes puis une analyse des variations de la compliance aortique et du remodelage cardiaque mesurés grâce à l’IRM cardio-vasculaire au cours de la saison sportive.34 triathlètes (Tri) de sexe masculin pratiquant le triathlon longue distance et âgés de 19 à 39 ans ont été inclus, ainsi que 29 volontaires sains appariés sur le sexe et l’âge, et insuffisamment actifs (Ctrl) selon les recommandations de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Les triathlètes ont fourni leurs données d’entraînement via un agenda dédié. Tous les volontaires ont réalisé trois visites (V1, V2, V3) réparties au cours de la saison sportive. Chaque visite comprenait une tonométrie d’aplanation ainsi qu’une IRM cardio-vasculaire. Cet examen d’imagerie a permis entre autres de mesurer les sections aortiques et les volumes ventriculaires droits et gauches.Pour l’année 2018, les triathlètes ont déclaré s’entraîner en moyenne 10,5 ± 2,4 heures par semaine. Au cours des six mois d’entraînement qui ont précédé la course de référence, les paramètres hebdomadaires moyens d’entraînement sont les suivants : training load = 3244 ± 2225 ; monotony = 1,14 ± 0,44 ; strain = 4070 ± 4252 ; fitness = -3610 ± 3967. La compliance de l’aorte ascendante calculée avec la pression pulsée périphérique était significativement plus élevée dans le groupe Tri à V2 (3,85 ± 1,19.10-2 vs 3,25 ± 0,88.10-2 cm²/mmHg ; p = 0,032) et à V3 (3,85 ± 1,09.10-2 vs 3,25 ± 0,92.10-2 cm²/mmHg ; p = 0,027), sans variation longitudinale au cours de la saison sportive (p = 0,465). La majorité des volumes ventriculaires gauches et droits étaient significativement plus élevés dans le groupe Tri et pour les trois visites, mais sans variation longitudinale significative.Ces résultats sont en faveur de l’existence d’adaptations cardiaques stables dans le temps mais d’apparition ancienne. Elles sont liées à la pratique régulière et suffisamment soutenue d’un sport d’endurance comme le triathlon, et peuvent s’apparenter à la notion de cœur d’athlète. Des adaptations vasculaires sont également suggérées par ces résultats, qui pourraient contribuer au concept émergent d’artère d’athlète. Des études longitudinales complémentaires seraient utiles pour évaluer la dynamique de ce remodelage cardio-vasculaire à l’échelle d’une vie d’athlète ainsi que ses conséquences physiopathologiques éventuelles.
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Athletes often undertake intensified training loads prior to competition with the goal of functionally overreaching for temporary performance enhancement; however, little is known about the impact of this on cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensified training-induced fatigue on cognitive function, psychological state, and performance in trained cyclists. Twenty-three trained male cyclists were randomly assigned to an intensified training group or a control group for two-weeks, followed by a two-week taper period. At baseline, one-week, two-weeks and post-taper, participants undertook a series of cognitive, performance, mood, and recovery-stress assessments. The training intervention significantly increased training volume, load, and strain by 108%, 116% and 151% respectively. Peak and mean power output on a maximal test and time trial significantly decreased by 4.8% and 9.4% following the two-week training intervention compared to baseline, in addition to a 169% change in total mood disturbance and significant disruption to recovery-stress balance. No change in any cognitive measure was observed across the study period. Following a two-week taper, performance, mood, and well-being measures returned to baseline. Two weeks of intensified training resulted in overreaching as identified by performance and psychological measures. Cognitive function was not sensitive to intensified training promoting caution with its use as a measure for the early identification of overreaching.
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The cross-training (XT) hypothesis suggests that despite the principle of specificity of training, athletes may improve performance in one mode of exercise by training using another mode. To test this hypothesis we studied 30 well-trained individuals (10 men, 20 women) in a randomized longitudinal trail. Subjects were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of enhanced training (+10%/week), accomplished by adding either running (R) or swimming (XT) to baseline running, versus continued baseline running (C). Both R (-26.4s) and XT (-13.2s) improved time trial (3.2 km) performance, whereas C did not (-5.4s). There were no significant changes during treadmill running in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2peak; -0.2, -6.0, and +2.7%), steady state submaximal VO2 at 2.68 m.s-1 (-1.2, -3.3 and +0.2 ml.kg-1.min-1), velocity at VO2peak (+0.05, +0.25 and +0.09 m.s-1) or accumulated O2 deficit (+11.2, -6.1 and +9.4%) in the R, XT or C groups, respectively. There was a significant increase in velocity associated with a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol.l-1 in R but not in XT or C (+0.32, +0.07 and +0.08 m.s-1). There were significant changes in arm crank VO2peak (+5%) and arm crank VO2 at 4 mmol.l-1 (+6.4%) in XT. There was no significant changes in arm crank VO2peak (+1.3 and -7.7%) or arm crank VO2 at 4 mmol.l-1 (+0.8 and +0.4%) in R or C, respectively. The data suggest that muscularly non-similar XT may contribute to improved running performance but not to the same degree as increased specific training.
The influence of an increase in training volume (ITV; February 1989) vs intensity (ITI; February 1990) on performance, catecholamines, energy metabolism and serum lipids was examined in two studies on eight, and nine experienced middle- or long-distance runners; seven participated in both studies. During ITV, mean training volume was doubled from 85.9 km.week-1 (pretrial phase) to 174.6 km within 3 weeks. Some 96%-98% of the training was performed at 67 (SD 8)% of maximal performance. During ITI, speed-endurance, high-speed and interval runs increased within 3 weeks from 9 km.week-1 (pretrial phase) to 22.7 km.week-1 and the total training distance from 61.6 to 84.7 km.week-1. The ITV resulted in stagnation of running velocity at 4 mmol lactate concentration and a decrease in total running distance in the increment test. Heart rate, energy metabolic parameters, nocturnal urinary catecholamine excretion, low density, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly; the exercise-related catecholamine plasma concentrations increased at an identical exercise intensity. The ITI produced an improvement in running velocity at 4 mmol lactate concentration and in total running distance in the increment test; heart rate, energy metabolic parameters, nocturnal catecholamine excretion, and serum lipids remained nearly constant, and the exercise-related plasma catecholamine concentrations decreased at an identical exercise intensity. The ITV-related changes in metabolism and catecholamines may have indicated an exhaustion syndrome in the majority of the athletes examined but this hypothesis has to be proven by future experimental studies.
To compare some psychophysiological responses to arm exercise with those to leg exercise, an experiment was carried out on electronically braked bicycle ergometers, one being adapted for arm exercise. Eight healthy males took part in the experiment with stepwise increases in exercise intensity every 4 min: 40—70—100—150—200 W in cycling and 20—35—50—70—100 W in arm cranking. Towards the end of each 4 min period, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained on the RPE scale and on a new category ratio (CR) scale: heart rate (HR) and blood lactate accumulation (BL) were also measured. The responses obtained were about twice as high or more for arm cranking than for cycling. The biggest difference was found for BL and the smallest for HR and RPE. The incremental functions were similar in both activities, with approximately linear increases in HR and RPE and positively accelerating functions for CR (exponents about 1.9) and BL (exponents 2.5 and 3.3 respectively). When perceived exertion (according to the CR scale) was set as the dependent variable and a simple combination of HR and BL was used as the independent variable, a linear relationship was obtained for both kinds of exercise, as has previously been found in cycling, running, and walking. The results thus give support for the following generalization: For exercise of a steady state type with increasing loads the incremental curve for perceived exertion can be predicted from a simple combination of HR and BL.
Article
To evaluate markers for overtraining, seven male race horses were subjected to 272 days of training consisting of daily exercise bouts of either endurance running (heart rate 140/min) or interval training (maximal heart rate), both increasing in duration and intensity. An incremental exercise test was held every 4 wk, and from day 187 it was held every 2 wk. Muscle glycogen, muscle lactate, energy-rich phosphates, adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone, plasma and red blood cell volumes, and a number of blood chemical variables were measured. The horses showed symptoms of weight loss, irritability, and an inability to complete the training after the intensity of the endurance exercise was increased. Test performance was not decreased. The adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone was not changed during overtraining. The decline in muscle ATP concentration during maximal exercise was less during the period of staleness, whereas plasma volume, red blood cell volume, and blood chemical variables were unchanged. It was concluded that as long as exhaustive training is alternated by light exercise, overtraining is unlikely to occur. Furthermore, no single parameter can be used to detect early overtraining.
Article
This study determined whether daily supplementation with 600 mg vitamin C would reduce the incidence of symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract (URT) infections after participation in a competitive ultramarathon race (> 42 km). Ultramarathon runners with age-matched controls were randomly divided into placebo and experimental (vitamin C-supplemented) groups. Symptoms of URT infections were monitored for 14 d after the race. Sixty-eight percent of the runners in the placebo group reported the development of symptoms of URT infection after the race; this was significantly more (P < 0.01) than that reported by the vitamin C-supplemented group (33%). The duration and severity of symptoms of URT infections reported in the vitamin C-supplemented nonrunning control group was also significantly less than in the nonrunning control group receiving the placebo (P < 0.05). This study provides evidence that vitamin C supplementation may enhance resistance to the postrace URT infections that occur commonly in competitive ultramarathon runners and may reduce the severity of such infections in those who are sedentary.
Article
The influence on pituitary function of 6 weeks of training on 6 days a week was examined in six recreational athletes. Endurance training on a bicycle ergometer for 31-33 min was performed on 4 days each week at 90-96% (weeks 1-3) and 89-92% (weeks 4-6) of the 4 mmol lactate thresholds determined on day 0 and day 21, respectively, with interval training of 3-5 x 3-5 min in addition on 2 days a week at 117-127% and 115-110%, respectively. Determination of the serum hormone levels and a combined pituitary function test (200 micrograms thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), 100 micrograms gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 100 micrograms corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), 50 micrograms growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)) were made before training, after 6 weeks of training and after another 3 weeks of recovery. Training increased performance at 2 mmol lactate by 25%, at 4 mmol by 12%, and maximum performance by approximately 12%. The releasing hormone-stimulable prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and somatotrophic hormone (STH) synthesis-secretion capacity remained unchanged, the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was increased after training. Cortisol release was reduced, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-synthesis-secretion capacity was increased after training, and the luteinizing hormone (LH)-synthesis-secretion capacity reduced. This had no influence on base or exercise-induced serum hormone levels (cortisol, aldosterone, insulin, prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, ADH and STH), which showed no dependence on training, except for free testosterone which showed a decreasing trend (P < 0.10) of 19-25% and post-exercise ACTH which showed an increasing trend of 33% (P < 0.10). Conditioning (cortisol sensitivity and ACTH response) or adaptation (FSH and LH responses) to changed testosterone serum levels and altered spermatogenesis is discussed.
Article
Overtraining is an imbalance between training and recovery, exercise and exercise capacity, stress and stress tolerance. Stress is the sum of training and nontraining stress factors. Peripheral (short-term overtraining, STO) or peripheral and central fatigue may result (long-term overtraining, LTO). STO lasting a few days up to 2 wk is termed overreaching. STO is associated with fatigue, reduction, or stagnation of the 4 LT performance capacity (performance at 4 mmol lactate or comparable criterion), reduction of maximum performance capacity, and brief competitive incompetence. Recovery is achieved within days, so the prognosis is favorable. LTO lasting weeks or months causes overtraining syndrome or staleness. The symptomatology associated with overtraining syndrome has changed over the last 50 yr from excitation and restlessness (so-called sympathetic form) to phlegmatic behavior and inhibition (so-called parasympathetic form). Increased volume of training at a high-intensity level is likely the culprit. The parasympathetic form of overtraining syndrome dominates in endurance sports. Accumulation of exercise and nonexercise fatigue, stagnation, or reduction of the 4 LT performance capacity, reduction in maximum performance capacity, mood state disturbances, muscle soreness/stiffness, and long-term competitive incompetence can be expected. Complete recovery requires weeks and months, so the prognosis is unfavorable. Other optional or further confirmation requiring findings include changes in blood chemistry variables, hormone levels, and nocturnal urinary catecholamine excretion. Based on the findings reported, recommendations for training monitoring can be made, but their relevance in the practice must still be clarified.
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