Morphometric study of skin grooves of the head and neck
First Department of Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College 06/1998; 39(2):109-18.
The skin surface contains furrows called wrinkles, Langer's lines, and skin grooves that are characteristic ultrastructures of the skin. When a skin incision line is determined, these features should be considered. Many studies have examined skin wrinkles, the number of which increases with age. Langer's lines have also been studied extensively in cadavers. However, these studies may not consistently reflect Langer's lines in living individuals. Most of the studies of skin grooves have examined dermatoglyphics such as fingerprinting, palm printing, and sole printing. Very few studies have examined skin grooves in other areas or quantified their characteristics. The present study analyzed skin grooves of the head and neck in relationship to age, sex, and region. Subjects consisted of 50 nursery school children aged 6 years, 50 college students aged 20 years, and 50 adults aged over 60 years. Impressions were obtained from: 1) forehead, 2) root of the nose, 3) lateral ocular angle, 4) cheek, and 5) neck. The samples were cut into cubes (5.0 x 5.0 x 1.0 mm) and ion-coated with Au-Pdin by a cool sputter coater. Then scanning electron micrographs (x 50) were taken and analyzed by computer morphometry CB-TASPER. Densities of skin grooves and the specific length representing the complexity of grooves per unit area were analyzed using computer morphometry CB-TASPER software. The density of skin grooves differed according to the area, especially among samples taken from the forehead, root of the nose, and the neck. Females had more grooves than males, particularly in the neck region. Skin grooves decreased with age; they appear to change and be absorbed by increasing wrinkles, thus becoming indistinct.
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ABSTRACT: Changes in the skin conditions after exposure to low humidity have been generally experienced in everyday life, but there have been few reports to approach it-especially in healthy skin. We have examined the effect of low humidity on healthy human skin by using noninvasive measurement devices. Skin conditions on the ventral forearm and the cheek before and after 3 or 6 h exposure to low humidity were evaluated by measuring skin surface conductance, skin surface capacitance and transepidermal water loss. Skin surface replicas were also taken before and after exposure and analysed for roughness parameters--Ra (arithmetic mean roughness value), Rz (10-point height), Sm (mean value of the profile element) and VC1 (anisotropy of skin furrows). There was a significant decrease of water content of stratum corneum at both test sites from the time points 0 h to 3 h and 6 h (P < 0.01) and transepidermal water loss from the time point 0 h to 6 h (P < 0.05). Regarding the roughness parameters, a significant increase of Rz in the directions of 45 degrees/225 degrees and 90 degrees/270 degrees to the body axis and Sm in the directions of 0 degrees/180 degrees (P < 0.05) on the forearm and VC1 (P < 0.05) on the cheek. The parameter Rz also showed a tendency to increase in the directions of 45 degrees/225 degrees (P = 0.06) on the cheek. A specific pattern of the changes to be related to the Langer's lines in the surface morphology was observed. The changes of skin surface pattern in our experiment lead us to consider that exposure to low humidity even in such a short period would be related to inducing aggravation of skin texture and the formation of fine wrinkles. A short exposure of skin to a low-humidity environment induced changes in the moisture contents in the stratum corneum and skin surface pattern, which lead us to assume that a dry environment in our daily life would make fine wrinkles related to lack of water in the stratum corneum.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There are many reports on regional variations in skin bio-mechanical properties, but few studies have been performed on the neck. The neck is sun-exposed and continues to move so the neck skin can be more apt to aging. METHODS: The skin properties of the neck, cheek, and ventral forearm of 58 Korean female volunteers in good health (25-64 years old, 42.3 ± 11.7) were assessed non-invasively with skin measuring devices, and the correlation with age and wrinkles was analyzed. RESULTS: Neck skin was more extensible, elastic and visco-elastic than the cheek. The dermal layer for the neck skin was thinner and more intense than the cheek, but the results were opposite when compared with the skin of the forearm. We could observe that the subcutaneous layer was divided by the fascia with regard to the neck skin, and this thickness increased BMI-dependently. The neck skin had the correlation between R0, R3, and dermal thickness. The correlation coefficient of elasticity on the neck with ages was -0.550 and the elasticity on the neck skin was highly negatively correlated with age than any other sites. Therefore, this bio-mechanical property was important for determining the aging. TEWL was correlated with ages for only neck skin(R = 0.368). We found that the wrinkles on the neck were correlated with age, the elasticity, skin color (L*), TEWL. CONCLUSION: The biomechanical properties of the neck skin were highly correlated with age than skin parameters of other sites. These results were influenced by constant movement and sun-exposure, and therefore, the neck wrinkles were apt to form.
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