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Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in nondieting individuals

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Abstract

Thirty physically active healthy men (20.1 +/- 1.6 yr) were randomly assigned to participate for 10 wk in one of the following training groups: endurance trained (ET; 3 days/wk jogging and/or running), resistance trained (RT; 3 days/wk resistance training), or combined endurance and resistance trained (CT). Before and after training, basal metabolic rate (BMR), percent body fat (BF), maximal aerobic power, and one-repetition maximum for bench press and parallel squat were determined for each subject. Urinary urea nitrogen was determined pre-, mid-, and posttraining. BMR increased significantly from pre- to posttraining for RT (7,613 +/- 968 to 8,090 +/- 951 kJ/day) and CT (7,455 +/- 964 to 7,802 +/- 981 kJ/day) but not for ET (7,231 +/- 554 to 7,029 +/- 666 kJ/day). BF for CT (12.2 +/- 3.5 to 8.7 +/- 1.7%) was significantly reduced compared with RT (15.4 +/- 2.7 to 14.0 +/- 2.7%) and ET (11.8 +/- 2.9 to 9.5 +/- 1.7%). Maximal aerobic power increased significantly for ET (13%) but not RT (-0.2%) or CT (7%), whereas the improvements in one-repetition maximum bench press and parallel squat were greater in RT (24 and 23%, respectively) compared with CT (19 and 12%, respectively). Urinary urea nitrogen loss was greater in ET (14.6 +/- 0.9 g/24 h) than in RT (11.7 +/- 1.0 g/24 h) and CT (11.5 +/- 1.0 g/24 h) at the end of 10 wk of training. These data indicate that, although RT alone will increase BMR and muscular strength, and ET alone will increase aerobic power and decrease BF, CT will provide all of these benefits but to a lesser magnitude than RT and ET after 10 wk of training.

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... The result from the quality assessment can be found in the supplementary information (Appendix S1). Fourteen of the studies [3, 4, 10, 11, 14, 15, 21-24, 35, 38-40] provided evidence of moderate quality, and 13 studies [5,6,8,12,13,16,25,36,[41][42][43][44][45] presented evidence of high quality. ...
... A total of 750 participants were included (523 men and 227 women), aged 20-38 years. Seven studies involved untrained individuals [11][12][13][14][21][22][23], 10 studies involved moderately trained individuals [3,5,10,15,16,[38][39][40][41]45], and 10 studies involved trained individuals [4,6,8,24,25,35,36,[42][43][44]. The corresponding authors of 16 studies were contacted [3-6, 14-16, 21, 22, 25, 36, 38-42] for clarification or missing information via e-mail, of whom five responded with additional information [5,15,16,36,39]. ...
... The endurance exercise type (interval/continuous/mixed) was 0/6/1 for untrained, 9/6/1 for moderately trained, and 11/2/2 for trained participants. Of the studies, 12 performed concurrent resistance and endurance training within the same session (< 20 min between sessions) [4,5,13,14,16,21,23,25,36,40,43,45], 13 performed concurrent resistance and endurance trainings during different sessions (> 2 h between sessions) [3, 6, 10-12, 15, 24, 25, 35, 38, 39, 41, 44], two of the studies mixed performing concurrent resistance and endurance training during the same and different sessions during the training programme [8,22], and one study did not report whether the trainings were performed in the same or different sessions [42]. With regard to the outcome variables, 15 of the studies measured the maximal dynamic strength with leg press exercise (and two of these also measured squat exercise) [5, 6, 10-13, 15, 16, 21, 23, 24, 39-41, 45], and 14 with squat exercise [3,4,8,14,22,24,25,35,36,38,40,[42][43][44]]. ...
Article
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Background The effect of concurrent training on the development of maximal strength is unclear, especially in individuals with different training statuses. Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to compare the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training with that of resistance training only on the development of maximal dynamic strength in untrained, moderately trained, and trained individuals. Methods On the basis of the predetermined criteria, 27 studies that compared effects between concurrent and resistance training only on lower-body 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength were included. The effect size (ES), calculated as the standardised difference in mean, was extracted from each study, pooled, and analysed with a random-effects model. Results The 1RM for leg press and squat exercises was negatively affected by concurrent training in trained individuals (ES = – 0.35, p < 0.01), but not in moderately trained ( – 0.20, p = 0.08) or untrained individuals (ES = 0.03, p = 0.87) as compared to resistance training only. A subgroup analysis revealed that the negative effect observed in trained individuals occurred only when resistance and endurance training were conducted within the same training session (ES same session = – 0.66, p < 0.01 vs. ES different sessions = – 0.10, p = 0.55). Conclusion This study demonstrated the novel and quantifiable effects of training status on lower-body strength development and shows that the addition of endurance training to a resistance training programme may have a negative impact on lower-body strength development in trained, but not in moderately trained or untrained individuals. This impairment seems to be more pronounced when training is performed within the same session than in different sessions. Trained individuals should therefore consider separating endurance from resistance training during periods where the development of dynamic maximal strength is prioritised.
... For example, Luhrmann et al. (2010) investigated 513 individuals with an average age of 67.4 ± 5.5 years and reported that RMR decreased by 34.1 Kj (4.1-5.2%) per year in males and noted a further decrease in a 10-year follow-up. The age-related decrease in RMR is associated with reductions in mitochondrial membrane proton permeability (Wilson & Morley, 2003), Na + -K + pump activity (Dolezal & Potteiger, 1998;Luhrmann, Bender, Edelmann-Schafer, & Neuhauser-Berthold, 2009). ...
... We also observed a significant positive correlation between the change in LM and RMR in the CT group. Previous researchers (Dolezal & Potteiger, 1998;Pratley et al., 1994) have reported increases in lean mass in young and middle-aged males who completed strength training with commensurate increases in RMR. Dolezal & Potteiger (1998) concluded that both resistance training and/or endurance training may significantly increase RMR in younger individuals. ...
... Previous researchers (Dolezal & Potteiger, 1998;Pratley et al., 1994) have reported increases in lean mass in young and middle-aged males who completed strength training with commensurate increases in RMR. Dolezal & Potteiger (1998) concluded that both resistance training and/or endurance training may significantly increase RMR in younger individuals. The present study is the first to observe the same finding in veteran athletes undertaking CT training consisting of endurance, sprint and strength training. ...
Article
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High-intensity concurrent sprint and strength training has been shown to provide a strong physiological training stimulus in young adult endurance athletes. However, the effect in veteran endurance athletes remains unknown. This study examined if replacing a portion of endurance training with concurrent sprint and strength training influenced resting metabolic rate (RMR) and lean mass (LM) in veteran endurance cyclists. Eighteen well-trained male veteran road cyclists (55.2 ± 8.4 years; 7.9 ± 1.1 training hrs/wk; 323 ± 53 W peak ) were allocated to a concurrent strength and sprint training group (CT, n = 9) or control group (CON, n = 9). The CT group completed a 12-weeks of sprint and strength training while the CON group maintained their normal endurance training. RMR and LM were measured before and after the 12-week training intervention. CT training significantly (p < 0.05) increased both RMR (+14.2%, 1600 ± 244 to 1828 ± 207 kcal/day) and LM (+2.0%, 61.8 ± 5.5 to 63.1 ± 5.4 kg) pre to post-intervention. No significant changes from pre- to post-training were observed in the CON group. These findings suggest replacing a portion of endurance training with sprint and strength training may preserve, and even increase, LM and RMR in veteran road cyclists.
... While some authors report a significant increase in BMR (3e10%) [45e53], others indicate it to remain unchanged after an aerobic exercise training program [54e59]. Only a few studies have investigated their combined effects (i.e., concurrent training), with a significant increase in BMR reported after a 10-week concurrent training program in physically active men [60], but no change in BMR after a 20-week concurrent training program in sedentary middle-aged women [61] (this latter result partially agrees with the present findings). ...
... Earlier studies investigating the effect of high intensity interval training on BMR in healthy adults aged 18e50 years suggested significant improvements (~4%) [54,62]. Although in the present study no significant difference was seen in BMR between the HIIT and the control groups after the intervention, a non-significant increase of about 3% was seen (the same magnitude as reported by the above-mentioned studies [60,61]). ...
... Others factors have been described that might explain the increase in BMR after an exercise training program, including (i) the upregulation of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and catecholamines, (ii) an increase in substrate flux activity and enzymatic reactions, and (iii) increased protein synthesis [46,49,60]. Further investigations are needed to determine the signalling molecules and physiological pathways that induce the changes in BMR after following an exercise program for several weeks. ...
Article
Background & aims: This study compares the influence of different exercise training programs on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fat oxidation, in basal conditions (BFox) and during exercise (MFO), in sedentary, middle-aged adults. Methods: The study subjects of this 12 week-long, randomised controlled trial, were 71 middle-aged adults (age 53.5 ± 4.9 years; 52% women). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) no exercise, (2) concurrent training based on international physical activity recommendations (PAR group), (3) high intensity interval training (HIIT group), and (4) high intensity interval training plus whole-body electromyostimulation (HIIT + EMS group). Subject BMR, BFox and MFO were determined by indirect calorimetry before and after the intervention. Results: The HIIT + EMS subjects showed significant increases in BFox following the intervention compared with the control group (all P = 0.043); no such differences were seen in the PAR and HIIT compared with the control group (all P ≥ 0.1). A significant increase in post-intervention MFO was noted for the HIIT and HIIT + EMS group compared to the non-exercise control group (P < 0.05); no such difference was seen in the PAR group compared to the control group (all P ≥ 0.05). Conclusions: Twelve weeks of high intensity interval training plus whole-body electromyostimulation may increase the BFox and MFO of middle-aged sedentary adults. These findings have important clinical implications; a well-designed high-intensity interval training program plus whole-body electromyostimulation might be followed to help combat the appearance of chronic metabolic diseases characterized by metabolic inflexibility in middle-aged sedentary adults, though it will be necessary to determine how long the effects last.
... 13,14 This phenomenon has been confirmed by several studies. 11,12,[15][16][17][18] The extent to which this interference occurs depends on the exercise order, intensity and duration. 15,[19][20][21] It seems to be pronounced for lower body power adaptations. ...
... 20,118 It is indicated that the impaired strength adaptations are caused by interference effects of endurance training. 13,24,25 While some studies found interference effects, 13,16,17,22 other findings demonstrated similar strength development in the concurrent training group. 85,128,129 As a caveat, these studies focused on strength development over the season and did not examine a control group that only does strength training, did not assess differences in the magnitude of improvements or lacked statistical rigor (meaning that the sample sizes were too low). ...
Article
Background: Concurrent strength and endurance training could interfere with adaptation, which primarily affects long-term strength development. However, so far, research on this theme has rarely focused on ways to optimize concurrent strength and endurance training in team sports. Objectives: This paper aims to summarize the literature on the effects of concurrent training on aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways as well as strength and jump performance measures in team sports (invasion games) to provide recommendations for its application. Methods: A systematic literature review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted. Various reliable sources with only experimental studies investigating the effect of concurrent training on sport-specific performance measures in team sports (invasion games) were included. Two researchers independently evaluated the risk of bias with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Results: From 1649 records, 24 were included: 12 in children/adolescents ( n = 428; aged up to 18 years) and 12 in adults ( n = 620; aged 19–30 years), respectively. Thirteen of 24 studies reported improved endurance (V˙O 2max , YoYoIR) and strength (CMJ, SJ and 1RM) performance by adding additional resistance training in young and adult team sport players with different training status, and nine of 24 studies reported more pronounced interference effects in older and more experienced players. Discussion: Concurrent training can improve endurance and strength performance in team sports athletes. However, it is revealed that concurrent training can lead to diminished effects, which might be minimized by extended recovery time between sessions, adapted sequencing order and endurance exercise modality. With maturity and developing training status, an increased importance of these variables was documented.
... While concurrent training is a popular and required strategy among athletes and non-athletes alike for enhanced performance and health and also employed by rehabilitation clinicians following injury, surgery, etc., evidence from multiple studies demonstrates that the magnitude of increase with concurrent training in muscle strength, power and, to a lesser extent, hypertrophy, can be attenuated when compared to resistance training undertaken in isolation [31][32][33][34][35]. Coined as the 'interference effect' from early work in the 1980s [34] and confirmed by subsequent studies [35], it has been shown that when high volumes (> 4 sessions per week) and intensity (> 70% VO 2max ) of endurance exercise are performed in a concurrent resistance and endurance training program that gains in muscle strength, hypertrophy and power are significantly lower compared to when the same resistance training program is performed in isolation. ...
... A limitation of the previously discussed studies is their short-term duration (4-6 weeks). When considering that many of the studies without a nutritional intervention that have investigated the effects of concurrent training do not report 'interference' in muscle strength and hypertrophy adaptations until at least weeks 8-9 of a concurrent training program [27,31,32,80], longer duration interventions would appear to be more suitable to appropriately interrogate the effects of protein ingestion within this training paradigm. Shamim and colleagues were the first to specifically compare the effects of a 12-weeks 'high' protein diet (2 g/ kg/day) on changes in lean body mass and strength between groups undertaking resistance or aerobic-based exercise in isolation (each performed 3 days per week) and a concurrent training group (combination of both modalities training 6 days per week) in young and recreationally trained adult males [81] (Table 2). ...
Article
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Concurrent training incorporates dual exercise modalities, typically resistance and aerobic-based exercise, either in a single session or as part of a periodized training program, that can promote muscle strength, mass, power/force and aerobic capacity adaptations for the purposes of sports performance or general health/wellbeing. Despite multiple health and exercise performance-related benefits, diminished muscle hypertrophy, strength and power have been reported with concurrent training compared to resistance training in isolation. Dietary protein is well-established to facilitate skeletal muscle growth, repair and regeneration during recovery from exercise. The degree to which increased protein intake can amplify adaptation responses with resistance exercise, and to a lesser extent aerobic exercise, has been highly studied. In contrast, much less focus has been directed toward the capacity for protein to enhance anabolic and metabolic responses with divergent contractile stimuli inherent to concurrent training and potentially negate interference in muscle strength, power and hypertrophy. This review consolidates available literature investigating increased protein intake on rates of muscle protein synthesis, hypertrophy, strength and force/power adaptations following acute and chronic concurrent training. Acute concurrent exercise studies provide evidence for the significant stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with protein compared to placebo ingestion. High protein intake can also augment increases in lean mass with chronic concurrent training, although these increases do not appear to translate into further improvements in strength adaptations. Similarly, the available evidence indicates protein intake twice the recommended intake and beyond does not rescue decrements in selective aspects of muscle force and power production with concurrent training.
... The measurements before and after exercise training for 4 weeks were performed during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle that was determined by the day of menstruation. This study was implemented after approval by the Yamaguchi Prefectural University Bioethics Committee (approval number: [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. The purpose, methods, and risks of the experiment were sufficiently explained to the subjects beforehand and written consent was obtained. ...
... Accordingly, the resting metabolic rate may increase unless exercise training increases the skeletal muscle mass and markedly decreases the amount of body fat. In a study implementing 10-week training in physically active young males 34) , resistance training increased the basal metabolic rate with an increase in the lean body mass (free fat mass) and decrease in the amount of body fat (fat mass), whereas endurance training reduced the basal metabolic rate by decreasing the fat mass without changing the free fat mass. In our study, the aerobic exercise intervention was performed in young adult females. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of aerobic exercise training on the coldness of the body and physiologically-related factors in Japanese young women with cold constitution. Eighteen subjects were divided into two groups: exercise (E) and non-exercise control (C) groups. Subjects in the E group performed exercise training of fast walking 4 days or more per week for 4 weeks. The training significantly decreased the scores for cold feeling in the fingertips and toes, but did not change the metabolic rate or sublingual and skin temperatures in the hands and feet during rest under normothermic conditions. In the C group, all variables remained unchanged throughout the 4-week control period. These results suggest that aerobic exercise mitigated coldness in the distal portion of the extremities via the reduction of cold sensation at a normal body temperature in young women complaining of chilliness.
... Este factor depende en gran medida de la cantidad de masa libre de grasa, de modo que a mayor cantidad de masa libre de grasa mayor tasa metabólica de reposo. La tasa metabólica de reposo es el componente que más influye en el gasto energético total diario (46,56), de modo que mediante un entrenamiento de hipertrofia se aumentaría la masa muscular, aumentando así la tasa metabólica de reposo (93,94). ...
... Incluso en personas obesa, aquellas que tienen diagnosticada diabetes tienen un mayor ritmo metabólico de reposo que aquellas personas obesas que no padecían diabetes (117). Tal y como se explicó anteriormente, el ritmo metabólico de reposo se puede aumentar al aumentar la masa muscular con un entrenamiento de hipertrofia (93,94). ...
Book
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La obesidad debe de dejar de verse como un simple exceso de tejido adiposo. Es un problema complejo y multifactorial donde acontecen una serie de alteraciones principalmente metabólicas. Además, existen numerosas comorbilidades asociadas a ella. Por tanto, no se puede tratar la obesidad centrándose exclusivamente en el balance energético. Debido a esto, el objetivo de este trabajo es elaborar una estrategia práctica de intervención basadas en las causas del mapa de la obesidad que hacen que una persona sea obesa. Factores que influyen en la obesidad: Para conocer cuáles son las causas presentes del mapa de la obesidad fácilmente modificables que pueden influir en un obeso determinado, se proponen una serie de herramientas de evaluación. Las herramientas de evaluación propuestas en este trabajo se aplicaron a un sujeto y se elaboró una estrategia de intervención. Resultados: Las diferentes áreas del mapa de la obesidad estaban afectadas de la siguiente forma: psicología social (48,43%), actividad física individual (31,25%), consumo de comidas (30%), psicología individual (28,43%), producción de comidas (20%), actividad física ambiental (18,75%) y fisiología (12,5%). Intervención y discusión: Como estudiante de ciencias del deporte, la intervención la he propuesto en las áreas de actividad física individual y ambiental. Se le propuso al sujeto realizar durante su tiempo de ocio aficiones más activas debido a su bajo nivel de actividad física recreacional. También, dados los valores tan bajos de actividad física ocupacional y laboral se le animó a contrarrestar tanto tiempo sentado levantándose cada cierto tiempo. Por último, se le fue propuesto colaborar más en las tareas del hogar debido a su baja actividad física doméstica. Conclusión: La estrategia práctica de evaluación propuesta en este trabajo podría ser una alternativa eficaz para tratar de combatir la obesidad al individualizar la intervención mediante una evaluación previa basada en las causas.
... In this study, changes in body composition did not differ between experimental and control groups; however, resistance training is one of the best modalities to improve body composition and increase muscle strength. Dolezal et al. (1998) evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of resistance training (3 sessions per week) on body composition of active males and found a reduction in fat percentage and fat weight [14]. In addition, Pollock et al. (1996) examined the impact of resistance training on body composition and found an increase in fat free mass with reduction of body fat following training [32]. ...
... In this study, changes in body composition did not differ between experimental and control groups; however, resistance training is one of the best modalities to improve body composition and increase muscle strength. Dolezal et al. (1998) evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of resistance training (3 sessions per week) on body composition of active males and found a reduction in fat percentage and fat weight [14]. In addition, Pollock et al. (1996) examined the impact of resistance training on body composition and found an increase in fat free mass with reduction of body fat following training [32]. ...
Article
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Study aim : The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week circuit-type resistance training program on performance changes and neurotransmitter disruptions induced by industrial opiate in previously addicted men. Materials and methods : Thirty industrial opiate addicted men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 15) and control groups (n = 15). The subjects in the experimental group performed circuit-type resistance training for 8 weeks, 3 days a week, with 40–75% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), while the control group did not perform any training. Before and after the training period muscular strength (1RM of bench press) and muscle endurance (sit-ups), flexibility (sit-and-reach), body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and cardio-respiratory endurance were measured. In addition, blood samples were drawn 24 h before and after 8 weeks of training to analyze serum levels of serotonin, dopamine, and endorphins. Results : In this study, 8 weeks of circuit-type resistance training led to significantly higher serum levels of serotonin, dopamine, and endorphins, cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance in the experimental group compared to controls (P < 0.05), while flexibility, body fat percentage and WHR did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Conclusions : In conclusion, circuit resistance training can improve the serum levels of serotonin, dopamine, and endorphins, as well as indicators of health-related performance previously industrial opiate addicted men.
... Where w * is the ideal body weight 8 . Consumers maximize (15) subject to (4) and (5), and given (13). Since weight is not a decision by consumers, the Euler equation remains unchanged. ...
... From the tables, we can see there is a positive effect of GDP growth on body weight gain in each country. 13 It is also important to note that for each country, this effect is decreasing as the countries develop into more advanced economies. ...
Research Proposal
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The empirical evidence shows a positive relationship between income and obesity, but it lacks evidence of a dynamic relationship between income growth and the rise in obesity. This thesis attempts to explain the rise in obesity over time. I simulate the neoclassical growth model by Ramsey (1928), Cass (1965), and Koopmans (1965) (RCK) augmented with the Schofield (1985) equation to connect income growth to a rise in obesity prevalence. I then select economies from across the globe. There are three main results of my work. All studied countries are expected to reach a long run average BMI corresponding to overweightness (>25) or obesity (>30), except for Thailand. Some selected countries reach an average BMI that is overweight (Egypt, Turkey) or obese (Turkey) faster than other selected countries depending on their per capita income levels and growth rates. While there is a diminishing influence of income growth on body weight gain as a country develops, the effect of income growth on body weight is larger in rich than in poor countries.
... Whilst Gergley et al. [48] only compared cycling and walking, given that running produces greater mechanical stress and consequently higher eccentric loading than walking [51], the interference in training adaptation could be assumed to be more pronounced if running was incorporated instead of walking. In support of this hypothesis, Dolezal et al. [52] and Glowacki et al. [53] used running for the endurance training sessions, and, to date, these have been the only studies that have shown sub-optimal development in both strength and endurance adaptations. Furthermore, concurrent training studies that have reported sub-optimal endurance development have primarily incorporated running (e.g. ...
... Furthermore, concurrent training studies that have reported sub-optimal endurance development have primarily incorporated running (e.g. running VO 2max [19,[52][53][54][55], RE [56,57], 1-4 km running trial [23,58,59] and running time to exhaustion [59]) with fewer studies of cycling (e.g. cycling VO 2max [60] and 1 km cycling sprint [61]) and rowing (e.g. ...
Article
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Whilst the “acute hypothesis” was originally coined to describe the detrimental effects of concurrent training on strength development, similar physiological processes may occur when endurance training adaptations are compromised. There is a growing body of research indicating that typical resistance exercises impair neuromuscular function and endurance performance during periods of resistance training-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the attenuating effects of resistance training-induced muscle damage on endurance performance are influenced by exercise intensity, exercise mode, exercise sequence, recovery and contraction velocity of resistance training. By understanding the influence that training variables have on the level of resistance training-induced muscle damage and its subsequent attenuating effects on endurance performance, concurrent training programs could be prescribed in such a way that minimises fatigue between modes of training and optimises the quality of endurance training sessions. Therefore, this review will provide considerations for concurrent training prescription for endurance development based on scientific evidence. Furthermore, recommendations will be provided for future research by identifying training variables that may impact on endurance development as a result of concurrent training.
... Given these vastly divergent adaptations, the simultaneous development of muscular endurance and strength/power with concurrent training presents a high degree of complexity in exercise prescription [14]. Indeed, findings from multiple studies demonstrate 'interference' in the magnitude of increase in hypertrophy, strength and power with concurrent training compared to resistance training undertaken in isolation [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24], although these observations are not unequivocal [25][26][27][28]. ...
... The concurrent training 'interference effect' in strength and power adaptations was first observed by Hickson [15]. Since that seminal study, numerous investigations [18][19][20][21][22][23] have confirmed observations of compromised strength gains when strength and endurance training are undertaken concurrently. In contrast, others [25,[52][53][54][55][56][57] have reported little or no impairments to strength when undertaking concurrent training. ...
Article
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Background We implemented a high-protein diet (2 g·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) throughout 12 weeks of concurrent exercise training to determine whether interferences to adaptation in muscle hypertrophy, strength and power could be attenuated compared to resistance training alone. Methods Thirty-two recreationally active males (age: 25 ± 5 years, body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg·m⁻²; mean ± SD) performed 12 weeks of either isolated resistance (RES; n = 10) or endurance (END; n = 10) training (three sessions·w⁻¹), or concurrent resistance and endurance (CET; n = 12) training (six sessions·w⁻¹). Maximal strength (1RM), body composition and power were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results Leg press 1RM increased ~ 24 ± 13% and ~ 33 ± 16% in CET and RES from PRE-to-POST (P < 0.001), with no difference between groups. Total lean mass increased ~ 4% in both CET and RES from PRE-to-POST (P < 0.001). Ultrasound estimated vastus lateralis volume increased ~ 15% in CET and ~ 11% in RES from PRE-to-POST (P < 0.001), with no difference between groups. Wingate peak power relative to body mass displayed a trend (P = 0.053) to be greater in RES (12.5 ± 1.6 W·kg BM⁻¹) than both CET (10.8 ± 1.7 W·kg BM⁻¹) and END (10.9 ± 1.8 W·kg BM⁻¹) at POST. Absolute VO2peak increased 6.9% in CET and 12% in END from PRE-to-POST (P < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Conclusion Despite high protein availability, select measures of anaerobic power-based adaptations, but not muscle strength or hypertrophy, appear susceptible to ‘interference effects’ with CET and should be closely monitored throughout training macro-cycles. Trials Registry: This trial was registered with the Australian-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12617001229369). Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s40279-018-0999-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Adjusting RMR values for age, sex, fat-free mass, and pretrainingVO 2max did not affect the results (Table 14). There was a large pretraining to posttraining increase inVO 2max (17.9%) and small but significant differences in HR sleep , ( The effect of aerobic training has continued to be a topic of interest, with most studies since the 1998 HERITAGE publication showing that aerobic training does not affect RMR (154)(155)(156)(157)(158)(159)(160)(161)(162)(163)(164)(165)(166). One study showed that White women did not experience a change in RMR after 6 months of training, whereas Black women saw a decrease (167). ...
Article
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The aim of the HERITAGE Family Study was to investigate individual differences in response to a standardized endurance exercise program, the role of familial aggregation, and the genetics of response levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk factors. Here we summarize the findings and their potential implications for cardiometabolic health and cardiorespiratory fitness. It begins with overviews of background and planning, recruitment, testing and exercise program protocol, quality control measures, and other relevant organizational issues. A summary of findings is then provided on cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise hemodynamics, insulin and glucose metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profiles, adiposity and abdominal visceral fat, blood levels of steroids and other hormones, markers of oxidative stress, skeletal muscle morphology and metabolic indicators, and resting metabolic rate. These summaries document the extent of the individual differences in response to a standardized and fully monitored endurance exercise program and document the importance of familial aggregation and heritability level for exercise response traits. Findings from genomic markers, muscle gene expression studies, and proteomic and metabolomics explorations are reviewed, along with lessons learned from a bioinformatics-driven analysis pipeline. The new opportunities being pursued in integrative -omics and physiology have extended considerably the expected life of HERITAGE and are being discussed in relation to the original conceptual model of the study.
... The individual variation in RMR is substantially determined by the amount of lean body mass and it is well explored that RMR increases secondary to RT, at least in men [50][51][52][53] . ...
... Inconsistent with our findings, previous studies showed a significant decrease in the BFP compared to the control group in both CT orders, although there was no difference between the groups (14,15). BFP may change following CT exercise if the energy input is less than the energy consumed (16). Some studies reported that CT exercise significantly reduced BFP compared to other types of exercises but not compared to different exercise orders (17). ...
... Because RT acts to preserve FFM during weight loss, it may eliminate or attenuate metabolic compensatory responses such as the drop in RMR often seen with energy-restriction or aerobic exercise-induced weight loss (92). Indeed, RT and protocols using both RT and aerobic training increases RMR compared with aerobic exercise alone (94). When assessing differences in compensatory increases in energy intake between RT and aerobic exercise, there appears to be a sex effect, whereas only men are more prone to compensatory eating after RT, even when controlling for ExEE (95). ...
Article
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Obesity-related conditions are among the most expensive health care problems, accounting for $92 billion to $117 billion in annual health care costs. Obesity treatment has therefore emerged as a prime focus of health care. However, there is currently no reliable method to consistently attain and sustain weight loss as evidenced by the continually escalating prevalence of overweight/obese adults in the United States, now exceeding 70%. The difficulty many have in decreasing body weight and maintaining weight loss is largely because of a coordinated set of compensatory mechanisms the body uses to resist maintenance of an energy deficit induced by exercise or energy-restricted dieting. By working to maintain energy balance, these compensatory mechanisms represent an important barrier to many individuals’ weight loss efforts. For this review, relevant publications were searched via PubMed database using the terms obesity treatment, exercise, energy compensation, compensatory mechanisms, and weight loss. This paper provides an overview of these specific compensatory mechanisms, the physiology driving them, and how different exercise modalities influence energy compensation. There are many sources of energy compensation including metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral, which may either drive eating behaviors or reduce energy expenditure when attempting weight loss. Exercise is a useful weight loss strategy only if these compensatory mechanisms do not completely abolish the negative energy balance produced by exercise. There is evidence that greater amounts of exercise can overcome these compensatory responses to produce significant weight loss without dietary intervention. Journal of Clinical Exercise Physiology. 2021;10(2):51–61.
... A correction has been made to Introduction, Paragraph 1: Combining resistance-and endurance-based exercise training, or 'concurrent exercise training, ' has previously been shown to impair strength and power adaptations compared to resistance training undertaken in isolation (Hickson, 1980;Craig et al., 1991;Hennessy and Watson, 1994;Kraemer et al., 1995;Dolezal and Potteiger, 1998;Bell et al., 2000;Häkkinen et al., 2003;Mikkola et al., 2012;Fyfe et al., 2016 and is referred to as the 'interference effect.' Notably, the result of concurrent exercise training on 'interferences' to lean mass gains relative to resistance training alone appear equivocal, with some studies showing greater gains in lean mass compared to resistance training alone (Kraemer et al., 1995;Bell et al., 2000;Rønnestad et al., 2012;Lundberg et al., 2013Lundberg et al., , 2014Tomiya et al., 2017;, while others have observed comparable (de Souza et al., 2013) or smaller gains in lean mass compared to resistance training alone (Sale et al., 1990;Timmons et al., 2018;Spiliopoulou et al., 2019). ...
... Similar to our findings in IIM patients, stability training improved the standing stability also in neuropathic patients with type 2 diabetes [56] and in hemiplegic stroke patients [57]. In accordance with our findings, a 10-week concurrent resistance and endurance training, as well as merely a resistance training, increased basal metabolism (BMR) in healthy young men [58]. Similarly, a stabilization of muscle fitness (ECM/BCM) from a 12month guided exercise program was observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at months 6 and 12 of the study by Jungblut et al., compared to progressive deterioration in those who did not exercise [59]. ...
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Background The structural and functional changes of the skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) caused by inflammation and immune changes can be severely disabling. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week program combining a supervised training of activities of daily living (ADL), resistance, and stability with home exercise for improving muscle function, compared to a daily home-based exercise representing the regular outpatient care. Methods Fifty-seven patients with IIM were consecutively and non-selectively enrolled in an intervention (IG, n = 30) or control (CG, n = 27) group. Both groups were provided a standard-of-care pharmacological treatment and follow-up. Only the IG underwent the supervised intervention twice a week for 1 h per session. At baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks, all patients were assessed by an assessor blinded to the intervention for primary outcomes: muscle strength (Manual Muscle Testing of eight muscle groups [MMT-8]) and endurance (Functional Index-2 [FI-2]), and secondary outcomes: stability and body composition. Secondary outcomes also included questionnaires evaluating disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ]), quality of life (Short Form 36 [SF-36]), depression (Beck’s Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]), and fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale [FIS]), and analysis of the systemic and local inflammatory response and perceived exertion to assess the safety of the intervention. Results Twenty-seven patients in the IG and 23 in the CG completed the entire program and follow-up. At week 24, compared to deterioration in the CG, we found a significant improvement in the IG in muscle strength (mean % improvement compared to baseline by 26%), endurance (135%), disability (39%), depression (26%), stability (11%), and basal metabolism (2%) and a stabilization of fitness for physical exercise. The improvement was clinically meaningful (a 24-week change by >20%) in most outcomes in a substantial proportion of patients. Although the improvement was still present at 48 weeks, the effect was not sustained during follow-up. No significant increase in the systemic or local expression of inflammatory markers was found throughout the intervention. Conclusions This 24-week supervised intervention focused on ADL training proved to be safe and effective. It not only prevented the progressive deterioration, but also resulted in a significant improvement in muscle strength, endurance, stability, and disability, which was clinically meaningful in a substantial proportion of patients. Trial registration ISRCTN35925199 (retrospectively registered on 22 May 2020).
... Combining resistance-and endurance-based exercise training, or 'concurrent exercise training, ' has previously been shown to impair strength and power adaptations compared to resistance training undertaken in isolation (Hickson, 1980;Craig et al., 1991;Hennessy and Watson, 1994;Kraemer et al., 1995;Dolezal and Potteiger, 1998;Bell et al., 2000;Häkkinen et al., 2003;Mikkola et al., 2012;Fyfe et al., 2016 and is referred to as the 'interference effect.' ...
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Concurrent exercise training has been suggested to create an ‘interference effect,’ attenuating resistance training-based skeletal muscle adaptations, including myofibre hypertrophy. Satellite cells support myofibre hypertrophy and are influenced by exercise mode. To determine whether satellite cells contribute to the ‘interference effect’ changes in satellite cell and myonuclear content were assessed following a period of training in 32 recreationally active males (age: 25 ± 5 year; body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg⋅m –2 ; mean ± SD) who undertook 12-week of either isolated (3 d⋅w –1 ) resistance (RES; n = 10), endurance (END; n = 10), or alternate day (6 d⋅w –1 ) concurrent (CET, n = 12) training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained pre-intervention and after 2, 8, and 12 weeks of training to determine fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell content (Pax7 ⁺ DAPI ⁺ ), and myonuclei (DAPI ⁺ ) using immunofluorescence microscopy. After 12 weeks, myofibre CSA increased in all training conditions in type II ( P = 0.0149) and mixed fibres ( P = 0.0102), with no difference between conditions. Satellite cell content remained unchanged after training in both type I and type II fibres. Significant correlations were observed between increases in fibre type-specific myonuclear content and CSA of Type I ( r = 0.63, P < 0.0001), Type II ( r = 0.69, P < 0.0001), and mixed fibres ( r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Resistance, endurance, and concurrent training induce similar myofibre hypertrophy in the absence of satellite cell and myonuclear pool expansion. These findings suggest that myonuclear accretion via satellite cell fusion is positively correlated with hypertrophy after 12 weeks of concurrent training, and that individuals with more myonuclear content displayed greater myofibre hypertrophy.
... The influence of concurrent training on energy metabolismrelated parameters has been previously investigated obtaining controversial findings. On the one hand, a significant increase of RMR was observed after a 10-week concurrent training program in physically active men (Dolezal and Potteiger, 1998), whereas no significant changes were noted neither in RMR nor in resting substrates oxidation in response to both a 20-and 12-week concurrent training interventions in sedentary middleaged women (Byrne and Wilmore, 2001) and in middle-aged sedentary adults (Amaro-Gahete et al., 2020), respectively. On the other hand, there is also controversy regarding the effects of both aerobic and resistance training on MFO. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week concurrent training intervention on cardiometabolic health in obese men. Twelve obese men (42.5 ± 5.3 years old) participated in the current 12−week randomized controlled trial with a parallel group design. The participants were randomly assigned to a concurrent training group or to a no-exercise control group. Anthropometry and body composition assessment were determined by electrical bio-impedance. Blood samples were obtained and a cardiometabolic risk Z-Score was calculated. Energy metabolism-related parameters [i.e., resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation in both resting conditions and during exercise] were determined by indirect calorimetry. Echocardiographic studies were performed using an ultrasound system equipped with a transducer to measure cardiac function. A significant decrease of weight (= −4.21 kg; i.e., primary outcome), body mass index (= −1.32 kg/m 2), fat mass (FM; = −3.27 kg), blood pressure (BP; = −10.81 mmHg), and cardiometabolic risk Z-Score (= −0.39) was observed in the exercise group compared with the control group (all P < 0.05), while no significant changes were noted in waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM), bone mineral content, glycemic and lipid profiles, liver function, nor in energy metabolism-related parameters (all P > 0.1). Moreover, a significant increment of left ventricular (LV) end diastolic diameter (= −4.35 mm) was observed in the exercise group compared with the control group (P = 0.02). A 12-week concurrent training intervention is an effective strategy to induce weight and fat loss with simultaneous reductions of BP and cardiometabolic risk, and improving cardiac function in obese men.
... But, RT even without caloric restriction, has favorable effect on body composition because it decreases FM including abdominal fat (Hunter et al., 2002;Cuff et al., 2003;Tresierras & Balady, 2009). On this sense, the most commonly cited reason for the reduction of FM and body weight by RT is that resting metabolic rate (RMR) theoretically increases as LBM increases (Pratley et al., 1994;Dolezal & Potteiger, 1998;Lemmer et al., 2001), resulting in a steady state increase in total energy expenditure and a corresponding negative shift in energy balance. ...
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Obesity is a multifactorial disease, affecting, along with overweight, over a third of the adult population worldwide. Although weight control is beneficial, the problem of poor compliance in weight loss programs is well known. Therefore, different strategies have been described against overweight. Among them, strategies such as intermittent fasting, time-restricted feeding and Ramadan fasting have been identified. In recent years, other strategies such as nutritional supplementation have gained significance on weight loss, mainly due to focusing on body composition is even more important than overall weight. In this sense, consumption of nutritional supplements in athletes and sedentary people have shown beneficial effects. Also, supplement intake such, protein, creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate; combined with resistance training resulted in an increased body weight and fat-free mass. So, although resistance training increases muscle mass and resting metabolic rate, it does not result in weight loss without caloric restriction. Despite this, it seems even without caloric restriction, has favorable effect on body composition because it decreases fat mass, including abdominal fat. According to the evidence, our review suggests that a strategy for improving body composition might be to use a mixed protocol that includes intermittent fasting, nutritional supplementation intake, and resistance training.
... It has long been thought that fluctuation of fat-free mass resulted in a change in SM mass and that internal organs such as the liver and kidneys remained unchanged following weight change. Moreover, previous studies reported that exercise-training induced changes in fat-free mass were significantly correlated with variations in REE following strength training [20,21]. Based on these findings, it has generally been accepted that a gain or loss in SM mass induces a change in REE and/or SEE following total body resistance training. ...
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Background and objectives: It has been well established that the resting energy expenditure (REE) for the whole body is the sum of the REE for each organ-tissue in young and middle-aged healthy adults. Based on these previous studies, although it is speculated that sleeping energy expenditure (SEE, which has small inter-individual variability) changes with a commensurate gain or reduction in the resting metabolic rate of each organ-tissue, it is unclear whether a change in organ-tissue masses is directly attributed to the fluctuation of SEE at present. This study aimed to assess the relationship between changes in organ-tissue mass and sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) following weight change in college Sumo wrestlers. This included blood analysis, which is related to energy expenditure. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 healthy male college Sumo wrestlers were recruited in this study. All measurements were obtained before and after weight change. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements were used to determine the volume of the skeletal muscle (SM), liver, and kidneys, and an indirect human calorimeter was used to determine SEE before and after weight change. Results: The change in body mass and SEE ranged between −8.7~9.5 kg, and −602~388 kcal/day. Moreover, changes in SM, liver, and kidneys ranged between −3.3~3.6 kg, −0.90~0.77 kg, and −0.12~0.07 kg. The change in SEE was not significantly correlated with the change in SM or liver mass, nor with blood analyses; however, a significant relationship between the change in kidney mass and SEE was observed. Conclusions: Based on our results, there is a possibility that the mass of the kidneys has an effect on the change in SEE following weight change in college Sumo wrestlers.
... In terms of energy expenditure, studies show that T1D patients have increased basal energy expenditure both untreated and after the withdrawal of insulin treatment [55,56]. Exercising individuals show higher basal metabolic rate both in self-comparison trials [57,58] and relative to non-exercise individuals [59]. Several studies also show that acromegaly patients have increased energy expenditure [49,50,54,60,61]. ...
Article
Disruption of endocrine hormonal balance (i.e., increased levels of insulin, and reduced levels of growth hormone, GH) often occurs in pre‐obesity and obesity. Using distinct intracellular signaling pathways to control cell and body metabolism, GH and insulin also regulate each other’s secretion to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of insulin and GH balance is essential for understanding endocrine hormonal contributions to energy storage and utilization. In this review we summarize the actions of, and interactions between, insulin and GH at the cellular level, and highlight the association between the insulin/GH ratio and energy metabolism, as well as fat accumulation. Use of the [insulin]:[GH] ratio as a biomarker for predicting the development of obesity is proposed.
... Earlier investigation had shown improved values with regard to percent body fat and fat mass from pre to post test in the 10 week training protocol (Dolezal et al., 1998 ...
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Background: Morbid obesity is a very serious medical condition and immediate treatment is necessary to control and maintains healthy body mass index to avoid further health problems. The purpose of this investigation was to find out the effect of combined aerobics and resistance-training protocol on coronary heart disease (CHD) variables among morbid obese males. Method: A group of (N=40) participants was selected randomly to take part in this investigation during the year 2019. The age of the participants was in the range between 19-23 years, combined training (aerobic cum resistance) protocol engaged for 12 weeks, 40 minutes of training per session and two days in a week. These participants were segregated into two groups namely Group-A (N=20, combined aerobic cum resistance training group), Group-B (N=20 control group). The combined aerobic cum resistance training employed on group-A and no specific training was advise to control group-B. The pre and post-test considered for the coronary heart disease test as follows; Body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, percent body fat, ANALYSIS
... In terms of energy expenditure, studies show that T1D patients have increased basal energy expenditure both untreated and after the withdrawal of insulin treatment [55,56]. Exercising individuals show higher basal metabolic rate both in self-comparison trials [57,58] and relative to non-exercise individuals [59]. Several studies also show that acromegaly patients have increased energy expenditure [49,50,54,60,61]. ...
Chapter
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Like many other neuroendocrine hormones, growth hormone (GH; somatotropin) secretion is pulsatile with regular releasing bursts on a relatively low constitutive basal secretion. This chapter discusses current knowledge of the regulation and the function of GH pulsatile profiles, with new development of laboratory approaches and introduces knowledge about GH functions on metabolic regulation in addition to the conventional concept of a role in regulating body growth. As reported in the literature, amplitude, frequency, and regularity of GH secretion are tightly linked to metabolic conditions with clear species and gender differences. In response to negative and positive energy balances, the GH pulsatile pattern changes to mobilize or store energy in adipose, muscle, and liver in order to accommodate the changing nutritional conditions. Changes in GH pulsatility are achieved through regulating the hypothalamo–pituitary GH axis with altered levels of key stimulatory and inhibitory hormones, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF, somatotropin release inhibiting factor). The hypothalamic–pituitary GH axis is constantly under the influence of peripheral metabolic factors, such as lipid and glucose levels; peripheral metabolic regulatory hormones, such as leptin and insulin; and central metabolic regulatory neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y and melanocortin. Regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary GH axis is achieved through activation of cell membrane receptors, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane ion channels. Detailed regulatory mechanisms are discussed in this chapter in order to understand the coupling of cell electrophysiological properties and the hormone secretory process of exocytosis in hypothalamic neurons and pituitary GH-secreting somatotrophs. Technical advances in electrophysiology, cell imaging analysis, and real-time in vivo hormone analysis are discussed to deepen the understanding of physiological and pathophysiological regulation of GH secretion. Future directions are also discussed, as are unanswered questions in this field.
... Some concerns related to an interference effect of combined strength and endurance training have been presented, but they have mainly addressed the possible attenuating training effect on maximal strength development [19]. Only one study [36] has found a detrimental effect of combined training on aerobic fitness. More recent reviews have concluded that combined strength and endurance training improves aerobic capacity to the same extent and decreases fat mass even more than either training mode performed independently [19]. ...
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Decreases in aerobic fitness during military operations have been observed in several studies. Thus, differences in training adaptations during a 6-month crisis-management operation were compared by using the change in endurance performance as the outcome measure. Sixty-six male soldiers volunteered for the study, consisting of pre–post assessments of blood biomarkers, body composition, physical performance, and the military simulation test (MST) performance. Physical training volume was self-reported. After the follow-up, the data were divided based on individual changes in endurance performance. Endurance performance was improved in the high-responder group (HiR, n = 25) and maintained or decreased in the low-responder group (LoR n = 24). During the operation, the LoR group decreased while the HiR group increased their endurance training frequency from the pre-deployment level (Δ 28 ± 57% vs. −40 ± 62%, p = 0.004). Fat mass decreased (−7.6 ± 11.7% vs. 14.2 ± 20.4%, p < 0.001), and 1-min push-up (27.7 ± 21.9% vs. 11.7 ± 26.1%, p = 0.004) and MST performance improved (−13.6 ± 6.8% vs. −7.5 ± 6.5%, p = 0.006) more in the HiR group. No differences were observed in the changes of other physical performance test results or analyzed biomarkers. In conclusion, soldiers who were initially leaner and fitter in terms of lower body strength and power were more likely to decrease their aerobic fitness during the operation.
... The EMBO Journal 39: e103304 | 2020 ª 2020 The Authors health, while resistance exercise presents stimulatory effects on fat loss and muscle hypertrophy (Kilani, 2010). Although both endurance and resistance exercise lead to fat loss (Benito et al, 2015), resistance but not endurance exercise increases muscle mass and resting metabolic rate (Poehlman et al, 1991(Poehlman et al, , 2002Dolezal & Potteiger, 1998;Hunter et al, 2000), providing better weight loss maintenance in long-term observation. There have been numerous analyses of plasma metabolites following acute endurance exercise in both clinical and animal models (Lewis et al, 2010;Huffman et al, 2014;Aguer et al, 2017;Duft et al, 2017;Starnes et al, 2017;Sato et al, 2019), which has generated a number of metabolomics "signatures" in the circulation. ...
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Beneficial effects of resistance exercise on metabolic health and particularly muscle hypertrophy and fat loss are well established, but the underlying chemical and physiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we identified a myometabolite-mediated metabolic pathway that is essential for the beneficial metabolic effects of resistance exercise in mice. We showed that substantial accumulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate α-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) is a metabolic signature of resistance exercise performance. Interestingly, human plasma AKG level is also negatively correlated with BMI. Pharmacological elevation of circulating AKG induces muscle hypertrophy, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in vivo. We further found that AKG stimulates the adrenal release of adrenaline through 2-oxoglutarate receptor 1 (OXGR1) expressed in adrenal glands. Finally, by using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mouse models, we showed that OXGR1 is essential for AKG-mediated exercise-induced beneficial metabolic effects. These findings reveal an unappreciated mechanism for the salutary effects of resistance exercise, using AKG as a systemically derived molecule for adrenal stimulation of muscle hypertrophy and fat loss.
... The evidence discussed earlier suggests the antihypertensive effects of isolated AE training (5-8 mmHg) and dynamic RT training (≈2-3 mmHg) for the same population [35][36][37][38]63]. Thus, it would be logical to think that combined exercises (AE + RT) performed in a single session or within a couple of hours one from another, which is referred to as concurrent [66] exercise or combined aerobic e-resistance exercise [67], could enhance the antihypertensive effect. The Combined Training (CT) conferred the antihypertensive benefit to SAH individuals ≈15-9 mmHg [68] compared with prehypertension ≈2-7-4 mmHg [69], older men with SAH (12-24 mmHg) from BP at rest, respectively. ...
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Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is a chronic condition that requires clinical treatment and is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Therefore, strategies with fewer side effects and less invasive procedures are required. Evidence supports that Physical Exercise (PE) has antihypertensive effects and has proven to be an efficient and complementary tool for managing hypertension, reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors, and improving cerebral perfusion in the majority of healthy populations. Much of this cardiovascular-protective effect of PE is probably due to pluripotent effects on the vasculature, including regulation of vascular tone, energy metabolism, microvascular recruitment, and endothelial function (reducing oxidative stress and preserving NO availability). These factors are speculated to work synergistically, thereby reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and are directly related to improved cerebrovascular function. However, few studies have specifically examined the potential positive effects of PE on the brain in hypertensive individuals. In this brief review, we discuss the potential effect of different PE modalities (aerobic, resistance, and combined) that may act as an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for reducing blood pressure in hypertensives and, consequently, mitigate the association between hypertension, cognitive impairment and risk of dementia.
... 19 Cardiorespiratory and strength training performed successively during the same training session is characterized as concurrent training (CT), 20,21 and is an important strategy for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. Reducing total body fat, increasing lean body mass and basal metabolic rate, 22,23 and lowering proinflammatory adipocytokine levels 24 result in positive responses. Thus, both types of training induce adaptations in skeletal muscles that will combat a range of disorders affecting functional capacity and metabolic health, including sarcopenia, type II diabetes and obesity. ...
... There is increasing evidence that central obesity is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease than measures of general obesity (23), such as BMI and body mass. Previous research has shown resistance training to improve glucose tolerance (24) and glycosylated haemoglobin, as well as strength and lean body mass (25). The lack of body mass loss observed with resistance training in this study supports the findings of others and is driven by increase in lean body mass (26). ...
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Introduction and Aim: The overweight refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of body fat. The important cause of overweight in today’s generation is ill dietary habits lifestyle changes and lack of physical activity. Various training have been designed for overweight such as aerobic training, resistance training and others. Overweight also reduced by aerobic training. The study aims to compare the effect of aerobic training and resistance training on overweight patients. Materials and Methods: Subjects were included from DR. MGR Educational and Research institute, ladies Hostel, Adayalampettu Campus. 30 subjects were participating BMI of the subjects is assessed. The subjects are divided into 2 groups. Group A(resistance training) and Group B (aerobic training). Results: On comparing the Mean values of Group A & Group B on Waist Hip Ratio, it shows significant decrease in the post test Mean values but (Group B - Aerobic Exercise) shows which has the Lower Mean value is more effective than (Group A - Resistance Exercise) . Conclusion: The result of this study conducted that 12 weeks training program on resistance and aerobic training are constitute to be reduce in overweight.On comparing the post mean value of BMI, waist circumference,waist hip ratio of group (B)shows significant reduction when compared to group (A).hence this study suggest that aerobic training \ beneficial to overweight patients.
... The simultaneous combination of resistance training (RT) and endurance training is known as concurrent training. Studies have shown that concurrent training can compromise muscle hypertrophy (Hickson, 1980;Kraemer et al., 1995), strength (Bell, Syrotuik, Martin, Burnham, & Quinney, 2000;Dolezal & Potteiger, 1998;Kraemer et al., 1995) and power (Hunter, Demment, & Miller, 1987;Kraemer et al., 1995;Leveritt, Abernethy, Barry, & Logan, 1999), when compared to RT alone. This supposedly results from a combination of chronic overreaching, and long-term competing adaptations at the cellular level . ...
... Until now, many studies have investigated the effect of CT programs on both resistance and endurance training adaptations, with many controversial results. The majority of them provide strong evidence that after CT intervention muscle hypertrophy, strength and power adaptations were mostly attenuated, compared with those after isolated strength training stimuli [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. By contrast, there are several studies providing strong evidence that resistance training adaptations are not suppressed, but further increased after CT [15,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
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The majority of sports rely on concurrent training (CT; e.g., the simultaneous training of strength and endurance). However, a phenomenon called “Concurrent training effect” (CTE), which is a compromise in adaptation resulting from concurrent training, appears to be mostly affected by the interference of the molecular pathways of the underlying adaptations from each type of training segments. Until now, it seems that the volume, intensity, type, frequency of endurance training, as well as the training history and background strongly affect the CTE. High volume, moderate, continuous and frequent endurance training, are thought to negatively affect the resistance training-induced adaptations, probably by inhibition of the Protein kinase B—mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation, of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, it seems that short bouts of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or sprint interval training (SIT) minimize the negative effects of concurrent training. This is particularly the case when HIIT and SIT incorporated in cycling have even lower or even no negative effects, while they provide at least the same metabolic adaptations, probably through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC-1a) pathway. However, significant questions about the molecular events underlying the CTE remain unanswered.
... Physical activity is recommended as an important component of weight loss and prevention of weight gain [1]. The main benefits of physical activity in weight management are the energy expenditure (EE) during the exercise [2] and the improvement of muscle mass, which results in a higher resting metabolic rate [3][4][5]. Considering the different characteristics of aerobic and resistance training, the former seems to be more effective to improve EE during exercise [4], while the latter is the best strategy to enhance muscle mass [6]. Thus, the association of both aerobic and resistance exercises in the same session (i.e., concurrent training) seems to be an efficient strategy for weight management and physical fitness improvement. ...
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To compare the acute effects of different intra-session exercise sequences and aerobic exercise modalities during concurrent training sessions on oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure (EE) in young women. Eleven young women volunteered to participate in this study and underwent tests of their dynamic strength and a maximal incremental test on both the treadmill and cycle ergometer. Four concurrent training sessions were performed: resistance-running (RRu), resistance-cycling (RC), running-resistance (RuR) and cycling-resistance (CR). The aerobic exercise lasted 30 minutes and was performed at a heart rate equivalent to 95% of the second ventilatory threshold. The resistance exercise lasted approximately 21 minutes and consisted of 4 sets of 10 RM in each exercise. The VO2 was continuously evaluated through the portable gas analyser. No differences were found in the VO2 between the intra-session exercise sequence independently of aerobic modality (i.e., RRu vs. RuR, and RC vs. CR), and the sessions with the running aerobic exercise showed greater VO2 than sessions using cycling aerobic exercise in both exercise sequences (VO2aerobic (ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹) – RRu: 27.5; RuR: 27.1; RC: 20.2; CR: 20.8). The present study showed that the intra-session exercise sequence during concurrent training does not influence VO2. However, the optimal combination of resistance and aerobic exercise should include running in order to increase VO2 and optimize EE.
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A atividade física tem sido apontada como estratégia eficaz na redução e para minimizar os efeitos do estresse, que tem atingido, cada vez mais, pessoas jovens no momento do vestibular. Desse modo, o presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de 16 semanas de condicionamento físico sobre o nível de estresse em ingressantes universitárias. Participaram desse estudo 35 mulheres, não ativas fisicamente, de 18 a 30 anos. O nível de estresse e sua sintomatologia foram avaliados através do uso do Inventário de Sintomas de Stress de Lipp (ISSL) nos momentos pré e pós a intervenção. A sessão de treinamento constava com exercícios aeróbios e de resistência muscular localizada, (60min, três sessões/semana). Para a análise dos dados do ISSL, verificaram-se as tabelas de correção das fases e sintomas de estresse. No início o valor percentual de alunas que apresentaram estresse foi de 48,58% sendo ao final reduzido para 37,14%. As ingressantes que apresentaram sintomas físicos no momento pré eram 4,57±2,94 tendo esse valor reduzido para 3,83±3,57 após o treinamento, e os sintomas psicológicos tiveram redução de 4,80±3,77 no momento pré para 4,23±3,04 no momento pós treinamento. Houve mudança na fase de estresse em que estavam as ingressantes, no início todas estavam na fase de resistência (48,58%), enquanto que ao final houve predomínio da fase de resistência (31,42%) em relação à fase de alerta (2,85%). Conclui-se que houve diminuição da prevalência de estresse em ingressantes universitárias após 16 semanas de condicionamento físico. Além disso, houve redução dos sintomas físicos e psicológicos e mudança na fase de estresse em que as alunas se encontravam, mostrando que esse programa exerceu influencia positiva sobre a diminuição dos níveis de estresse. Palavras-chave: Estresse, mulheres, treinamento físico.
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New findings: What is the central question of this study? First, how does physical rehabilitation influence recovery from traumatic muscle injury? Second, how does physical activity impact the rehabilitation response for skeletal muscle function and whole-body metabolism? What is the main finding and its importance? The most salient findings are that rehabilitation impaired muscle function and range of motion; while restricting activity mitigated some negative effects but also impacted whole-body metabolism. This data suggests that first, work must continue to explore treatment parameters including modality, time, type, duration, and intensity to find the best rehabilitation approaches for volumetric muscle loss injuries. Second, restricting activity acutely might enhance rehabilitation response, but whole-body co-morbidities should continue to be considered. Abstract: Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury occurs when a substantial volume of muscle is lost due to surgical removal or trauma resulting in an irrecoverable deficit in muscle function. Recently it was suggested that VML impacts whole-body and muscle-specific metabolism, which may contribute to the inability of the muscle to respond to treatments like physical rehabilitation. This work aimed to understand the complex relationship between physical activity and the response to rehabilitation after VML in an animal model, evaluating rehabilitation response by measurements of muscle function and whole-body metabolism. Adult male mice (n = 24) underwent a multi-muscle, full-thickness VML injury to the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles and were randomized into one of three groups: untreated, rehabilitation (i.e., combined electrical stimulation and range of motion; twice per week, began 72 h post-injury for ∼8 weeks), or rehabilitation and physical activity restriction. There was a lack of positive adaptions associated with electrical stimulation and range of motion intervention alone; however, maximal isometric torque of the posterior muscle group was greater in mice receiving treatment with activity restriction (p = 0.008). That said, physical activity and whole-body metabolism were measured ∼6wks post-injury; metabolic rate decreased (p = 0.001) while respiratory exchange ratio increased (p = 0.022) with activity restriction. Therefore, restricting physical activity may enhance an intervention delivered to the injured muscle group, but may impair whole-body metabolism. It is possible that restricting activity is important initially following injury to protect muscle from excess demand. Then, gradually increasing activity throughout the course of treatment may optimize muscle function and whole-body metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background The combination of statin therapy and physical activity reduces cardiovascular disease risk in patients with hyperlipidemia more than either treatment alone. However, mitochondrial dysfunction associated with statin treatment could attenuate training adaptations. Objectives This study determined whether moderate intensity exercise training improved muscle and exercise performance, muscle mitochondrial function, and fiber capillarization in symptomatic and asymptomatic statin users. Methods Symptomatic (n = 16; age 64 ± 4 years) and asymptomatic statin users (n = 16; age 64 ± 4 years) and nonstatin using control subjects (n = 20; age 63 ± 5 years) completed a 12-week endurance and resistance exercise training program. Maximal exercise performance (peak oxygen consumption), muscle performance and muscle symptoms were determined before and after training. Muscle biopsies were collected to assess citrate synthase activity, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production capacity, muscle fiber type distribution, fiber size, and capillarization. Results Type I muscle fibers were less prevalent in symptomatic statin users than control subjects at baseline (P = 0.06). Exercise training improved muscle strength (P < 0.001), resistance to fatigue (P = 0.01), and muscle fiber capillarization (P < 0.01), with no differences between groups. Exercise training improved citrate synthase activity in the total group (P < 0.01), with asymptomatic statin users showing less improvement than control subjects (P = 0.02). Peak oxygen consumption, ATP production capacity, fiber size, and muscle symptoms remained unchanged in all groups following training. Quality-of-life scores improved only in symptomatic statin users following exercise training (P < 0.01). Conclusions A moderate intensity endurance and resistance exercise training program improves muscle performance, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in both asymptomatic and symptomatic statin users without exacerbating muscle complaints. Exercise training may even increase quality of life in symptomatic statin users. (The Effects of Cholesterol-Lowering Medication on Exercise Performance [STATEX]; NL5972/NTR6346)
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Background Both athletes and recreational exercisers often perform relatively high volumes of aerobic and strength training simultaneously. However, the compatibility of these two distinct training modes remains unclear. Objective This systematic review assessed the compatibility of concurrent aerobic and strength training compared with strength training alone, in terms of adaptations in muscle function (maximal and explosive strength) and muscle mass. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the influence of training modality, training type, exercise order, training frequency, age, and training status. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus were systematically searched (12 August 2020, updated on 15 March 2021). Eligibility criteria were as follows. Population: healthy adults of any sex and age; Intervention: supervised concurrent aerobic and strength training for at least 4 weeks; Comparison: identical strength training prescription, with no aerobic training; Outcome: maximal strength, explosive strength, and muscle hypertrophy. Results A total of 43 studies were included. The estimated standardised mean differences (SMD) based on the random-effects model were − 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] − 0.20 to 0.09; p = 0.446), − 0.28 (95% CI − 0.48 to − 0.08; p = 0.007), and − 0.01 (95% CI − 0.16 to 0.18; p = 0.919) for maximal strength, explosive strength, and muscle hypertrophy, respectively. Attenuation of explosive strength was more pronounced when concurrent training was performed within the same session ( p = 0.043) than when sessions were separated by at least 3 h ( p > 0.05). No significant effects were found for the other moderators, i.e. type of aerobic training (cycling vs. running), frequency of concurrent training (> 5 vs. < 5 weekly sessions), training status (untrained vs. active), and mean age (< 40 vs. > 40 years). Conclusion Concurrent aerobic and strength training does not compromise muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength development. However, explosive strength gains may be attenuated, especially when aerobic and strength training are performed in the same session. These results appeared to be independent of the type of aerobic training, frequency of concurrent training, training status, and age. PROSPERO: CRD42020203777.
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There is no doubt of the benefits brought by the practice of physical exercises in the promotion of health, but the use of combined capacities in a same session is still contradictory. The aim of the present study was to verify the influence of a 10- week program of concurrent training on body composition and strength in adult women comparing it to programs of strength and aerobic activities. Thirty women were selected with minimum age of 55 years, randomized in four groups: group A1 (aerobic activity following by strength training), group F1 (strength training followed by aerobic activity), group A (aerobic training), group F (strength training). The body fat showed differences among the groups, the group F was significantly lower than A and A1; when strength was analyzed the results demonstrated differences in the lumbar area in the group A1 and in the strength of inferior members in A, A1 and F from pre- to post-test. Based on the data, we conclude that excepting of body composition, there is no variance in the analyzed variables in this group of women according to the type of training performed.
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Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar os efeitos de 12 semanas de treinamento de Aero Jump e Ciclismo Indoor sobre a composição corporal de mulheres sedentárias. Foram avaliadas 20 mulheres de 20 a 38 anos de idade. Os procedimentos utilizados para avaliação da composição corporal foram: verificação da massa corporal, estatura e dobras cutâneas incluindo 7 dobras (tricipital, subescapular, peitoral, axilar média, supra ilíaca, abdominal vertical e coxa medial). As variáveis utilizadas foram o percentual de gordura, o somatório de dobras cutâneas e o índice de massa corporal. O pré-teste foi realizado antes da primeira semana de atividades e o pós-teste ao final de 12 semanas do treinamento. Para análise foi utilizada estatística descritiva, teste de Wilcoxon comparando os dados pré e pós-treinamento e Kruskal-Wallis para comparar os resultados entre os grupos, adotando-se um nível de significância de 5%. Como resultados, observa-se que no grupo que realizou o treinamento com Aero Jump houve diminuição na média do somatório de dobras cutâneas de 161,7±47,85 para 155,4±42,53 e no grupo que realizou o treino com Ciclismo Indoor as três variáveis sofreram diminuição, principalmente o percentual de gordura, diminuindo de 31,8±6,54% para 29,7±5,09%, porém estas alterações não foram estatisticamente diferentes. Concluiu-se que um período de 12 semanas de treinamento, tanto de Aero Jump como de Ciclismo Indoor, não foi suficiente para produzir alterações estatisticamente significativas sobre as variáveis estudadas, apesar de ter se observado uma diminuição. Talvez o período de treino de 12 semanas não tenha sido suficiente para produzir resultados significativos, sugerindo-se um tempo maior do que 12 semanas.
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Objective: This systematic review assessed the compatibility of concurrent aerobic and strength training compared to sole strength training regarding adaptations in muscle function (maximal and explosive strength) and muscle mass. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the impact of training modality, exercise type, exercise order, training frequency, age, and training status. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PROSPERO: CRD42020203777 Data sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Scopus were systematically searched (12th of August 2020, updated on the 15th of March 2021). Eligibility criteria: Population: Healthy adults of any sex and age; Intervention: Supervised, concurrent aerobic and strength training of at least 4 weeks; Comparison: Sole strength training with matched strength training volume; Outcome: maximal strength, explosive strength and muscle hypertrophy. Results: A total of 43 studies were included. The estimated average standardised mean differences (SMD) based on the random-effects model were -0.06 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.09, p=0.446), -0.28 (95% CI: -0.48, - 0.08, p=0.007) and -0.01 (95% CI: -0.16, 0.18, p=0.919) for maximal strength, explosive strength and muscle hypertrophy, respectively. The attenuation in explosive strength was more pronounced when concurrent training was performed within the same session (p=0.043) compared with separating the sessions by at least 3 h (p>0.05). Summary/Conclusion: Concurrent aerobic and strength training does not compromise muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength development. However, explosive strength gains may be attenuated, especially when aerobic and strength training are performed within the same session.
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The present study verified the effect of a concurrent training (CT) session in different orders, Strength + Endurance (SE) and Endurance + Strength (ES), on the glycemic control. The crossover study included 20 young men, 21.80 ± 2.90 years, IMC ≥ 23 kg/m2, 24.83 ± 3.68% of fat, who performed both CT sessions separated by 72 h. Capillary glycemia was measured at pre, immediately post the end of each exercise session, and during the recovery period at 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The comparisons were performed using Two-way ANOVA (order and time), paired test-t for the area under the curve, as well as Cohen’s d effect size. There was effect of exercise order (F = 5.973; p = 0.03), effect of time (F = 18.345; p = 0.001) and interaction between order and time (F = 2.835; p = 0.03). The area under the curve presented a significant reduction (p = 0.03, effect size = 0.51, moderate). The area under the curve was smaller in SE, as well as glucose concentrations at end and post 30 min of exercise, suggesting better efficiency in glycemic control compared to ES.
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ANÁLISE DAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE TREINAMENTO, ALIMENTAÇÃO E PERFIL DE FISICULTURISTAS COMPETIDORESO objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o perfil e as estratégias de treinamento, alimentação e suplementação licita e ilícita de atletas de fisiculturismo. Especificamente: quantidade de ingestão de calorias, tipos de suplementos alimentares, descanso em tempo de sono e sonecas, divisão de grupos musculares para o treinos de TR, utilização do exercício aeróbio, periodização para as diferentes fases de preparação, hormônios anabólicos e quantidade das diferentes tipos de substâncias sintéticas
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Objective To compare the effect of CrossFit and concurrent aerobic + resistance training (CT) on circulating myonectin levels, insulin resistance index, and physical performance in young women. Materials and methods Thirty healthy women were randomly assigned to CrossFit (n = 16) and CT (n = 14) groups, exercising three sessions per week for eight weeks. Serum myonectin levels, insulin resistance index, body composition, and performance variables were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Results Neither the CrossFit nor the CT group improved in myonectin levels and insulin resistance index. While, fat percentage, muscle mass, upper-limb strength, VO2max, HR at rest, lower body mean power output, and upper body peak power output improved more after CrossFit than the CT. Conclusion It seems that CrossFit exercises by targeting multiple fitness components in one exercise session may allow participants to perform more activity in less time.
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Os efeitos do treinamento concorrente (TC) vem sendo estudado desde a década de 80. Contudo, ainda existem muitas controversas sobre o seu efeito crônico. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar trabalhos que compararam o comportamento de variáveis relacionadas à morfologia e a performance após a realização do TC. Para tal, foram selecionados 26 artigos no PubMed, SciELO, LILACS e no Google Acadêmico que estudaram seu efeito crônico em seres humanos adultos. Após análise dessas pesquisas observou-se que o TC é capaz de proporcionar uma manutenção ou melhora da composição corporal e do VO2máx. Em relação à força máxima, todos os estudos apresentaram um aumento significativo após a realização do TC. Contudo, em altas velocidades, como na potência, em alguns casos apenas houve a manutenção dos valores iniciais. Embora o TC possa não ser compatível com o desenvolvimento da potência, quando discutimos seus benefícios relacionados à saúde, ele se mostrou eficaz.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a change in the sequence of concurrent endurance and strength training on aerobic power and body composition of active men. 30 men (mean age 25.8 ± 3.50 years) with endurance and strength training history were divided into these groups: endurance training before strength training (ES, n=10), strength training before endurance training (SE, n=10) and no training (control) (C, n=10). Subjects trained for 5 weeks. Strength training protocol was divided into 3 days a week (3 sets, 70-85% 1RM). The endurance training protocol included 3-5 times intermittent running with minimum speed through which the subject reached maximal oxygen consumption (vVO2max). The duration of each running was equal to 50% of time to exhaustion (Tlim) in vVO2max speed. VO2max, Tlim and BF% were measured before and after the training and the results were compared. VO2max and Tlim significantly increased in both training groups (P<0.05) but the difference of increased VO2max was not significant between the two groups (P>0.05). BF% decrease was significant in both groups. Also, there was a significant difference in decreased BF% between the two groups (P<0.05). The results suggested that ES training program induced more decrease in BF% whereas both ES and SE training programs produced similar improvements in VO2max.
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Background: Physical activity in aging reduces of risk factors, and plays a protective role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of core stability and TheraBand resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors and cardio-respiratory fitness in elderly. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 elderlies with cardiovascular risk factors were selected using simple sampling method. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups of core stability and TheraBand resistance training. Patient’s body mass index (BMI), maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and lipid profiles were evaluated using Rockport walking test, manual pressure gauge, and Multicare-in instrument at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Data were analyzed using paired and independent t test via SPSS software. Findings: After intervention, FBS and lipid profiles improved significantly in both groups. Moreover, BMI, blood pressure, and VO2max improved after exercise. There was no significant difference in BMI, VO2max, blood pressure, and lipid profiles between the two groups, and only FBS was significantly less in TheraBand resistance training group. Conclusion: This study suggests that core stability training and TheraBand resistance training both will improve BMI, VO2max, blood glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure in the elderly, and the use of these interventions in the medical and rehabilitation process of these patients is recommended.
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A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal work load. (Author/CB)
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Thirty-five healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of four training groups that performed high-intensity strength and endurance training (C; n = 9), upper body only high-intensity strength and endurance training (UC; n = 9), high-intensity endurance training (E; n = 8), or high-intensity strength training (ST; n = 9). The C and ST groups significantly increased one-repetition maximum strength for all exercises (P < 0.05). Only the C, UC, and E groups demonstrated significant increases in treadmill maximal oxygen consumption. The ST group showed significant increases in power output. Hormonal responses to treadmill exercise demonstrated a differential response to the different training programs, indicating that the underlying physiological milieu differed with the training program. Significant changes in muscle fiber areas were as follows: types I, IIa, and IIc increased in the ST group; types I and IIc decreased in the E group; type IIa increased in the C group; and there were no changes in the UC group. Significant shifts in percentage from type IIb to type IIa were observed in all training groups, with the greatest shift in the groups in which resistance trained the thigh musculature. This investigation indicates that the combination of strength and endurance training results in an attenuation of the performance improvements and physiological adaptations typical of single-mode training.
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The impact of adding heavy-resistance training to increase leg-muscle strength was studied in eight cycling- and running-trained subjects who were already at a steady-state level of performance. Strength training was performed 3 days/wk for 10 wk, whereas endurance training remained constant during this phase. After 10 wk, leg strength was increased by an average of 30%, but thigh girth and biopsied vastus lateralis muscle fiber areas (fast and slow twitch) and citrate synthase activities were unchanged. Maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) was also unchanged by heavy-resistance training during cycling (55 ml.kg-1.min-1) and treadmill running (60 ml.kg-1.min-1); however, short-term endurance (4-8 min) was increased by 11 and 13% (P less than 0.05) during cycling and running, respectively. Long-term cycling to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased from 71 to 85 min (P less than 0.05) after the addition of strength training, whereas long-term running (10 km times) results were inconclusive. These data do not demonstrate any negative performance effects of adding heavy-resistance training to ongoing endurance-training regimens. They indicate that certain types of endurance performance, particularly those requiring fast-twitch fiber recruitment, can be improved by strength-training supplementation.
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Studies examining the effects of diet (D) and diet-plus-exercise (DE) programs on resting metabolic rate (RMR) report equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to determine if exercise prevents the decrease in RMR observed with dieting. Results from the 22 studies included in this analysis revealed that the majority of studies used female subjects ages 31-45 years, who were fed a relatively low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet of less than 5,023 kJ.day-1. The predominant prescribed exercise was aerobic in nature, 31-60 min in duration, performed 4-5 days per week, and of moderate intensity (51-70% of VO2max). Contrary to what is reported in narrative reviews, RMR decreased significantly with both D and DE programs, and the drop with D was significantly greater than that with DE. In conclusion, the addition of exercise to dietary restriction appears to prevent some of the decrease in RMR observed in premenopausal women.
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This cross-sectional study compared physical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 82 young women separated into three groups: sedentary (SED, n = 48), aerobically trained (AT, n = 21), and resistance trained (RT, n = 13). Body mass and fat-free mass (FFM) were not different between groups whereas percent body fat was lower in the AT (16.2 ± 0.7%) and RT (14.7 ± 0.8%) groups than in the SED group (21.8 ± 0.8%). There were no between-group differences for blood pressure or blood lipids. RMRs (kJ/min) for the AT (4.31 ± 0.06) and RT (4.25 ± 0.09) groups were significantly greater than those for the SED group (3.99 ± 0.05). When adjusted for differences in FFM, RMRs for the AT group (4.24 ± 0.05) were different from those of both the RT (4.13 ± 0.05) and SED (4.05 ± 0.03) groups; RMRs for the RT and SED groups were not different from each other. No differences were found in cardiovascular risk in young nonobese women of differing exercise status. Aerobic training in young women seems to increase the rate of metabolic activity of resting tissues whereas resistance training does not.
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In brief: The authors continue their discussion of the physiological responses and adaptations that occur as a result of resistance training. (The discussion began in part 2; part 1 presented the basics of resistance training.) Body composition, neural and cardiovascular adaptations, serum lipid profile, blood pressure, and the endocrine system are covered in this article. The conclusion is that conventional weight training brings about little change in endurance capabilities, but that high-volume, low-load training enhances endurance capabilities and may cause serum lipid profile changes that reduce cardiovascular risk.
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Part 1 of this series of articles discussed basic concepts of resistance training. This article addresses selected physiological responses and adaptations to resistance training, including changes in muscle size, muscle enzymes, maximal oxygen consumption, connective tissue, and bone mineral content. Physiological responses and adaptations have been more thoroughly studied in endurance athletes than for those in resistance training programs. However, sufficient research has been conducted to discuss some of the specific responses and adaptations, which the authors do in this paper.
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Impairment in strength development has been demonstrated with combined strength and endurance training as compared with strength training alone. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combining conventional 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 strength and endurance training on the compatibility of improving both [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak and strength performance simultaneously. Sedentary adult males, randomly assigned to one of three groups (N = 10 each), completed 10 wk of training. A strength-only (S) group performed eight weight-training exercises (4 sets/exercise, 5-7 repetitions/set), an endurance-only (E) group performed continuous cycle exercise (50 min at 70% heart rate reserve), and a combined (C) group performed the same S and E exercise in a single session. S and C groups demonstrated similar increases (P < 0.0167) in 1RM squat (23% and 22%) and bench press (18% for both groups), in maximal isometric knee extension torque (12% and 7%), in maximal vertical jump (6% and 9%), and in fat-free mass (3% and 5%). E training did not induce changes in any of these variables. [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (ml[middle dot]kg-1min-1) increased (P < 0.01) similarity in both E (18%) and C (16%) groups. Results indicate 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 combined training can induce substantial concurrent and compatible increases in [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak and strength performance. (C)1995The American College of Sports Medicine
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This cross-sectional study compared physical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 82 young women separated into three groups: sedentary (SED, n = 48), aerobically trained (AT, n = 21), and resistance trained (RT, n = 13). Body mass and fat-free mass (FFM) were not different between groups whereas percent body fat was lower in the AT (16.2 +/- 0.7%) and RT (14.7 +/- 0.8%) groups than in the SED group (21.8 +/- 0.8%). There were no between-group differences for blood pressure or blood lipids. RMRs (kJ/min) for the AT (4.31 +/- 0.06) and RT (4.25 +/- 0.09) groups were significantly greater than those for the SED group (3.99 +/- 0.05). When adjusted for differences in FFM, RMRs for the AT group (4.24 +/- 0.05) were different from those of both the RT (4.13 +/- 0.05) and SED (4.05 +/- 0.03) groups; RMRs for the RT and SED groups were not different from each other. No differences were found in cardiovascular risk in young nonobese women of differing exercise status. Aerobic training in young women seems to increase the rate of metabolic activity of resting tissues whereas resistance training does not.
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The effects of either 12-wk of high-intensity endurance or resistance training on resting metabolic rate (RMR) were investigated in 47 males aged 18-35 y. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control (C), resistance-trained (RT) or endurance-trained (ET) group. After training both exercise groups showed significant declines in relative body fat either by reducing their total fat weight and maintaining fat-free weight (ET) or by reducing their total fat weight and increasing fat-free weight (RT). RMR did not significantly change after either training regimen although a small decline in energy intake was observed along with an increase in energy expenditure [ET, 2.721 MJ (650 kcal) per training day]. These results suggest that both endurance and resistance training may help to prevent an attenuation in RMR normally observed during extended periods of negative energy balance (energy intake less than expenditure) by either preserving or increasing a person's fat-free weight.
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The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of Phase I exercise therapy on lean body mass loss in recovering coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. Thirty male CABG surgery patients volunteered for the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups with one group receiving Phase I exercise therapy. The other group was allowed to participate in ward activities and ad libitum walking. Select measures of lean body mass change, including urinary urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen, urinary creatinine, serum creatinine and nitrogen balance, were obtained during six days of hospitalization. Results reveal no statistical difference (p greater than 0.05) between those receiving and those not receiving Phase I exercise therapy relative to these measures. We conclude that the effects of exercise which ameliorate lean body mass loss may be realized by insuring even modest ambulation as an adjunct to frequent assumption of the upright position.
Article
This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We conclude that gains in strength were somewhat compromised by the simultaneous run training, and that improvements in strength and run performance were independent of LR and HR training intensity.
Article
This study investigated the effects of concurrent endurances and low velocity resistance training (LVR) on measures of strength and aerobic endurance. One group (ES) performed concurrent endurance training 3 days a week and LVR training on alternate days, 3 days a week for 12 weeks. The other group (S) performed only LVR training 3 days a week for 12 weeks without any endurance training. Measurements and increases in training volume were made every three weeks in both groups. Group ES exhibited increases in submaximal exercise responses after 3, 9 and 12 weeks (p less than 0.05). Knee extension peak torque and total work as well as cross-sectional area of quadriceps femoris were significantly increased after 6 and 9 weeks of training in both groups. These findings indicate that no significant differences in strength gains were observed between subjects performing concurrent endurance and resistance training or resistance training only. However, the time-course of adaptations between groups was somewhat different.
Article
To assess the effects of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on S and E development, one group (4 young men and 4 young women) trained one leg for S and the other leg for S and E (S+E). A second group (4 men, 4 women) trained one leg for E and the other leg for E and S (E+S). E training consisted of five 3-min bouts on a cycle ergometer at a power output corresponding to that requiring 90-100% of oxygen uptake during maximal exercise (VO2 max). S training consisted of six sets of 15-20 repetitions with the heaviest possible weight on a leg press (combined hip and knee extension) weight machine. Training was done 3 days/wk for 22 wk. Needle biopsy samples from vastus lateralis were taken before and after training and were examined for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural adaptations. The nominal S and E training programs were "hybrids", having more similarities as training stimuli than differences; thus S made increases (P less than 0.05) similar to those of S+E in E-related measures of VO2max (S, S+E: 8%, 8%), repetitions with the pretraining maximal single leg press lift [1 repetition maximum (RM)] (27%, 24%), and percent of slow-twitch fibers (15%, 8%); and S made significant, although smaller, increases in repetitions with 80% 1 RM (81%, 152%) and citrate synthase (CS) activity (22%, 51%). Similarly, E increased knee extensor area [computed tomography (CT) scans] as much as E+S (14%, 21%) and made significant, although smaller, increases in leg press 1 RM (20%, 34%) and thigh girth (3.4%, 4.8%). When a presumably stronger stimulus for an adaptation was added to a weaker one, some additive effects occurred (i.e., increases in 1 RM and thigh girth that were greater in E+S than E; increases in CS activity and repetitions with 80% 1 RM that were greater in S+E than S). When a weaker, although effective, stimulus was added to a stronger one, addition generally did not occur. Concurrent S and E training did not interfere with S or E development in comparison to S or E training alone.
Article
To compare the responses to doing strength (S) training on alternate days with endurance (E) training vs doing both types of training on the same days per week, seven young men (group A-2 d) did S and E training together in single sessions 2 d.wk-1 for 20 wk. A second group (B-4 d, N = 8) did the S training on 2 d.wk-1 and E training on 2 other d.wk-1. S training was six to eight sets of 15-20 RM on a leg press weight machine. E training was six to eight 3-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90-100% VO2max. B-4 d (25%) increased leg press 1 RM more (P less than 0.05) than A-2 d (13%), but the groups increased similarly (A-2 d, B-4 d) in knee extensor (31%, 34%) and flexor (12%, 14%) cross-sectional area and vastus lateralis mean fiber area (33%, 25%). Increases in VO2max (7%, 6%), repetitions with 80% 1 RM (39%, 64%), repetitions with the pre-training 1 RM (33, 55), and PFK (19%, 10%) and LDH (15%, 23%) activity did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. CS activity increased significantly only in A-2 d (26%; B-4 d, 6%). It is concluded that same day (vs different day) concurrent strength and endurance training may impede strength development without impeding hypertrophy. On the other hand, same day training may enhance increases in CS activity but not VO2max or weight lifting endurance.
Article
Daily energy expenditure is composed of three major components: 1) resting metabolic rate (RMR); 2) the thermic effect of feeding (TEF); and 3) the thermic effect of activity (TEA). RMR constitutes 60 to 75% of daily energy expenditure and is the energy associated with the maintenance of major body functions. TEF is the cumulative increase in energy expenditure after several meals and constitutes approximately 10% of daily energy expenditure. Most investigators, however, have examined the thermic effect of a single meal test (TEM). TEA is the most variable component of daily energy expenditure and can constitute 15 to 30% of 24-h energy expenditure. This component includes energy expenditure due to physical work, muscular activity, including shivering and fidgeting, as well as purposeful physical exercise. Participation in purposeful exercise (both acute and chronic) is a subcomponent of TEA and has been found to influence resting energy expenditure (RMR and TEM). Reports in the literature, however, are discrepant regarding the direction and magnitude of the effects of exercise and exercise training on RMR and TEM. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that have examined the effects of exercise on RMR and TEM are reviewed. Possible explanations for divergent results in the literature are discussed. The major focus of this review is directed to human studies, although pertinent animal work is included. The role of genetic variation, gender specific responses, and methodological considerations for future studies examining the relation among RMR, TEA, and TEM are considered. Although still controversial, purposeful physical exercise appears to influence resting energy expenditure in man.
Article
Several conclusions from the limited data available can be drawn. Concurrent strength and endurance training induce increases in muscular strength and aerobic power. This type of training, however, interferes with optimal development of muscular strength. This is especially true at fast velocities of contraction, suggesting altered adaptive responses mainly in skeletal muscle. Thus, it may be advised that athletes involved in pure strength/power type activities should not perform large volumes of endurance type training. Concurrent training, in contrast, does not affect the development of aerobic power. Endurance type athletes may therefore perform strength training with no decrement in maximal aerobic power. The present limited data do not give any insight concerning the optimal combination of strength/power and endurance type training for athletes involved in activities that require both strength/power and endurance capability. Possible explanations for the lack of optimal development in strength with concurrent training include transformation of fast-twitch to slow-twitch type muscle fibres and overtraining. Further research needs to be conducted to answer several questions. What mechanisms are responsible for the decrease in strength/power when concurrent resistance and endurance training are performed? What training regimen involving both resistance and endurance training will induce optimal adaptations to both types of training?
Article
Twenty-two male and female subjects trained for 7 wk for endurance (group E), for strength (group IS), or for both strength and endurance (group C) to evaluate the effect of concurrent performance of both modes of training on the in vivo force-velocity relationship of human muscle and on aerobic power. Endurance training consisted of five 5-min sessions three times a week on cycle ergometer with a work load that approached the subject's peak cycle-ergometer O2 uptake (peak CE VO2). Strength training consisted of two 30-s sets of maximal knee extensions per day performed on an isokinetic dynamometer three times a week at a velocity of 4.19 rad X s-1. Group C performed the same training as groups IS and E, alternating days of strength and endurance training. Subjects (groups C and IS) were tested pre- and posttraining for maximal knee-extension torque at a specific joint angle (0.52 rad below horizontal) for seven specific angular velocities (0, 0.84, 1.68, 2.81, 3.35, 4.19, and 5.03 rad X s-1). Groups C and E were tested for peak CE VO2 pretraining, at 14-day intervals, and posttraining. Group IS showed significant increases in angle-specific maximal torque at velocities up to and including the training speed (4.19 rad X s-1). Group C showed increases (P less than 0.05) at velocities of 0, 0.84, and 1.68 rad X s-1 only. Peak CE VO2, when expressed in relative or absolute terms, increased (P less than 0.05) approximately 18% for both groups E and C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The purpose of this study was to determine how individuals adapt to a combination of strength and endurance training as compared to the adaptations produced by either strength or endurance training separately. There were three exercise groups: a strength group (S) that exercised 30--40 min . day-1, 5 days . week-1, and endurance group (E) that exercised 40 min . day-1, 6 days . week-1; and an S and E group that performed the same daily exercise regimens as the S and E groups. After 10 weeks of training, VO2max increased approx. 25% when measured during bicycle exercise and 20% when measured during treadmill exercise in both E, and S and E groups. No increase in VO2max was observed in the S group. There was a consistent rate of development of leg-strength by the S group throughout the training, whereas the E group did not show any appreciable gains in strength. The rate of strength improvement by the S and E group was similar to the S group for the first 7 weeks of training, but subsequently leveled off and declined during the 9th and 10th weeks. These findings demonstrate that simultaneously training for S and E will result in a reduced capacity to develop strength, but will not affect the magnitude of increase in VO2max.
Article
Nine men participated in an exercise program (five days a week for 10 weeks) that was designed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. This study was undertaken to determine if heavy resistance training results in an increase in endurance, Vo2max and whether the differences that are normally observed during bicycle and treadmill Vo2max measurements in the same individuals are strength-related. Following training, endurance time to exhaustion significantly increased while cycling (47%) and while running (12%), when the subjects exercised at 100% of their pretraining Vo2max. There was a small increase in Vo2max (4%, P < 0.05) during bicycle exercise (3.40 l.min-1 to 3.54 l.min-1) after training, but no significant differences were observed when expressed in (ml.kg-1.min-1). Strength training had no effect on Vo2max when measured during treadmill exercise. Absolute differences between bicycle and treadmill Vo2max were essentially the same after training as before. Lactate concentration in blood after the bicycle and treadmill endurance tests were not elevated to a greater extent after training. Thigh girth increased significantly and muscle strength increased 40% with the training. These findings provide evidence that HRT is capable of dramatically increasing short-term endurance, when the muscles involved in the training are used almost exclusively during the testing without an accompanying increase in Vo2max. These data also suggest that the differences in Vo2max between bicycle and treadmill exercise are not the result of inadequate muscle strength.
Article
The resting metabolic rate (RMR) following recovery from level jogging, which includes an eccentric component, was hypothesized to be greater and remain elevated longer than following concentric cycling due to repair of exercise-induced muscle damage. Nine males participated in both a jogging and cycling protocol. RMR measurements were determined by indirect calorimetry before and on the seven mornings following three consecutive days of 45-min exercise sessions performed at equal energy expenditures. Daily protein intake and urinary nitrogen (N) output were measured throughout both protocols. No differences were observed in the resting oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, or heart rate between baseline measurements and from any of the postexercise days following the third exercise bout. Urinary N and the estimated N balance during postexercise also did not change from baseline values over time or mode x time. However, the overall estimated N balance for the jogging protocol was less positive than for the cycling protocol (p < 0.05). Muscular soreness was greater (p < 0.05) and lasted longer from the jogging protocol. Although, muscle damage may have been more severe in the jogging protocol, RMR and N balance were not different between the two exercise modes.
Article
Effects of large (LA; 400 min/wk) and moderate (MA; 200 min/wk) amounts of endurance exercise in combination with weight training (3 d/wk) were compared with the effects of no exercise (C) in 23 obese females after a 12-wk, 3360-kJ/d very-low-energy diet (VLED). The LA group lost 6.5 kg more weight, mainly as fat (6.4 kg), than the C group (P < 0.05). No measurable differences were found among groups for decreases in resting metabolic rate (-729 to -1233 kJ/d; NS) or fat-free mass (-2.9 to -3.9 kg; NS). No improvements in aerobic capacity were achieved with the addition of exercise to a VLED (-0.079 to -0.037 L/min; NS). Strength indexes were improved (+16 to +5 kg; P < 0.05) or maintained with exercise (-3 kg; NS) whereas a loss (-9.3 kg; P < 0.05) or maintenance (+4.5 kg; NS) was found for VLED alone. Large amounts of endurance exercise in combination with weight training added to a VLED appear to improve weight and fat loss compared with a VLED alone.
Article
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) decreases with age, largely because of an age-related decline in fat-free mass (FFM). We hypothesized that a strength-training program capable of eliciting increases in FFM would also increase RMR in older individuals. To test this hypothesis, RMR, body composition, and plasma concentrations of certain hormones known to affect RMR were measured before and after a 16-wk heavy-resistance strength-training program in 13 healthy men 50-65 yr of age. Average strength levels, assessed by the three-repetition maximum test, increased 40% with training (P < 0.001). Body weight did not change, but body fat decreased (25.6 +/- 1.5 vs. 23.7 +/- 1.7%; P < 0.001) and FFM increased (60.6 +/- 2.2 vs. 62.2 +/- 2.1 kg; P < 0.01). RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry, increased 7.7% with strength training (6,449 +/- 217 vs. 6,998 +/- 226 kJ/24 h; P < 0.01). This increase remained significant even when RMR was expressed per kilogram of FFM. Strength training increased arterialized plasma norepinephrine levels 36% (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 nmol/l; P < 0.01) but did not change fasting glucose, insulin, or thyroid hormone levels. These results indicate that a heavy-resistance strength-training program increases RMR in healthy older men, perhaps by increasing FFM and sympathetic nervous system activity.
Article
Two separate experiments were performed to determine the effect of acute resistive exercise on postexercise energy expenditure in male subjects previously trained in resistive exercise. In experiment 1, after measurement of their resting metabolic rate (RMR) at 0700 h and their ingestion of a standardized meal at 0800 h, seven subjects (age range 22-40 yr) beginning at 1400 h completed a 90-min weight-lifting protocol. Postexercise metabolic rate (PEMR) was measured continuously for 2 h after exercise and compared with a preexercise baseline. RMR was measured the following morning 15 h after completion of the workout. In experiment 2, six different men (age range 20-35 yr) completed a similar experimental protocol as well as a control condition on a separate day in which metabolic rate was measured for 2 h after a period of quiet sitting. For both experiments, PEMR remained elevated for the entire 2-h measured recovery period, with the average oxygen consumption for the last 6 min elevated by 11-12%. RMR measured the morning after exercise was 9.4% higher in experiment 1 and 4.7% higher in experiment 2 than on the previous day. In experiment 2, the postabsorptive respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower the morning after the exercise bout. Strenuous resistive exercise may elevate PEMR for a prolonged period and may enhance postexercise lipid oxidation.
Article
In addition to factors such as fat free mass, hormonal status, genetics and energy balance, previous physical activity has been shown to influence energy turnover during resting (RMR = resting metabolic rate) or basal conditions (BMR = basal metabolic rate). This article presents data on BMR from elite endurance athletes (4 female and 4 male), at least 39 h after their last training session, in comparison with sedentary nonathletic controls matched for sex and fat free mass (FFM). Comparisons with theoretical calculations of BMR were also made. The athletes were shown to have a significantly higher BMR than was expected from calculations based on body mass (16%, P < 0.05) or body composition (12%, P < 0.05). There were no corresponding differences found in the nonathletic control group. The athletes had a 13% higher (P < 0.001) BMR than controls if related to FFM and 16% (P = 0.001) if related to both FFM and fat mass (FM). The athletes were also found to have 10% lower R-values (P < 0.01) indicating higher fat oxidation. The conformity of these findings with the present literature and the possible mechanisms behind them as well as its influence on theoretical calculations of energy turnover (ET) based on activity factors expressed as multiples of RMR are further discussed.
Body composition from fluid spaces and density. In: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition
  • W E Siri
Siri, W. E. Body composition from fluid spaces and density. In: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition, edited by J. Brozek and A. Henschel. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1961, p. 223-244.
The measurement of body composition
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  • L Garzarella
  • J E Graves
Pollock, M. L., L. Garzarella, and J. E. Graves. The measurement of body composition. In: Physiological Assessment of Human Fitness, edited by P. J. Maud and C. Foster. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1995, p. 167-204.