Inflammatory Cell Distribution within and along Asthmatic Airways

ArticleinAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 158(2):565-72 · August 1998with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.158.2.9705036 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Asthmatic airways are infiltrated with inflammatory cells that release mediators and cytokines into the microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of CD45-positive leukocytes and eosinophils in lung tissue from five patients who died with severe asthma compared with five patients with cystic fibrosis. For morphometric analysis, the airway wall was partitioned into an "inner" area (between basement membrane and smooth muscle) and an "outer" area (between smooth muscle and alveolar attachments). Large airways (with a perimeter greater than 3.0 mm) from patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis had a greater density of CD45-positive cells (p < 0.05) and eosinophils (p < 0.001) in the inner airway region compared with the same airway region in small airways. Furthermore, in small airways, asthmatic lungs showed a greater density of CD45-positive cells (p < 0.01) and eosinophils (p < 0.01) in the outer compared with the inner airway wall region. These observations indicate that there are regional variations in inflammatory cell distribution within the airway wall in patients with asthma that are not observed in airways from patients with cystic fibrosis. We speculate that this inflammatory cell density in peripheral airways in severe asthma may relate to the peripheral airway obstruction characteristic of this condition.
    • "IgE mediated immune responses are the main pathologic reactions in asthma. Significant inflammation exists in bronchial biopsy samples of asthmatic patients even in mild cases and these inflammatory changes affect entire airways [5, 6]. In allergic asthma, the possibility of a familial history of rhinitis, urticaria and eczema, and elevated levels of IgE antibody exists. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In this study, the expression of IL-9, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-25 genes that might be the potential predisposing factors for asthma as well as counting of ILC cells as another source of inflammatory cytokines which are important players in pathogens of asthma have been evaluated. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of newly identified helper T cells signature cytokines and counting ILC cells as another important source of inflammatory cytokines that were likely to have important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. Material and method: Blood and sputum samples from23 patients with moderate to severe asthma and 23 healthy volunteers were collected. The types of allergens to which our patients were sensitive were defined using immunoblotting method. Gene expression of studied cytokines was evaluated using qRT-PCR and ILCs were counted by flow cytometry method. Result: In this research, the gene expressions of IL-9, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-25 were significantly higher in asthmatics, especially in severe form of the disease. This increase was even more in serum samples comparing with sputum samples. Counting ILCs revealed their increase in comparison with normal people. Conclusion: We showed the importance of IL-25, IL-22, IL-17 and IL-9 cytokines in patients with asthma as their expression level is increased and this increase is correlated with the severity of the disease. We also showed that the increased number of ILCs in asthmatics could confirm their potential role in the immunopathogenesis of asthma as another source of inflammatory cytokines.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
    • "Haley and colleagues also demonstrated that cystic fibrosis patients had a different pattern of distribution of inflammatory cells in their smaller airways, perhaps signifying a distinction between asthma and other obstructive diseases (in cystic fibrosis, eosinophils were fewer in number and were more often present in the larger airways) [10] . These differences in patterns of inflammation could be a result of differential recruitment related to etiology and disease-specific, regional organization of pulmonary inflammation [10]. For example, allergen challenge studies done in vitro have also demonstrated a greater release of mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins and thromboxane B2 in lung parenchyma when compared to large airways [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway inflammation is the basis for airway hyper-reactivity that results in the signs and symptoms of asthma. Great strides have been made in the past several decades to target airway inflammation using topical inhaled corticosteroids. In some cases, despite reported improvement in large airways indices on treatment, clinical control of asthma is not attained. Inflammation of the distal airways is now realized as playing a greater role in asthma control, and newer techniques are available to assess the smaller airways. Changes in formulations of inhaled corticosteroids and smaller particle size of medication allows for more effective targeting of the smaller airways.
    Article · Dec 2013
    • "It is well-documented that lung inflammation is the main characteristic of asthma (Mauad et al., 2007). Increased inflammatory cells in asthmatic patients (Bradley et al., 1991; Haley et al., 1998) and sensitized animals (Keyhanmanesh et al., 2010) have already been shown. Since airway inflammation is the pathological characteristic trait of asthma and many inflammatory cells play a role in this phenomenon (Busse et al., 1995; Kelly et al., 1988; Vosooghi et al., 2013) and according to our findings which showed increased total WBC, neutrophil and eosinophil count in lung lavage of sensitized animals, similar to the reports of previous studies (Boskabady et al., 2010a; Boskabady et al., 2010b; Busse et al., 1995), these results can confirm sensitization of rats in the present study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Inflammation is one of the major components of asthma. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of C. sativus extract on total and differential white blood cells (WBC) count in lung lavage fluid (LLF) of ovalbumin-sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were divided into five groups (n = 8 for each group) as control (C), sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA) alone (S), and three groups of sensitized and treated with different doses of C. sativus extract (S50EX, S100EX, and S200EX groups). Total and differential WBC counts of LLF were evaluated in control, sensitized, and treated sensitized groups. Results: Total WBC count, neutrophil, and eosinophil percentage in LLF were increased in sensitized animals compared with the control group (p0.001). Treatment of sensitized animals with all doses of the extract significantly reduced WBC number and the percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil compared with the sensitized animals (p0.01–0.001). Conclusion: According to these results, the extract of C. sativus could be effective on alleviating lung inflammatory cells specially eosinophils in lung lavage of sensitized animals which may indicate a preventive effect of this plant on lung inflammation in asthma.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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