The experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) available today can be divided into two categories according to the mode of action of the compound used: transient pharmacological impairment of dopaminergic transmission along the nigrostriatal pathway or selective destruction by a neurotoxic agent of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The present article looks at the relative merits of each model, the clinical symptoms and neuronal impairment it induces, and the contribution it could make to the development of a truly dynamic model. It is becoming more and more clear that there is an urgent need for a chronic model integrating all the clinical features of PD including resting tremor, and reproducing the gradual but continuous nigral degeneration observed in the human pathology. Discrepancies have been reported several times between results obtained in classic animal models and those described in PD, and it would seem probable that such contradictions can be ascribed to the fact that animal models do not, as yet, reproduce the continuous evolution of the human disease. Dynamic experimental models which come closer to the progressive neurodegeneration and gradual intensification of motor disability so characteristic of human PD will enable us to investigate crucial aspects of the disease, such as compensatory mechanisms and dyskinesia.
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"It inhibits vesicular transport of catecholamines by the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) leading to a depletion of catecholamine stores. At the same time it prevents re-uptake of catecholamines –. Since extracellular (secreted) or intracellular (leaking from vesicles) catecholamines are quickly degraded by the action of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), reserpine completely depletes vesicular packaging and subsequently secretion of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine leaving no extracellular catecholamines for paracrine action (reviewed in ). So far, catecholamines in early pre-innervation stage embryos are thought to originate from intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cells –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catecholamine release is known to modulate cardiac output by increasing heart rate. Although much is known about catecholamine function and regulation in adults, little is known about the presence and role of catecholamines during heart development. The present study aimed therefore to evaluate the effects of different catecholamines on early heart development in an in vitro setting using embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Effects of catecholamine depletion induced by reserpine were examined in murine ES cells (line D3, αPIG44) during differentiation. Cardiac differentiation was assessed by immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR, quantification of beating clusters, flow cytometry and pharmacological approaches. Proliferation was analyzed by EB cross-section measurements, while functionality of cardiomyocytes was studied by extracellular field potential (FP) measurements using microelectrode arrays (MEAs). To further differentiate between substance-specific effects of reserpine and catecholamine action via α- and β-receptors we proved the involvement of adrenergic receptors by application of unspecific α- and β-receptor antagonists. Reserpine treatment led to remarkable down-regulation of cardiac-specific genes, proteins and mesodermal marker genes. In more detail, the average ratio of ∼40% spontaneously beating control clusters was significantly reduced by 100%, 91.1% and 20.0% on days 10, 12, and 14, respectively. Flow cytometry revealed a significant reduction (by 71.6%, n = 11) of eGFP positive CMs after reserpine treatment. By contrast, reserpine did not reduce EB growth while number of neuronal cells in reserpine-treated EBs was significantly increased. MEA measurements of reserpine-treated EBs showed lower FP frequencies and weak responsiveness to adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. Interestingly we found that developmental inhibition after α- and β-adrenergic blocker application mimicked developmental changes with reserpine. Using several methodological approaches our data suggest that reserpine inhibits cardiac differentiation. Thus catecholamines play a critical role during development.
"The two most widely used animal models of PD that display levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) under chronic L-DOPA treatment are the intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA in rats and the systemic administration of the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) in primates respectively. The MPTP monkey model reproduces most of the features seen in PD patients at the behavioural but also biochemical and histological levels , , , , , , , . This model has allowed the investigation of the neurophysiological and molecular mechanisms leading to LIDs and the evaluation of potential therapies that could hamper their development or reduce their severity , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of dyskinesias following chronic L-DOPA replacement therapy remains a major problem in the long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of IRC-082451 (base of BN82451), a novel multitargeting hybrid molecule, on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) and hypolocomotor activity in a non-human primate model of PD. IRC-082451 displays multiple properties: it inhibits neuronal excitotoxicity (sodium channel blocker), oxidative stress (antioxidant) and neuroinflammation (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and is endowed with mitochondrial protective properties. Animals received daily MPTP injections until stably parkinsonian. A daily treatment with increasing doses of L-DOPA was administered to parkinsonian primates until the appearance of dyskinesias. Then, different treatment regimens and doses of IRC-082451 were tested and compared to the benchmark molecule amantadine. Primates were regularly filmed and videos were analyzed with specialized software. A novel approach combining the analysis of dyskinesias and locomotor activity was used to determine efficacy. This analysis yielded the quantification of the total distance travelled and the incidence of dyskinesias in 7 different body parts. A dose-dependent efficacy of IRC-082451 against dyskinesias was observed. The 5 mg/kg dose was best at attenuating the severity of fully established LIDs. Its effect was significantly different from that of amantadine since it increased spontaneous locomotor activity while reducing LIDs. This dose was effective both acutely and in a 5-day sub-chronic treatment. Moreover, positron emission tomography scans using radiolabelled dopamine demonstrated that there was no direct interference between treatment with IRC-082451 and dopamine metabolism in the brain. Finally, post-mortem analysis indicated that this reduction in dyskinesias was associated with changes in cFOS, FosB and ARC mRNA expression levels in the putamen. The data demonstrates the antidyskinetic efficacy of IRC-082451 in a primate model of PD with motor complications and opens the way to the clinical application of this treatment for the management of LIDs.
"Although we here focus on MPTP primate models of PD, we do not ignore the value of other MPTP models (see Tieu 2011). MPTP has been shown to be toxic in a large range of species (Bezard et al. 1998). The most popular species, besides primates, is the mouse (Heikkila et al. 1984), as rats were found to be resistant to this toxin (Chiueh et al. 1984). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) reproduce most, although not all, of the clinical and pathological hallmarks of PD. The present contribution presents the possibilities offered by the MPTP monkey models of PD to readers with minimal knowledge of PD, emphasizing the diversity of species, route and regimen of administration, symptoms and pathological features. Readers would eventually find out that there is not a single MPTP monkey model of PD but instead MPTP monkey models of PD, each addressing a specific experimental need.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine