Brewer, J. B., Zhao, Z., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H. & Gabrieli, J. D. E. Making memories: brain activity that predicts how well visual experience will be remembered. Science 281, 1185-1187

Neuroscience Program and School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 09/1998; 281(5380):1185-7. DOI: 10.1126/science.281.5380.1185
Source: PubMed


Experiences are remembered or forgotten, but the neural determinants for the mnemonic fate of experience are unknown. Event-related
functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify specific brain activations that differentiated between visual experiences
that were later remembered well, remembered less well, or forgotten. During scanning of medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe
regions, subjects viewed complex, color photographs. Subjects later received a test of memory for the photographs. The magnitudes
of focal activations in right prefrontal cortex and in bilateral parahippocampal cortex predicted which photographs were later
remembered well, remembered less well, or forgotten.

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Available from: John D E Gabrieli
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    • "he parahippocampal cortex seems to be sufficient ( Bohbot et al . , 1998 ) . While the current task required building spatial relationships , it did not necessarily require the construction of a cognitive map because one could learn the spatial configuration of stimuli by memorizing the spatial relations in a single scene ( Bohbot et al . , 1998 ; Brewer et al . , 1998 ; Epstein and Kanwisher , 1998 ) . Furthermore , when tested in a dual solution task previously shown to be dependent on either the hippocampus or the caudate nucleus with fMRI ( Iaria et al . , 2003 ) , patients with brain damage to the hippocampus are severely impaired at constructing cognitive maps ( i . e . , remembering the locatio"
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    ABSTRACT: The parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus are brain structures known to be involved in memory. However, the unique contribution of the parahippocampal cortex remains unclear. The current study investigates memory for object identity and memory of the configuration of objects in patients with small thermo-coagulation lesions to the hippocampus or the parahippocampal cortex. Results showed that in contrast to control participants and patients with damage to the hippocampus leaving the parahippocampal cortex intact, patients with lesions that included the right parahippocampal cortex (RPH) were severely impaired on a task that required learning the spatial configuration of objects on a computer screen; these patients, however, were not impaired at learning the identity of objects. Conversely, we found that patients with lesions to the right hippocampus (RH) or left hippocampus (LH), sparing the parahippocampal cortex, performed just as well as the control participants. Furthermore, they were not impaired on the object identity task. In the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiment, healthy young adults performed the same tasks. Consistent with the findings of the lesion study, the fMRI results showed significant activity in the RPH in the memory for the spatial configuration condition, but not memory for object identity. Furthermore, the pattern of fMRI activity measured in the baseline control conditions decreased specifically in the parahippocampal cortex as a result of the experimental task, providing evidence for task specific repetition suppression. In summary, while our previous studies demonstrated that the hippocampus is critical to the construction of a cognitive map, both the lesion and fMRI studies have shown an involvement of the RPH for learning spatial configurations of objects but not object identity, and that this takes place independent of the hippocampus.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    • "vious environmental research ( Mergler et al . , 1999 ) . Recent imaging research has shown that in addition to the basal ganglia , Mn affects areas of the cerebral cortex , especially the frontal cortex ( Guilarte , 2013 ) . The frontal cortex is associated with the strategic encoding , organization , and retrieval of verbal and visual memories ( Brewer et al . , 1998 ; Stuss , 2007 ) . Therefore , dysfunc - tion of the brain areas typically impacted by Mn could account for the pattern of results seen in the current study ."
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    ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) that were identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03-1.61μg/m(3) in Marietta and 0.01-6.32μg/m(3) in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59%) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p<0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-O Immediate β= -0.19, Rey-O Delayed β= -0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities β= -0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · NeuroToxicology
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    • "Beginning with Brewer et al. (1998) and Wagner et al. (1998), the subsequent memory procedure has proven an effective approach to investigating the neural correlates of memory encoding with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; for a review, see Kim, 2011). Most studies employing the procedure have investigated encoding effects that reflect processes engaged following the onset of a study item. "
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    ABSTRACT: fMRI was used to study neural correlates of encoding word and picture pairs.•Material-invariant cortical and hippocampal pre-stimulus effects were identified.•The material-invariant effects co-varied negatively with later memory performance.
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