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Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems

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Abstract

Although religions have been far from silent on the use of psychoactive drugs, and spirituality has long been emphasized as an important factor in recovery from addiction, surprisingly little research has explored the relationships between these two phenomena. Current findings indicate that spiritual/religious involvement may be an important protective factor against alcohol/drug abuse. Individuals currently suffering from these problems are found to have a low level of religious involvement, and spiritual (re)engagement appears to be correlated with recovery. Reasons are explored for the lack of studies testing spiritual hypotheses, and promising avenues for future research are discussed. Comprehensive addictions research should include not only biomedical, psychological and socio-cultural factors but spiritual aspects of the individual as well.

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... W psychologii podkreślany jest transgresyjny 15 charakter osobowości, co oznacza jej ciągły roz- wój i przekraczanie przez nią własnych możliwości. Według sta- nowiska ekologicznego rozwój duchowy prowadzi człowieka do odczuwania jedności z całością systemu przyrodniczego, do życia w tej jedności i czerpania z niej duchowego szczęścia 16 . ...
... W tym wypadku zło- dziejom nie chodziło o sam XVII-wieczny relikwiarz, lecz o kru- szec. Łomami i brzeszczotami wyrwali i wycięli ozdoby, dewa- stując całość 16 . ...
... Kwestie szczegółowe związane z nauczanie języków mniej- szości reguluje Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej z dnia 14 listopada 2007 r. w sprawie warunków i sposobu wyko- nywania przez przedszkola, szkoły i placówki publiczne zadań umożliwiających podtrzymywanie poczucia tożsamości narodo- wej, etnicznej i językowej uczniów należących do mniejszości narodowych i etnicznych oraz społeczności posługującej się językiem regionalnym 16 . Co prawda, odsyła ono do stosownych przepisów dotyczących nauczania religii ( §11: "Podtrzymywanie poczucia tożsamości religijnej uczniów regulują przepisy o warunkach i sposobie organizowania nauki religii w publicz- nych szkołach i przedszkolach"), ale -co warto podkreślić -we wcześniejszym rozporządzeniu w tytule expressis verbis wska- zano na poczucie tożsamości religijnej uczniów (Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej i Sportu z dnia 3 grudnia 2002 r. w sprawie warunków i sposobu wykonywania przez szkoły i pla- cówki publiczne zadań umożliwiających podtrzymywanie poczu- cia tożsamości narodowej, etnicznej, językowej i religijnej 16 Tj. ...
... W psychologii podkreślany jest transgresyjny 15 charakter osobowości, co oznacza jej ciągły roz- wój i przekraczanie przez nią własnych możliwości. Według sta- nowiska ekologicznego rozwój duchowy prowadzi człowieka do odczuwania jedności z całością systemu przyrodniczego, do życia w tej jedności i czerpania z niej duchowego szczęścia 16 . ...
... W tym wypadku zło- dziejom nie chodziło o sam XVII-wieczny relikwiarz, lecz o kru- szec. Łomami i brzeszczotami wyrwali i wycięli ozdoby, dewa- stując całość 16 . ...
... Kwestie szczegółowe związane z nauczanie języków mniej- szości reguluje Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej z dnia 14 listopada 2007 r. w sprawie warunków i sposobu wyko- nywania przez przedszkola, szkoły i placówki publiczne zadań umożliwiających podtrzymywanie poczucia tożsamości narodo- wej, etnicznej i językowej uczniów należących do mniejszości narodowych i etnicznych oraz społeczności posługującej się językiem regionalnym 16 . Co prawda, odsyła ono do stosownych przepisów dotyczących nauczania religii ( §11: "Podtrzymywanie poczucia tożsamości religijnej uczniów regulują przepisy o warunkach i sposobie organizowania nauki religii w publicz- nych szkołach i przedszkolach"), ale -co warto podkreślić -we wcześniejszym rozporządzeniu w tytule expressis verbis wska- zano na poczucie tożsamości religijnej uczniów (Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej i Sportu z dnia 3 grudnia 2002 r. w sprawie warunków i sposobu wykonywania przez szkoły i pla- cówki publiczne zadań umożliwiających podtrzymywanie poczu- cia tożsamości narodowej, etnicznej, językowej i religijnej 16 Tj. ...
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Kultura a religia - obrzędy, rytuały, konflikty
... A substantial number of studies have demonstrated that spirituality is a protective factor against alcohol dependence (Giordano et al. 2015;Miller 2013). It has also been noted that extensive drinking has a negative influence on spiritual involvement and spiritual well-being (Miller 1998). Moreover, spirituality is known to support recovery from alcohol dependence by providing individuals with a sense of purpose, meaning in life, and optimism, buffering stress and increasing social support (Jarusiewicz 2000; Lyons et al. 2010;Miller 1998Miller 2013Pardini et al. 2000;Piderman et al. 2008). ...
... It has also been noted that extensive drinking has a negative influence on spiritual involvement and spiritual well-being (Miller 1998). Moreover, spirituality is known to support recovery from alcohol dependence by providing individuals with a sense of purpose, meaning in life, and optimism, buffering stress and increasing social support (Jarusiewicz 2000; Lyons et al. 2010;Miller 1998Miller 2013Pardini et al. 2000;Piderman et al. 2008). Alcohol addiction therapy may also evoke substantial improvements in the spirituality domain, in some cases leading to the experience of spiritual awakening (Strobbe et al. 2013). ...
... Although spirituality is a multidimensional construct that includes many types of specific beliefs and behaviors (Cook 2004;Miller 1998), much research has focused on spirituality in a broad, general sense rather than on its specific dimensions. Even in those studies that treated spirituality multidimensionally, manifestations of spirituality and spirituality-related characteristics were usually analyzed separately, without considering their different combinations. ...
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The purpose of this study was to identify distinct profiles of persons beginning alcohol addiction therapy with similar baseline configurations of spiritual coping, forgiveness, and gratitude. The associations between latent profile membership and the completion of therapy were also examined. The sample was composed of 358 alcohol-dependent persons receiving an outpatient treatment program. The Spiritual Coping Questionnaire, the Forgiveness Scale, and the Gratitude Questionnaire were used to assess the baseline levels of spirituality-related variables. Using latent profile analysis, five profiles were identified: (1) both moderately positive and negative dimensions of spirituality (33.2%), (2) moderately positive dimensions of spir-ituality (21.0%), (3) predominantly negative dimensions of spirituality (20.2%), (4) mixed dimensions of spirituality with the lowest positive religious coping (14.0%), and (5) highly positive dimensions of spirituality (11.6%). Notably, the latent profiles differed in terms of the treatment completion rates. The results suggest the need to carry out a multidimensional assessment of spiritual functioning of persons beginning alcohol addiction therapy to provide treatment that is adjusted to patients' spiritual potential and deficits.
... Sometimes, they are part of a gradual process (Elder, Gimbel, and Ivie 1991), and people experience them as radical changes. Miller (1998) referred to self-change experiences as "quantum change" experiences, whereby the personality undergoes a drastic, positive change that suddenly and completely alters one's prior pattern of substance abuse. Drastic changes of this type are key to the spiritual process that causes significant life changes. ...
... In other words, hitting bottom may actually activate a process of surrender (Chen 2010). This act of surrender sets in motion a transformation that involves radical selfchange; that is, a quantum change that is key to the spiritual process that causes significant life changes (Miller 1998). The spiritual transformation in AA is one particular type of quantum change, which occurs in various domains, such as values, life goals, self-perception, and temperament. ...
... The spiritual transformation in AA is one particular type of quantum change, which occurs in various domains, such as values, life goals, self-perception, and temperament. These quantum-change experiences are instantaneous, unexpected, and permanent transformations (Miller andde Baca 1994, 2001). According to Forcehimes (2004), the path to a spiritual transformation includes a three-step sequence: hitting bottom, contrition, and surrender. ...
Article
The aim of this article is to explore the role of “hitting bottom” as a motivation to initiate a recovery process and desistance from crime and substance use disorders (SUDs), and in building recovery capital (RC). Researchers and practitioners have long been interested in why and how offenders desist from crime. Desistance and recovery from crime and SUDs have also been linked to negative turning points, such as hitting bottom, which represents multidimensional suffering with physiological, familial, social, and criminal implications. The deleterious outcomes of SUDs cause individuals to lose their social and personal resources and hit bottom. According to the conservation of resources model, in the context of actual or potential loss of resources, individuals strive to maintain, protect, and build them. Thus, hitting bottom not only provides the initial motivation for change, but also drives individuals to build personal resources. The prospects for successful recovery are dependent upon the individual’s personal and social resources, or RC. This article represents a first step in examining the role of hitting bottom in building RC in the process of long-term recovery. The conclusions may have theoretical as well as practical implications.
... Sin embargo, las creencias y practicas religiosas son utilizadas comúnmente en el tratamiento y recuperación del uso de sustancias (Calhoun, 2007). Religiosidad se define como una evaluación social y doctrinal de la religión que practica la persona, la cual incluye medidas como la frecuencia de asistencia a servicios/cultos y el fundamentalismo relativo de la religión que practica (Miller, 1998). Laudet, Morgen & White (2006) examinaron el estrés y la calidad de vida en función del tiempo en tratamiento y probaron la hipótesis que el apoyo social, la espiritualidad, la práctica religiosa, significado de la vida y la afiliación a los 12 pasos disminuyen el estrés y aumentan la satisfacción de vida. ...
... Sin embargo, las creencias y prácticas religiosas son utilizadas comúnmente en el tratamiento y recuperación del uso de sustancias (Calhoun, 2007;Brown et al., 2007). Religiosidad se define como una evaluación social y doctrinal de la religión que practica la persona, la cual incluye medidas como la frecuencia de asistencia a servicios o cultos y el fundamentalismo relativo de la religión que practica (Miller, 1998). Según la revisión de literatura en este estudio, un estudio con una muestra de 353 personas en tratamiento por el uso de crack y heroína encontró que las creencias espirituales y religiosas son aparentes factores protectores que median o moderan la relación entre el uso de sustancias y la calidad de vida. ...
... Nevertheless, religion and religious behaviors still represent the many ways in which the search for the sacred becomes organized and sanctioned in society (Snyder and Lopez 2007). In fact, one purpose of most religions is to cultivate spirituality in its members (Miller 1998). ...
... Spirituality was found to mediate the relationship between religiosity and wellbeing. One of the reasons for this could be that one purpose of most religions is to cultivate spirituality in its members (Miller 1998). For example, individual prayer is typically defined as a measure of spirituality; however, individual prayer occurs within the context of religious services and in the private practices of individuals as part of their religious beliefs. ...
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Researchers have consistently advocated positive associations between religion and well-being. The present research takes a step forward and explores potential mechanisms behind the same. The mediating role of a surprisingly neglected mechanism, positive virtues, specifically gratitude, forgiveness and altruism, is studied through a quantitative study on a sample of 220 adult respondents residing in Delhi NCR. The participants adhered to one of the six major religions present in India. Mediational analysis revealed that gratitude mediated the relationship between religiosity, spirituality and well-being via two pathways of forgiveness and altruism. The implications for researchers and practitioners working in the field of mental health are discussed.
... Opioids are highly addictive, so primary prevention is the best intervention. Religiosity has been theorized to reduce one's risk of becoming physiological and psychologically dependent on substances by lowering the likelihood of initial use-primary prevention, and curtailing continued use-secondary prevention (Gorsuch, 1995;Miller, 1998). Substantial empirical support has shown that higher religiosity and spirituality are often associated with better mental health outcomes, which includes lower substance use disorders, (Idler et al., 2003;Nelson, 2009) and remission from drug dependence (Schoenthaler et al., 2015). ...
... We recommend that clinicians explicitly incorporate religiosity and spirituality in OUD treatment (Matteliano et al., 2014). The practice is not new (Heinz et al., 2007;Miller, 1998) and others have provided guidelines on how to do this in clinical settings (Christensen et al., 2018;Koenig, 2000). Future work should examine religious and spiritual aspects for prevention of OUD among at-risk populations. ...
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Background: Psychosocial factors have rarely been studied to understand racial differences in opioid use disorders (OUD). We investigate religious involvement and Black-White differences in OUD risk between 2004-05 and 2012-13. Methods: We use Non-Hispanic Black and White adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (wave 2, N = 26,661 and NESARC-III, N = 26,960) (NESARC). We conducted survey-weighted logistic regression to examine whether race moderates the association between religious involvement and lifetime DSM-IV and -5 OUD and whether those differences change (i.e., are modified) by time, adjusted for covariates such as age, education, and urbanicity. Religious involvement measures were service attendance, social interaction, and subjective religiosity/spirituality. Results: The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV (3.82 vs 1.66) and DSM-5 (2.49 vs 1.32) OUD in NESARC-III was higher among White compared to Black respondents. Never attending services declined for both races over time. Race moderated the association between service attendance (F(4,65) = 14.9, p = 0.000), social interaction (F(4,65) = 34.4, p = 0.000) and subjective religiosity/spirituality (F(2,65) = 7.03, p = 0.000) on DSM-IV OUD in wave 2 and using DSM-5 OUD in NESARC-III (F(1,113) = 2.79, p = 0.066). Race differences in religion and DSM-IV OUD risk was modified by time (i.e., survey year) (all p < 0.000). For instance, higher service attendance was associated with lower DSM-IV risk for Black respondents in wave 2 but higher risk in NESARC-III. There were no changes in regression slopes among White respondents. Conclusions: Religious involvement may be important for prevention and treatment practices that respond to racial differences in risk of OUD. Replicate studies should examine other religious factors and specific types of opioids.
... In Mercadante's (2014) small-scale qualitative study, over one-third of the SBNRs in her sample had attended some type of addiction recovery program. In sum, the well-attested, documented connections among religion, therapy, and spirituality thus provide a solid foundation from which to pursue this line of research further (Mercadante 1996;Miller 1998;Rieff 1968;Vaillant 2005). ...
... These personal transformations are often described in the context of the Christian tradition, as Cook's (2004) meta-analysis of 265 published books on addiction and spirituality shows. Thus, the parallels between A.A. and other religious or spiritual organizations is well-attested and confirmed by a number of researchers (Davidson 2002;Greil and Rudy 1983;Mercadante 1996;Miller 1998;Greil 1987, 1989;Tonigan 2007;Woolverton 1983). ...
Article
In recent years, the number of people who identify as “spiritual but not religious” has grown. At the same time, many addiction recovery programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous promote spiritual beliefs to help those suffering from alcohol use disorders. In this paper, we hypothesize and test to see whether individuals who have attended substance abuse groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous are more likely to identify as spiritual but not religious (SBNR). Using longitudinal data from the Midlife Development in the United States study (N = 1,711), we find that those who have attended substance abuse groups are more likely to identify as SBNR. Further, frequency of attendance in these groups is positively and significantly associated with being SBNR when compared to being both religious and spiritual. Implications for understanding the connections among religion, spirituality, and substance abuse recovery programs are discussed.
... Some researchers, however, question whether meditation as a clinical technology could be more effective by maintaining its spiritual component (Dakwar & Levin, 2009;Dimidjian & Linehan, 2003;Geppert et al., 2007;Khong, 2009). Twelve-step programs, for example, fundamentally emphasize the relationship with a Higher Power (i.e., higher purpose, meaning, and value that involves something transcendent or beyond the self), and spirituality is understood as a protective factor against problematic substance use (Cook, 2004;Miller, 1998). ...
... Data support these and other hypotheses. Several studies report inverse relationships between spirituality and substance use, suggesting spirituality as a possible protective factor against SUDs (Gorush, 1995;Leigh et al., 2005;Miller, 1998). A recent review found numerous potential mediators of the relationships between spirituality and positive substance-related outcomes (e.g., substance abstinence, health-related behaviors). ...
Article
The continued need for advancement in evidence-based SUD treatment, as well as increases in treatment expense and decline in support from insurance providers, suggest that brief, innovative, and affordable treatments are needed. Meditation, spirituality, and adherence to medication-assisted treatments have all been shown to support abstinence. The current trial assessed effects of spiritually-based meditation, versus relaxation or standard treatment, on substance abstinence and psychological distress and dysfunction in a partially buprenorphine-supported (41.5%) treatment sample. Participants (N = 40) were recruited from an intensive outpatient treatment program, in which three treatment locations acted as separate experimental conditions. Abstinence was measured through urinalyses at baseline and weekly thereafter for the duration of the intervention. Psychological distress and dysfunction were assessed with a Likert-scaled questionnaire measuring symptoms typically associated with SUD. Co-varying for buprenorphine use, participants in the Meditation condition had better odds of remaining abstinent than participants in the Treatment-as-Usual (TAU) and Relaxation conditions. There were no significant differences in substance abstinence between the Relaxation and TAU conditions. Further, co-varying out baseline there were no significant differences at post-course in psychological distress and dysfunction between the three conditions. Results from this pilot trial suggest that this spiritually-informed approach may offer additive support to individuals in SUD treatment, as an aid to the meditative aspect of the 12 steps, or a non-12-step alternative spiritual supplement to standard SUD treatment.
... As a consequence, the term "intention" has been replaced with the term "motivation" and the interest towards interactional dynamics between the subject and his environment has dramatically increased. Some authors compelled us to ask ourselves how patient's support and management in the alcohol care unit could be adapted to his stage of motivation at the moment when he/she decides for the first time to consult us, or when he/she is forced to do so by his entourage (Miller, 1998;Miller & Rollnick, 1999;Prochaska, Velicer, Di Clemente, & Fava 1988;Prochaska, Di Clemente & Norcross, 1992;Prochaska, Velicer et al., 1994;Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992). Prochaska and DiClemente, (1986) have indeed defined six stages ( Figure 5) that describe motivation under a qualitative and quantitative point of view, in terms of insight and beliefs about alcohol. ...
... Utilizing the lived experience of those in recovery to craft, inquire, and verify, much like the use of PROMs, can extend the validity and application of such knowledge. (Vilsaint et al., 2017), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, & Black, 1971), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer, & Jerusalem, 1995), the WHO Quality of Life Scale (World Health Organization, 1995), the Human Flourishing Scale (Diener et al., 2010), and spiritual measures (Miller, 1998). Other metrics that examine locus of control, gratitude, emotional intelligence, and self-compassion may all be have the potential to change the landscape of recovery research and measurement as well (LaBelle, & Edelstein, 2018;Kelly, Greene, & Bergman, 2018, Collins, & McCamley, 2018O'Sullivan, Xioa, & Watts, 2017;Harrison et al., 2018;Kastukas et al., 2014). ...
Article
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As recovery from substance use disorder becomes more than a mere quantifiable outcome, there exists a need to discuss and propose the underlying theoretical constructs that ultimately describe and identify the science of recovery. In this abstract undertaking, we propose an initial formulation of a grand theory of recovery science, built upon the seminal theories of recovery capital, recovery-oriented systems of care, and socioecological theory. This grand theory - labeled recovery-informed theory (RIT) states that successful long-term recovery is self-evident and is a fundamentally emancipatory set of processes. This paper will discuss, analyze, and explore this theory as it is situated within the larger substance use, misuse, and disorder contexts. The uses, implications, and benefits of RIT as an organizing point of inquiry for recovery science are also discussed. By promoting the role of subjective recovery experience in the formulation of the study of recovery, it may be possible to summon new ideas, metrics, and strategies that can directly address substance use disorders in society. Adopting a recovery-informed understanding as follows from this grand theory may allow individual recovery and wellness trajectories to be explored, adapted, and modified to exemplify person-centered and individualized recovery strategies.
... Fakat özellikle sağlık alanında ortaya konan çalışmalarda inanç ve maneviyat ile sağlık arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendiren yayınlara da rastlamak mümkündür(Miller ve Thoresen, 2003; Musgrave, Allen C. ve Allen G., 2002;Shea, 2000;Daaleman, 2004). Farklı yayınlar da maneviyat ve inanç faktörünün, bireyin uyuşturucu ve uyarıcı maddeye olan eğiliminin azalmasında belirleyici bir rolünün olduğunu destekler niteliktedir(Gerald, Kimberly ve MaryLouise 2007, s. 184; Kendler, Liu, Gardner, McCullough, Larson ve Prescott, 2003; Wills, Yager ve Sandy, 2003; Koenig, 2001;Miller, 1998; Richard, Bell ve Carlson, 2000;Gorsuch, 1995; Gartner, Larson ve Allen, 1991). Bu konudaki bir örnekte, HIV virüsünü bulunduran madde bağımlısı 43 kişi için uygulanan altı aylık tedavi sürecinde hastalara manevi ve dini konuları da içeren psikolojik destek hizmeti sunulmuştur. ...
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Secondary school is important not only because of the adolescence problems, but also because of its function as a preparation phase for transition to a higher level of education. Information Technologies have become a part of daily life and adolescents tend to use them as a coping strategy for the problems they experience as adults. Moreover, the family and the educational environment may also reinforce misuse inadvertently. In line with these dynamics, this study was conducted to analyze whether there is a relationship between psychological resilience level which explains the factors that ensure success under difficult conditions, school burnout and internet addiction in the literature. The main purpose of the study is to examine whether the psychological Resilience level of school students school students makes a difference in terms of school burnout and internet addiction. The study was conducted by using the relational screening model, and it was performed with the permission received from İstanbul Governorship Provincial National Education Directorate dated 21.04.2016 and No. 59090411-20-E.4586566. The Personal Information Form, Psychological Resilience, School Burnout, and Internet Addiction for adolescents Scales were used for data collection. The findings were obtained through the analysis of data from 307 students, the t-testin the SPSS 22.0 software, and variance and correlation techniques. According to the findings, there was a positive correlation between internet addiction and school burnout (r=0.354), a weak correlation between internet addiction and psychological resilience (r=-0.135), and a moderate negative correlation between school burnout and psychological resilience (r=-0.434).
... As a consequence, the term "intention" has been replaced with the term "motivation" and the interest towards interactional dynamics between the subject and his environment has dramatically increased. Some authors compelled us to ask ourselves how patient's support and management in the alcohol care unit could be adapted to his stage of motivation at the moment when he/she decides for the first time to consult us, or when he/she is forced to do so by his entourage (Miller, 1998;Miller & Rollnick, 1999;Prochaska, Velicer, Di Clemente, & Fava 1988;Prochaska, Di Clemente & Norcross, 1992;Prochaska, Velicer et al., 1994;Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992). Prochaska and DiClemente, (1986) have indeed defined six stages ( Figure 5) that describe motivation under a qualitative and quantitative point of view, in terms of insight and beliefs about alcohol. ...
... Some theorists have suggested that addiction is a spiritual illness, a disorder resulting from a spiritual void in one's life or from a misguided search for connectedness (Miller 1998;Weil 1972;Siegal 1984;Winkelman 2001). The spiritual/altered state of consciousness models attempt to understand addiction from a zone 1 and 4 perspective. ...
... As a consequence, the term "intention" has been replaced with the term "motivation" and the interest towards interactional dynamics between the subject and his environment has dramatically increased. Some authors compelled us to ask ourselves how patient's support and management in the alcohol care unit could be adapted to his stage of motivation at the moment when he/she decides for the first time to consult us, or when he/she is forced to do so by his entourage (Miller, 1998;Miller & Rollnick, 1999;Prochaska, Velicer, Di Clemente, & Fava 1988;Prochaska, Di Clemente & Norcross, 1992;Prochaska, Velicer et al., 1994;Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992). Prochaska and DiClemente, (1986) have indeed defined six stages ( Figure 5) that describe motivation under a qualitative and quantitative point of view, in terms of insight and beliefs about alcohol. ...
... Fakat özellikle sağlık alanında ortaya konan çalışmalarda inanç ve maneviyat ile sağlık arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendiren yayınlara da rastlamak mümkündür (Miller ve Thoresen, 2003; Musgrave, Allen C. ve Allen G., 2002; Shea, 2000;Daaleman, 2004). Farklı yayınlar da maneviyat ve inanç faktörünün, bireyin uyuşturucu ve uyarıcı maddeye olan eğiliminin azalmasında belirleyici bir rolünün olduğunu destekler niteliktedir (Gerald, Kimberly ve MaryLouise 2007, s. 184;Kendler, Liu, Gardner, McCullough, Larson ve Prescott, 2003;Wills, Yager ve Sandy, 2003;Koenig, 2001;Miller, 1998;Richard, Bell ve Carlson, 2000;Gorsuch, 1995;Gartner, Larson ve Allen, 1991). Bu konudaki bir örnekte, HIV virüsünü bulunduran madde bağımlısı 43 kişi için uygulanan altı aylık tedavi sürecinde hastalara manevi ve dini konuları da içeren psikolojik destek hizmeti sunulmuştur. ...
Article
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Substance abuse is considered as a social problem in modern life. As there can be individual causes of this problem, environmental and social factors also play a role in developing substance addiction. Individuals try to make sense of their environment, society and themselves in the socialisation process. At the end of this effort, they cannot find satisfactory answers sometimes. As result of perceived meaninglessness of life, problems faced and traumas experienced, people feel helpless in coping with challenges and show a desire to escape from their spiritual depression by turning to substance use. The short-term pleasure experienced as result of substance use shows tolerance, which increases the recurrence risk of substance use. At the end of this process, people end up shaping their life around the drug or stimulant substance they use, and become addicted to it. Thus, individuals use substances to escape from difficulties they face, and lose their social functioning with substance use. At this point, the significance of social work as a profession and discipline comes to the fore in the process of providing individuals with social functioning. Social service which focuses on “the person in environment” intervenes with individuals and events, by respecting the individual’s right to self-determination, to ensure the social functioning of the person. As drug addiction is not a problem caused solely by medical reasons, medical interventions alone may be lacking in finding a solution. In this context, individuals can abstain from substance addiction with therapy and rehabilitation practices, in addition to medical intervention, to be applied on individual and social scale. Religious beliefs can give considerable support in this rehabilitation work. Thus, religious beliefs can be decisive in understanding the relationship with their environment and society, coping with difficulties, and finding the meaning of life and self-existence on the part of the individual. In this regard, offering counselling and guidance services for the individual’s world of meaning in addition to medical and psychosocial interventions makes it easier for them to abstain from substance use. Hence, this study attempts to analyse counselling and guidance services as well as suggestions and psycho-social interventions offered to substance addicts by diverse organisations adopting Christianity, Judaism or Islam. Following this analysis, the approaches of different faithbased organizations to substance addicts are compared and evaluated. The study was conducted using semi-structured interview method. In addition, the researchers spent a considerable amount of time with the interviewees as required for the participatory observation technique.
... Other researchers have also observed that the experience of mental illness often precipitates some level of spiritual distress (Sumner, 1998;Townsend, 2000) and spirituality boosts a positive mental health outcome (Contrada et al., 2004;George et al., 2002;Hill & Pargament, 2003;Koenig, George, & Peterson, 1998;Larson, 1992;Miller, 2003). A few studies have confirmed spirituality as a source of healing which provides a sense of meaning to life often found lacking among people with mental illness (Miller, 1998;Winkelman, 2001). ...
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The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate how South and East Asian immigrant women who have diagnoses of serious mental illness make treatment choices in relation to spirituality and to explore how gender, cultural beliefs, and spirituality intersect with the process of choice. The findings reveal that the process of spiritual choice includes three interrelated phases: (1) identifying contributing factors, (2) exploring spiritual resources and strategies, and (3) living with the choices. Variations among health beliefs and health care decisions are explained and services that women see as being helpful are identified.
... McDaniel and Burnett (1990) define religiosity as the faith that a person has in God or a belief in God accompanied by a commitment to follow certain principles set by God beyond just faith. Miller (1998) explains it as the extent of an individual's participation in religious beliefs and practices. However, Koenig et al. (1997) see religiosity as a degree of a person's religious commitment. ...
Article
Purpose Academic misconduct has become an albatross on the management of higher education institutions with long-term ramification on developmental agenda of countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between religiousness of students and examination cheating tendencies. Further, this paper explored the cheating methods, reasons for cheating and the relationship between perception of peer cheating and examination cheating propensity among students in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional research design was adopted for the study using questionnaires to collect data from 355 students in a three-year higher national diploma awarding technical university in Ghana. Descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were the main data analytical tools. Findings Results of the study revealed that “fear of failure” was the leading reason driving students’ examination cheating behaviours. Perception of peer cheating was related to levels of self-reported cheating whereas religious inclination of students was uncorrelated with the self-reported cheating behaviour of students. Practical implications The findings of the study provide implication for management of higher education institutions. The academic counselling unit of higher education institutions should work to dispel students’ overly sensitivity to end-of-semester examinations. Teachings of religious groups should highlight examination cheating as constituting violations of religious values and norms. Originality/value This paper is one of the pioneers of examination cheating and religiosity relationship in Ghana’s higher education settings. This study makes an additional contribution to the literature on the religiosity examination cheating nexus.
... Problematic alcohol use worsens clinical outcomes among people with HIV [39]. Many religious traditions-even those that allow alcohol consumption-stigmatize and to some extent sanction problematic/unhealthy levels of alcohol use [56,57]. Alternately, persons religiously involved may practice moderate alcohol use since religious doctrines generally promote healthy behaviors [19]. ...
Article
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Early and sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence can suppress the HIV virus in individuals and reduce onward transmission of HIV in the population. Religiosity has been associated with better HIV clinical outcomes. Data are from a longitudinal, observational study of 749 HIV-infected individuals from Brazil, Zambia, and Thailand (HPTN 063). Ordered logistic regression assessed whether religious service attendance was associated with ART adherence (self-reported and plasma HIV-RNA) and moderated the association between alcohol problems and ART adherence. In each country, > 80% of participants reported high self-reported ART adherence (good/very good/excellent). Religious service attendance exceeded 85% but was statistically unrelated to adherence. In combined-country models, (p = 0.03) as alcohol problems increased, the probability of high self-reported ART adherence, as well as viral-load, became weaker at higher compared to low service attendance frequency. Future studies should evaluate spirituality variables and replicate the moderation analyses between religious attendance and alcohol problems.
... Research has shown that an inverse relationship exists between spirituality and drug addiction, suggesting that spiritual involvement may act as a protective mechanism against developing an addiction and that a lack thereof can contribute toward developing an addiction (Laudet, Morgen, & White, 2006;Miller, 1997). Some theorists have suggested that addiction is a spiritual illness, a disorder resulting from a spiritual void in one's life or from a misguided search for connectedness (Miller, 1998). Therefore, addicts may be unconsciously pursuing the satisfaction of their spiritual needs through psychoactive substances or addictive behavior. ...
... Research has shown that an inverse relationship exists between spirituality and drug addiction, suggesting that spiritual involvement may act as a protective mechanism against developing an addiction and that a lack thereof can contribute toward developing an addiction (Laudet, Morgen, & White, 2006;Miller, 1997). Some theorists have suggested that addiction is a spiritual illness, a disorder resulting from a spiritual void in one's life or from a misguided search for connectedness (Miller, 1998). Therefore, addicts may be unconsciously pursuing the satisfaction of their spiritual needs through psychoactive substances or addictive behavior. ...
Book
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Currently there is such a cornucopia of conflicting theories in the field of addiction studies that it has become exceedingly difficult for treatment providers, therapists, and policymakers to integrate this vast field of knowledge into effective treatment. Since such a chaotic overabundance of treatment theories, styles, and definitions cloud the field of addictionology, many therapists claim their field is in need of a paradigm shift. In the last 20 years an integrative and compound model has emerged known as the biopsychosocial model, but without a solid and comprehensive meta-framework, syncretistic confusion can result when therapists pick and choose techniques without direction or an overall rationale. To address this problem, Guy du Plessis applies integral theory as a conceptual framework for understanding addiction, as well as a meta-therapeutic framework for therapists. The integral foundation of addiction outlined in this book provides researchers, academics, treatment providers, policy makers, and therapists with a conceptual architectonic of addiction and its treatment that is integrative, inclusive, and practical. An Integral Foundation for Addiction Treatment belongs on the shelf of every addiction treatment therapist, and anyone else who is impacted or influenced by the topic.
... Some of these interventions had a strong focus on Christian practices such as the use of the Bible and scripture (Havranek & Gilchrist, 2002). Thus, Miller (1998) was correct in noting that perspectives from religious and spiritual communities have historically shaped both treatment of and research on individuals with substance abuse problems. Miller and Bogenschutz (2008) have noted that empirical studies of spiritual interventions in the treatment of alcohol and other substance use problems have been very limited. ...
Chapter
Although spirituality has long been considered to be a protective factor in the treatment of substance use disorders, little has been done to operationalize the various dimensions of spirituality in clinical settings. The aim of this paper was to propose a framework – the three-legged stool – to act as a structure for spiritual interventions. The “stool” consists of three “legs”: creativity (creative arts and play therapy techniques), service (helping others), and solitude (contemplative prayer and meditation). The components of the framework are explained and support for the inclusion of each leg is offered.
... Although religion is a significant aspect of the Ugandan culture and a well-known risk and protective factor for alcohol use (Kalema, Vanderplasschen, Vindevogel, & Derluyn, 2016), more research regarding its role on treatment is desirable. The association between religion and substance use has often been debated (Miller, 1998;Chitwood, Weiss, Leukefeld, 2008). There is increasing evidence that religion and spirituality are highly resourceful, not only for addiction recovery but also for alcohol and drug prevention (Walton-Moss, Ray, Woodruff, 2013; Morjarjia & Orford, 2002), as most religions prohibit the use of alcohol and illicit drugs. ...
Thesis
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Alcohol is an important feature in Africa, but is increasingly associated with negative consequences in the Sub-Saharan region (Adelekan, 2008; WHO, 2014). Recent studies marked Uganda as a country with the highest rate of alcohol-related burden, globally (Graham et al., 2011). In Uganda, prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is estimated at 9.8% (Kabwama et al., 2016) and some documented consequences to alcohol misuse include the spread of HIV/AIDS (Uganda AIDS Commission, 2007), various somatic and psychiatric disorders, physical disabilities (Affinnih, 2002), family breakdown, non-communicable diseases, poverty, violence, and crime (Tumwesigye & Kasirye, 2005). According to WHO (2014), 5% of the mortality is directly attributed to alcohol. However, supply and demand reduction strategies for alcohol use are hardly available in Uganda. The goal of this research is to advance knowledge about AUD and its treatment in Uganda, as a case study of the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
... Spirituality has long been thought to play an important role in recovery from alcohol dependence, and has been posited as a protective factor against alcohol misuse (Bliss, 2008;Miller, 1998). Spirituality and spiritual practice have also been found to correlate with abstinence in alcohol dependence recovery (Bliss, 2008;Carroll, 1993;Kelly et al., 2011;Piderman et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Background: Meta-analysis of randomized studies using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcohol use disorder (AUD) showed large, significant effects for LSD efficacy compared to control conditions. Clinical studies suggest potential anti-addiction effects of LSD and mechanistically-related classic psychedelics for alcohol and other substance use disorders. Aims: To supplement clinical studies, reports of psychedelic use in naturalistic settings can provide further data regarding potential effects of psychedelics on alcohol use. Methods: An anonymous online survey of individuals with prior AUD reporting cessation or reduction in alcohol use following psychedelic use in nonclinical settings. Results: 343 respondents, mostly White (89%), males (78%), in the USA (60%) completed the survey. Participants reported seven years of problematic alcohol use on average before the psychedelic experience to which they attributed reduced alcohol consumption, with 72% meeting retrospective criteria for severe AUD. Most reported taking a moderate or high dose of LSD (38%) or psilocybin (36%), followed by significant reduction in alcohol consumption. After the psychedelic experience 83% no longer met AUD criteria. Participants rated their psychedelic experience as highly meaningful and insightful, with 28% endorsing psychedelic-associated changes in life priorities or values as facilitating reduced alcohol misuse. Greater psychedelic dose, insight, mystical-type effects, and personal meaning of experiences were associated with a greater reduction in alcohol consumption, controlling for prior alcohol consumption and related distress. Conclusions: Although results cannot demonstrate causality, they suggest that naturalistic psychedelic use may lead to cessation or reduction in problematic alcohol use, supporting further investigation of psychedelic-assisted treatment for AUD.
... Fakat özellikle sağlık alanında ortaya konan çalışmalarda inanç ve maneviyat ile sağlık arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendiren yayınlara da rastlamak mümkündür(Miller ve Thoresen, 2003; Musgrave, Allen C. ve Allen G., 2002;Shea, 2000;Daaleman, 2004). Farklı yayınlar da maneviyat ve inanç faktörünün, bireyin uyuşturucu ve uyarıcı maddeye olan eğiliminin azalmasında belirleyici bir rolünün olduğunu destekler niteliktedir(Gerald, Kimberly ve MaryLouise 2007, s. 184; Kendler, Liu, Gardner, McCullough, Larson ve Prescott, 2003; Wills, Yager ve Sandy, 2003; Koenig, 2001;Miller, 1998; Richard, Bell ve Carlson, 2000;Gorsuch, 1995; Gartner, Larson ve Allen, 1991). Bu konudaki bir örnekte, HIV virüsünü bulunduran madde bağımlısı 43 kişi için uygulanan altı aylık tedavi sürecinde hastalara manevi ve dini konuları da içeren psikolojik destek hizmeti sunulmuştur. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bağımlılık kavramı hemen hemen bütün coğrafyalardaki bilim insanlarının az veya çok ilgisini çekmektedir. Bilimsel üretimin ve merakın bir basamağı olan lisansüstü tezler geleceğin bilim üreticilerinin araştırma ve geliştirmeyi deneyimleyerek öğrendiği bir aşama olarak düşünüldüğünde tezlerin içerik ve amacının gözden geçirilmesi bugüne değinki durumu belirlemek ve geleceği ilişkin çıkarımlarda bulunmak açısından yararlı olacaktır. Bu çalışma kapsamında madde (sigara, alkol, uyuşturucu/uyarıcı madde) kullanımı ve bağımlılığını ele alan ulusal lisansüstü tezlerin özetleri incelenmiştir. Temmuz 2018’e kadar yayınlanmış olan tezler incelendiğinde madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığını ele alan toplam 145 teze ulaşılmıştır. Tezlerin önemli çoğunluğu büyükşehirlerin merkezindeki lise ve üniversite öğrencilerinde madde kullanımı oranını veya tedavi merkezinden hizmet alan bağımlılığı olan ergenlerin psikososyal özelliklerini belirlemeyi amaçlamıştır. Araştırmaların en sık aktardığı bulgu ailesinde veya arkadaş çevresinde madde kullanan birey olan öğrencilerde madde kullanım oranının daha yüksek olmasıdır. Ayrıca ebeveynle ilişkilerin madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığında önemli bir etken olduğu da sıkça vurgulanan bir diğer bulgudur. Son yıllarda lisansüstü öğrencilerin bağımlılık konusuna gösterdiği ilginin artması bu alandaki bilgi birikimin artacağına ilişkin bir gösterge olarak düşünülebilir. Bu olumlu eğilimin daha yararlı ve verimli kullanılabilmesi için lisansüstü eğitim sürecinde danışmanların ve üniversitelerin yanı sıra kamu ve sivil toplum kuruluşlarının da araştırmacıları özendirici, destekleyici ve kolaylaştırıcı bir tutumda olmaları etkili olacaktır. The concept of addiction attracts the interest of scientists in almost all geographies. When the postgraduate theses, which are a step of scientific production and curiosity, are considered as a stage in which future science producers learn by experiencing research and development, reviewing the content and purpose of theses will be useful to determine the present situation and make inferences about its future. In this study, the summaries of Turkish national graduate theses that address the use and dependence of substance (cigarette, alcohol, drug/stimulant) were examined. When the theses published until July 2018 were examined, a total of 145 theses were reached. The majority of theses are aimed at determining the rate of substance use in high school and college students in the center of metropolitan areas or the psychosocial characteristics of adolescents getting addiction service from the treatment center. One of the most common findings of the research is the increase in substance use of students who are using the substance in their family or friends. In addition, it is also frequently emphasized that relationships with parents are an important factor in substance use and addiction. In recent years, the increase in the interest of graduate students in the subject of addiction can be considered as an indicator that the quality of knowledge in this field will increase. In order to make this positive trend more useful and efficient, it will be effective for counselors and universities in the post-graduate education process, as well as public and non-governmental organizations to encourage, support and facilitate researchers.
... They rather use such terms which instead of making them to consider it an evil further encouraged them. They use religious terms about the drugs and especially alcohol has been linked with religiosity and spirituality (Jankowski, Hardy, Zamboanga & Ham, 2013;McGovern & McMahon, 2006;Miller, 1998). Such discourse helps them to justify their use of drugs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drug addiction is a social evil which has been studied by different scholars of the world from different perspectives. Most of the research conducted to understand this phenomenon is from the perspective of psychology, neurophysiology, medical sciences, and behavioral sciences. However, the discourse of drug addicts that probably contributes to addiction or can be used to avoid drug addiction is least explored. This study explores drug addiction from the perspective of the discourse of drug addicts. Using social constructivism and Sapir-Whorf Hypothesizes theoretical framework, the study involves Hashish addicts, Alcohol addicts, and Heroin addicts from different cities of Pakistan as research participants. The data are collected in the form of informal interviews, focus group, and observations to understand drug addicts" discourse about the use of drugs. The study found out that the different types of drug addicts use different kinds of discourse. The use of language plays role in drug addiction practices. The study also suggests the treatment of drug addiction through a new kind of therapy that may be termed as Discourse Therapy.
... Participants defined hope as a feeling of inner peace, tranquility, and serenity tied to a vision of a better life-a healthier life that was free of the "insanity" or "obsession" of eating disordered behaviors. This description reflects hope as goal-oriented, i.e., "I'm not going to die," and the 12-Step program's aim to better one's life and feel more serenity (Green et al., 1998;Miller, 1998). It also compliments other qualitative research suggesting recovered eating disordered women's "living in the here and now," and desire for a "new, better future without the illness" and "meaning in life" can offer motivation for living (Las Hayas et al., 2016, p. 587). ...
Chapter
Sporting role models (SRM) can inspire and influence attitude and behavior. This chapter examines the influence of six Indigenous Australian sportswomen: cricketers Faith Thomas and Ashleigh Gardner, netballers Marcia Ella-Duncan and Jemma MiMi, and tennis players Evonne Goolagong-Cawley and Ashleigh Barty. By applying and extending Marianne Meier’s (2015) theoretical lens, it unearths and examines their role as SRMs for women and girls. Meier (2015) recognizes and describes nine functions of SRMs: participation, leadership, advocacy, challenging gender stereotypes, inspiration, ethics, safeguarding and prevention, media and corporates, and giving back. Correspondingly, Meier also identifies three categories on a ‘continuum of interaction’ between an observer and a successful SRM. Metaphorically the women start in silence; however, the evidence suggests that they gain—and sometimes regain—voice, often beyond their sport careers. Understanding Indigenous sportswomen’s SRM status enables a layered and deep understanding of the unique platform provided by sport, which serves to strengthen their influence. The research recognizes a tenth function of female Indigenous SRMs—that of cultural maintenance. Findings illuminate how Indigenous Australian sportswomen are constructed in complex and sometimes contradictory ways, at times portrayed as advocates, deviants, sporting ambassadors, and political activists. Further research is needed to untangle the complexities and fluidity of female Indigenous Australian SRMs in the evolving worlds of both professional and community sport.
... Fakat özellikle sağlık alanında ortaya konan çalışmalarda inanç ve maneviyat ile sağlık arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendiren yayınlara da rastlamak mümkündür(Miller ve Thoresen, 2003; Musgrave, Allen C. ve Allen G., 2002;Shea, 2000;Daaleman, 2004). Farklı yayınlar da maneviyat ve inanç faktörünün, bireyin uyuşturucu ve uyarıcı maddeye olan eğiliminin azalmasında belirleyici bir rolünün olduğunu destekler niteliktedir(Gerald, Kimberly ve MaryLouise 2007, s. 184; Kendler, Liu, Gardner, McCullough, Larson ve Prescott, 2003; Wills, Yager ve Sandy, 2003; Koenig, 2001;Miller, 1998; Richard, Bell ve Carlson, 2000;Gorsuch, 1995; Gartner, Larson ve Allen, 1991). Bu konudaki bir örnekte, HIV virüsünü bulunduran madde bağımlısı 43 kişi için uygulanan altı aylık tedavi sürecinde hastalara manevi ve dini konuları da içeren psikolojik destek hizmeti sunulmuştur. ...
... As a consequence, the term "intention" has been replaced with the term "motivation" and the interest towards interactional dynamics between the subject and his environment has dramatically increased. Some authors compelled us to ask ourselves how patient's support and management in the alcohol care unit could be adapted to his stage of motivation at the moment when he/she decides for the first time to consult us, or when he/she is forced to do so by his entourage (Miller, 1998;Miller & Rollnick, 1999;Prochaska, Velicer, Di Clemente, & Fava 1988;Prochaska, Di Clemente & Norcross, 1992;Prochaska, Velicer et al., 1994;Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992). Prochaska and DiClemente, (1986) have indeed defined six stages ( Figure 5) that describe motivation under a qualitative and quantitative point of view, in terms of insight and beliefs about alcohol. ...
... As a consequence, the term "intention" has been replaced with the term "motivation" and the interest towards interactional dynamics between the subject and his environment has dramatically increased. Some authors compelled us to ask ourselves how patient's support and management in the alcohol care unit could be adapted to his stage of motivation at the moment when he/she decides for the first time to consult us, or when he/she is forced to do so by his entourage (Miller, 1998;Miller & Rollnick, 1999;Prochaska, Velicer, Di Clemente, & Fava 1988;Prochaska, Di Clemente & Norcross, 1992;Prochaska, Velicer et al., 1994;Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992). Prochaska and DiClemente, (1986) have indeed defined six stages ( Figure 5) that describe motivation under a qualitative and quantitative point of view, in terms of insight and beliefs about alcohol. ...
... As a consequence, the term "intention" has been replaced with the term "motivation" and the interest towards interactional dynamics between the subject and his environment has dramatically increased. Some authors compelled us to ask ourselves how patient's support and management in the alcohol care unit could be adapted to his stage of motivation at the moment when he/she decides for the first time to consult us, or when he/she is forced to do so by his entourage (Miller, 1998;Miller & Rollnick, 1999;Prochaska, Velicer, Di Clemente, & Fava 1988;Prochaska, Di Clemente & Norcross, 1992;Prochaska, Velicer et al., 1994;Rollnick, Heather, Gold & Hall, 1992). Prochaska and DiClemente, (1986) have indeed defined six stages ( Figure 5) that describe motivation under a qualitative and quantitative point of view, in terms of insight and beliefs about alcohol. ...
... Research has previously shown that attendance of TSF meetings is associated with improved medication adherence ( Monico et al., 2015 ), and that medications improved meeting attendance ( Klein & Seppala, 2019 ), suggesting that these two approaches could complement each other and mitigate important issues like dropout. Likewise, research has consistently highlighted an important role for spirituality in recovery from various SUDs, ranging from tobacco / nicotine ( Gonzales et al., 2007 ), to other SUDs ( Kelly & Eddie, 2020 ;Miller, 1998 ;Piedmont, 2004 ), further implicating a central place for classic psychedelics in eliciting self-transcendent experiences to promote recovery ( Figure 1 , Table 1 ). ...
Article
Several pilot studies have provided evidence supporting the potential of classic psychedelics like psilocybin in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). If larger trials confirm efficacy, classic psychedelic-assisted psy- chotherapy may eventually be integrated into existing addiction treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, contingency management, and medication-assisted therapies. Many individuals seeking treatment for SUDs also join twelve-step facilitation (TSF) programs like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), which are among the most widely available and accessed treatments for alcohol use disorder worldwide. For such individuals, engaging in clas- sic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy could be seen as controversial, as members of AA/TSF programs have historically rejected medication-assisted treatments in favor of a pharmacotherapy-free approach. We argue that classic psychedelics and the subjective experiences they elicit may represent a special, more compatible case than conventional medications. In support of this claim, we describe Bill Wilson’s (the founder of AA) little known experiences with psychedelics and on this basis, we argue that aspects of classic psychedelic treatments could complement AA/TSF programs. We provide a review of clinical trials evaluating psychedelics in the context of SUDs and discuss their potential large-scale impact should they be ultimately integrated into AA/TSF.
... In addition, research by Miller showed that spirituality dimensions play a profound association with the drug addiction recovery. 55 Although there was also a study reported that spiritual meditation may result on negative coping such as punishment of god, abandonment, karma, and guilt that lead to depression and stress, [58][59][60] these results should be interpreted with caution. This conflicting result could be associated with the nature of the philosophy of religion perspective in different culture, orientation and dimension. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is well recognized throughout the history that religiosity, spirituality and the meditation practice have significant effects to the physical and mental health. Hence, this paper interested to evaluate the effectiveness of spiritual meditation on drug addiction recovery and its effects on psychological and mental health aspects. Three main databases in medicinal and psychology field were screened to identify the eligible studies which are PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus by using Boolean expression. Fourteen papers were included in this review. Standardized mean differences were calculated based on the intergroup mean difference and standard deviation followed by Cochran’s Q and I2 determination for heterogeneity analysis. The mean differences were statistically pooled in the meta-analysis and presented as a forest plot. The risk of bias was high for each study and assessed using the Jadad scale. The meta-analysis showed significant differences in across studies for addiction related outcome (I2=27%, 95% CI: -1.703, -0.454), anxiety (I2=0%, 95% CI: -0.874, -0.634) and stress (I2=100%, 95% CI: -0.874, -0.634). In general, spiritual meditation may promote the addiction recovery as well as improve the psychological and mental health outcomes by reducing the depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. In conclusion, randomized control trial on spiritual meditation gave positive impact on the addiction behavior as well as mental health and clarifies its reliability on addiction therapy problems.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 04 No. 04 October’20 Page : 237-250
... 4 The need for attention to empirical evidence for the relationship between spirituality and SUDs has been long recognized. 5 The current document represents a position statement adopted by the Spirituality Interest Group of ISAM to clarify the role of spirituality within the addiction field, and includes how neuroscience, social science, and psychology can advance our understanding of spirituality and its role in recovery from addictions and provides recommended actions. It complements the inclusion by the World Health Organization of religion and spirituality as a dimension of quality of life, 6 and the World Psychiatric Association's guidelines for introducing religion and spirituality into the practice of psychiatry. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spirituality is a construct that is reflected in a diversity of strongly felt personal commitments in different cultural and national groups. For persons with substance use disorders (SUDs), it can serve as a component of the recovery capital available to them. This position statement reviews empirical research that can shed light on psychological, social, and biological aspects of this construct. On this basis, the Spirituality Interest Group of the International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM) makes recommendations for how this construct can be incorporated into research and clinical care.
Thesis
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The following thesis is research into the Family Communication Patterns (FCP) (McLeod & Chaffee, 1972) of “alcoholics and drug addicts” (ADA) with long-term recovery stages III and IV. Improving relapse rates of ADA in early recovery stage I and stage II may require knowledge about the family communication environment and family type of those ADA with extended recovery time. This is an exploratory descriptive of FCP and family typology of 81 ADA identifying as Twelve-step fellowship (TSF) members recovering from the disease of addiction (Jellinek, 1947; 1960). Data was collected via online questionnaire with adapted scales; AWARE 3.0 relapse awareness warning (Miller & Harris, 1982) and Revised Family Communication Patterns Instrument (Koerner & Fitzpatrick 2002a; 2005). Data analysis of the 81 ADA found low-to-medium significant correlations within their FCP, typology, and the desire to relapse, supporting further research in the addiction rehab recovery counseling field with focus on family communication patterns and the communication field. Keywords: addiction, alcohol, drugs, conformity orientation, consensual, conversation orientation, family communication patterns, family types, pluralistic, protective, recovery, relapse
Thesis
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This thesis aims to shed light on the role of religious, spiritual and secular beliefs in individuals’ recovery from problematic substance use in Scotland. The findings are based on semi-structured interviews with twenty individuals, living in Scotland, who had past experience of problematic substance use. The methodology was influenced by narrative theory and the analysis drew on a thematic narrative approach. It is suggested that individuals in recovery construct personal belief systems by drawing chiefly on established cultural belief systems. Personal belief systems are learned and reinforced through practice, notably, engaging with belief-orientated communities and practising personal rituals. Participants use their personal belief systems as frameworks to interpret and give meaning to fundamental experiences that were part of their recovery. Personal belief systems are also integral to the construction of identity in recovery, helping individuals to establish a new self or reclaim an idealised past self. While personal belief systems did not often fit within neat religious, spiritual or secular categories, those with religious and/or spiritual beliefs often stressed the importance of their beliefs and associated practices to their recovery. Secular existential beliefs were also important to some people. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of research, policy and practice.
Article
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Affecting millions, the rise of substance abuse, particularly opioids, has become a global health crisis, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite extensive scientific advances in understanding the complex biopsychosocial components of this phenomenon, there is no relief in sight. Yet, research studies during the past twenty years reveal an important role for spirituality and religion in prevention and recovery. The primary purpose of this article is to explore this role, examine various theories that have emerged about the positive influence of spirituality, and consider how an effective approach to prevention and treatment might be realized.
Book
There is no shortage of attempts at rationalizing corruption in Africa and there is no way we can fight corruption without changing people's behaviour. Several suggestions have been made as to the best approach in tackling corruption. It is my opinion that the right steps should start from strengthening institutions, enactment of school laws, sound education, hygiene in polities, killing the notion of insignificant evil and clannishness. Institutions are at the very heart of the sustained fight against corruption. We must create institutions that defy time. These institutions must be recognized by law. Institutions such as the Police Force, the EFCC, the ICPC, the Parliament, the Judiciary, the Executive, Civil Society must be strengthened. It is only institutions that defy time that can properly check corruption. The next in line is a raft of laws that will ensure that those who will want to do things that run counter to the law are comprehensively punished. Their punishment should be such that the laws of the land in league with other laws outside Nigeria (where most corrupt persons usually consider a safe haven for proceed of corruption) are mustered to deal with cases of corruption. We must also introduce hygiene in our politics. This is because we cannot disentangled the process of election from the outcome of government. The political process must be sanitized to weed out men and women of questionable character. This is one way of ensuring only men and women of integrity take up power. There is equally the need to kill the notion of insignificant evil. Some people have argued that the vagary and vicissitude of the life of citizens of a developing economy such as Nigeria cannot be devoid of corruption. For this line of thinkers, corruption in its minimal output is excusable. It is even an elixir of sort in some situations. When for instance, a businessman smartly shortchanged his unsuspecting customer by slightly elevating the price of a commodity, the impact of such an action is not grievous enough to earn the disapprobation of the business class. In essence, certain aberrations or corrupt practices are excusable if the intention is not to create substantial pain or damage to the collective existence of members of the society. If the corrupt act is even carried out in a manner that the victim do not protest on getting to know, then it should be overlooked. This mindset dominates the average African mind and should be discarded if we must win the war against corruption. The culture in Nigeria is that if a thief is from your tribe, you admit that he is indeed a thief but also that he is "our thief. It is the culture of ownership of thieves because they are from our ethnic group or religion or social class. This culture must be killed if we must fight corruption. Lastly, we must review our educational curriculum to include anti-corruption studies. This book is written to meet the yearning and craving of both students and teachers who desire a firsthand material on anti-corruption studies. I pray this book meets their expectation.
Thesis
En esta tesis, analizo las transformaciones en los procesos de conformación de individualidad de residentes y ex residentes de comunidades terapéuticas religiosas. En particular, indago los cambios que emergen a partir de la realización de un tratamiento para los consumos de drogas en estas instituciones. El interés analítico se centra en las experiencias biográficas de personas que se encuentran recibiendo asistencia en Comunidad Cenácolo y Reto a la Vida y de quienes ya culminaron su proceso terapéutico, habiendo cumplido o no el tiempo propuesto por la institución. Ambos centros cuentan con sedes en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina) y desarrollan una modalidad particular dentro de la metodología de la comunidad terapéutica. Los elementos que configuran esta particular implementación son: la fuerte impronta religiosa de sus programas terapéuticos; la intensa vida comunitaria; la estricta rutina laboral; la ausencia de profesionales de la salud en sus equipos de trabajo; la pertenencia a redes internacionales; la exigencia de abstinencia en el consumo de cualquier tipo de sustancia ilegalizada, así como de drogas legales (tabaco, bebidas alcohólicas y psicofármacos); y la duración prolongada de los tratamientos. La investigación se encuadró en el paradigma cualitativo de la investigación social. La estrategia metodológica empleada fue el enfoque biográfico. El corpus empírico está conformado por entrevistas semi-estructuradas a directivos, responsables y residentes de ambas instituciones; entrevistas biográficamente orientadas a ex residentes y relatos de vida que construí conjuntamente con ellos; documentos elaborados por los propios centros; y notas de campo provenientes de observaciones participantes en diversas actividades institucionales. El problema de investigación que abordo en la tesis es la resultante del cruce de tres campos temáticos. Un primer ámbito analítico es el de los consumos de drogas y las iniciativas socioterapéuticas para su abordaje, en el marco de la sociología de la salud. Un segundo campo, es el de la religión, en función de la orientación de las comunidades terapéuticas en las que recibieron asistencia los residentes y ex residentes cuyas experiencias de internación y procesos de conformación de individualidad analizo. La inclusión de la tesis en el campo de las ciencias sociales de la religión se justifica, a su vez, en el énfasis analítico que otorgo a la categoría de conversión religiosa. Esta constituye el principal propósito que ambas instituciones persiguen a través de la provisión de sus tratamientos y es concebida como la única forma de lograr una rehabilitación definitiva del consumo de drogas. Finalmente, el problema de investigación se completa con la inserción de la tesis en el campo de estudios sociales sobre la subjetividad o la conformación de la individualidad. He buscado dar cuenta de las características y alcances que asumen los procesos de fabricación de los individuos que tienen lugar en estas comunidades terapéuticas. Para ello, me he valido de dos de las grandes estrategias heurísticas de este campo de estudios: la socialización y la individuación. Me interesé por comprender el interjuego entre ambas, tanto en el marco del tratamiento (y las transformaciones que se van produciendo con el desenvolvimiento de las distintas etapas del mismo) como fuera de la institución. La noción de procesos de individuación, entendida como el modo en que se producen los individuos en una sociedad determinada al enfrentar las pruebas munidos de una serie de soportes (materiales, afectivos y simbólicos), mostró potencialidades para escapar de dos tipos de lecturas contrapuestas. Por un lado, una mirada determinista que propone modelos únicos u homogéneos para una sociedad o grupo social e interpreta las conductas y experiencias de los individuos únicamente a partir de la posición que ocupan en la estructura social. Por el otro, una representación prometeica que abre, de manera desproporcionada, los cursos de acción individuales. En las dos comunidades terapéuticas analizadas, cada residente debe lidiar con una situación peculiar. Por un lado, la obligación de fabricarse como individuo, convertirse en una persona nueva y asumir un rol preponderante en dichos procesos. Por el otro, la necesidad de hacerlo siguiendo un modelo o ideal de sujeto con lineamientos preestablecidos por las instituciones. Durante el tratamiento prepondera la socialización por sobre la individuación. En esta instancia, se observa una convergencia significativa entre las características de los proyectos biográficos de los residentes y los lineamientos del modelo de sujeto institucional. La individuación va ganando primacía en las instancias finales del tratamiento, y especialmente, cuando se abre la fase de reinserción social y el individuo recupera márgenes para la determinación de algunos lineamientos de su proyecto de vida. Las experiencias concretas de los ex residentes necesariamente se distancian de lo que se propugna desde los modelos de sujeto institucionales. Esta distancia no solo debe entenderse como una disconformidad con los preceptos de las comunidades terapéuticas, sino también con la dificultad de sostener fuera de la institución una línea de conducta que se ajuste perfectamente a dichos preceptos. El abandono del tratamiento –especialmente luego de una permanencia prolongada– supone para el individuo el retorno a una dinámica de individuación diferente a la de la comunidad terapéutica. La transición desde una dinámica de individuación institucionalizada o colectivista a una individuación singularista conlleva impactos subjetivos significativos. Durante el tratamiento, buena parte de las pruebas se abordan con un fuerte acompañamiento institucional o, directamente, se encuentran “suspendidas”. En virtud de ello, un aspecto central en la reinserción social, señalado por los ex residentes, es la dificultad para enfrentar desafíos tales como las pruebas de pareja, laboral y educativa.
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