Intake of Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, and Fiber and Risk of Stroke Among US Men

Department of Nutrition, Epidemiology and Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 10/1998; 98(12):1198-204. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.98.12.1198
Source: PubMed


Animal experiments and epidemiological studies have suggested that high potassium intake may reduce the risk of stroke, but the evidence is inconclusive, and the role of other nutrients in potassium-rich foods remains unknown.
We examined the association of potassium and related nutrients with risk of stroke among 43 738 US men, 40 to 75 years old, without diagnosed cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, who completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1986. During 8 years of follow-up, 328 strokes (210 ischemic, 70 hemorrhagic, 48 unspecified) were documented. The multivariate relative risk of stroke of any type for men in the top fifth of potassium intake (median intake, 4.3 g/d) versus those in the bottom (median, 2.4 g/d) was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.88; P for trend=0.007). Results for ischemic stroke alone were similar. Intakes of cereal fiber and magnesium, but not of calcium, were also inversely associated with risk of total stroke. These inverse associations were all stronger in hypertensive than normotensive men and were not materially altered by adjustment for blood pressure levels. Use of potassium supplements was also inversely related to risk of stroke, particularly among men taking diuretics (relative risk, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18, 0.72).
Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that diets rich in potassium, magnesium, and cereal fiber reduce the risk of stroke, particularly among hypertensive men. Potassium supplements may also be beneficial, but because of potential risks, use should be carefully monitored and restricted to men taking potassium-losing diuretics.

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    • "that an insufficient Mg intake has been associated with the development of diabetes and insulin resistance as well as cardiovascular complications (Ascherio et al., 1998; Saris, Mervaala, Karppanen, Khawaja, & Lewenstam, 2000). Daily recommended iron intake is in the range of 25–50 mg (Gurzau, Neagu, & Gurzau, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: The food industry is interested in the study of sub-utilized plant species as a contribution to consumers' diet diversification and the incorporation of materials with specific technological properties. Thus, the chemical composition of Pachyrhizus ahipa roots belonging to different accessions was analyzed, focusing on compo-nents that show nutritional and technological relevance and including the analyses of the main anti-nutrients. Ahipa roots can be considered a good source of carbohydrates (sucrose and starch) and total dietary fiber (TDF). They can also supply a good quantity of minerals, mainly magnesium and iron. Pro-tein levels are considerably higher than the ones reported for other root and tuber crops. Ahipa accessions Local and IRNAS 11 outstand for their high starch content (57 and 65% respectively), having a middle protein level (9–10.5%). Their TDF (21–22%) and sodium content were the lowest ones. Likewise, Local and IRNAS 11 accessions showed the lowest contents of oxalates, phytic acid and tannins, which represent an advantage from the nutritional point of view. Ahipa accessions exhibited differential solvent retention capacities and thermal stability. Local and IRNAS 11 accessions showed interesting properties to be considered in a breeding program since they had the highest starch content together with comparatively low content of anti-nutrients.
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    • "Since high blood pressure is the major cause of stroke, the effects of potassium and calcium on blood pressure may contribute to the reduced risk of stroke with an increased vegetable intake.[33] Higher dietary calcium and potassium intake are inversely correlated with the risk of stroke or stroke mortality,[3435] and the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Study indicated that low serum potassium was associated with increased stroke incidence.[36] Randomized controlled trials have shown fruit and vegetable consumption to significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure,[3738] and thus possibly preventing stroke. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · International journal of preventive medicine
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    • "Eight cohort studies were identified 12–19 (the online-only Data Supplemental Figure 1), 3 from the United States, 12,13,18 2 were Pooled estimate Study Bazzano LA, et al., 2003 Ascherio A, et al., 1998 Larsson SC, et al., 2009 Wallstrom P, et al., 2012 Eshak ES, et al., 2010 Oh K, et al., 2005 KokuboY, et al., 2011 0.93 (0.88, 0.98) Estimated RR (95%CI) 0.97 (0.92, 1.03) 0.84 (0.73, 0.97) 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 0.86 (0.76, 0.97) 0.89 (0.73, 1.10) 0.88 (0.77, 1.01) 0.90 (0.81, 1.00) 1 .7 .8 .9 1 1.1 RRper 7 g/day of fibre "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Fiber intake is associated with reduced stroke risk in prospective studies, but no meta-analysis has been published to date. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched for healthy participant studies reporting fiber intake and incidence of first hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, published between January 1990 and May 2012. Results: Eight cohort studies from the United States, northern Europe, Australia, and Japan met inclusion criteria. Total dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of hemorrhagic plus ischemic stroke, with some evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2); relative risk per 7 g/day, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; I(2)=59%). Soluble fiber intake, per 4 g/day, was not associated with stroke risk reduction with evidence of low heterogeneity between studies, relative risk 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.01; I(2)=21%). There were few studies reporting stroke risk in relation to insoluble fiber or fiber from cereals, fruit, or vegetables. Conclusions: Greater dietary fiber intake is significantly associated with lower risk of first stroke. Overall, findings support dietary recommendations to increase intake of total dietary fiber. However, a paucity of data on fiber from different foods precludes conclusions regarding the association between fiber type and stroke. There is a need for future studies to focus on fiber type and to examine risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes separately.
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