Article

Recognition of script-typical versus script-atypical information: Effects of cognitive elaboration

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Abstract

Memory for script-atypical information has been shown to be superior to memory for script-typical information. Two explanations of this typicality effect are evaluated: (1) the attention-elaboration hypothesis (AEH) and (2) the script-copy-plus-tag hypothesis (SCTH). The AEH claims that atypical information is recognized better because it attracts more attention and cognitive elaboration. According to the SCTH, memory representations of script-based texts are established automatically and constitute a copy of the script plus tags for atypical events that facilitate later recognition. We investigated recognition memory and memory for the presentation form of typical and atypical items originally shown with versus without missing letters. Experiment 1 showed that presenting items in fragmentary form tends to improve recognition memory mostly for highly typical items. Experiment 2 revealed that the size of this missing-letters effect is affected by the presentation form of items preceding the target items during acquisition. For fragmented items preceded by other fragmented items, the typicality effect virtually disappeared. Memory for the presentation form of items was generally moderate. These results are readily explained within the AEH framework and pose some problems for the SCTH.

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... Results showing a prominent role of attention and elaboration have subsequently challenged even the more flexible schema-based accounts such as the SCTH. Erdfelder and Bredenkamp (1998) reported a decreased incongruency effect when increased attention, induced by an unusual form of presentation, led to an elaborated encoding of items. This finding is incompatible with the SCTH that cannot accomodate effects of attention on recognition memory for schema-relevant information. ...
... On the other hand, unexpected information cannot be understood on the basis of pre-existing, knowledge-based expectations and is thus closely examined by data-driven processes. Analogously, it has been suggested in research on the incongruency advantage that the effect of increased attention for incongruent information could be restricted to the processing of the verbatim or surface level while reading a text or following a discourse, whereas congruent information might be favored at Memory for expectancy-incongruent information 5 the level of information integration into a situational model (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; see also Kintsch, 1988). ...
... These findings are incompatible with the AE framework's prediction that the incongruency advantage decreases under cognitive load: The AE postulates that, because the Memory for expectancy-incongruent information 7 incongruency advantage depends on attention and cognitive elaboration of incongruent information, it should decrease with the amount of available cognitive (attentional and elaborational) resources. Thus, the available evidence (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Sherman et al., 1998Sherman et al., , 2004 appears to be contradictory. The present research aims at contributing evidence towards solving this apparent contradiction. ...
... According to the attention-elaboration hypothesis (Bobrow & Norman, 1975) stereotypeincongruent information attracts more attention and thus is elaborated more deeply than stereotype-congruent information. Consequently, source memory for stereotypeincongruent information should exceed source memory for stereotype-congruent information, a prediction that has been well-supported empirically (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998, see also Bell, Mieth, & Buchner, 2015;Kroneisen & Bell, 2013). 4 ...
... Following two meta-analyses (Rojahn & Pettigrew, 1992;Stangor & McMillan, 1992), these contradictory findings can be explained by the memory measure used (cf. Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998): Studies using measures that correct for guessing biases (such as the present experiment) revealed a memory advantage for schema-incongruent information and typically a guessing advantage for schema-congruent information. In contrast, studies using uncorrected memory measures such as simple recognition hit rates or raw recall rates rather tend to find evidence for a congruency advantage. ...
... Such effects cannot be expected for the present research. (2019) Ó 2019 Hogrefe Publishing more deeply than stereotype-congruent information (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998). ...
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According to (a) the beauty ideal of a full head of hair and (b) the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS; "what is beautiful is good"), bald men should appear less attractive than nonbald men, not only physically but also socially. To explain inconsistent results on this prediction in previous research, we suggest two antagonistic processes: the automatic activation of the PAS at the implicit level and its suppression at the explicit level, the latter process selectively triggered by individuating information about the target person. In line with this account, we only found negative social attractiveness ratings for bald men by same-aged women when individuating target information was lacking (Experiment 1). In contrast, irrespective of whether individuating information was available or not, we reliably found evidence for the PAS in different implicit paradigms (the implicit association test in Experiment 2 and a source monitoring task in Experiment 3). We conclude that individuating information about bald men suppresses PAS application, but not PAS activation.
... There is ample evidence that distinctiveness affects memory (e.g., Schmidt, 1991). More specifically, it is well known that memory for script-atypical information is superior to memory for script-typical information (see for example Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Graesser, Woll, Kowalski, & Smith, 1980). This socalled typicality effect has also been observed in face recognition (see Shapiro & Penrod, 1986, for a review) or person attributes (see Stangor & McMillan, 1992, for a review). ...
... However, the results are inconsistent with the assumption of a highly specific cheater recognition mechanism that selectively enhances memory for cheaters regardless of the circumstances (Mealey et al., 1996), but they are in line with the assumption of a more flexible mechanism leading to enhanced memory for unexpected or atypical information. Given that atypical information recruits attentional processing and is associated with better memory (e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Graesser et al., 1980), it is not necessary to attribute these findings to a mechanism specific to social exchange. Nevertheless, it is still possible to postulate that the results are due to domain-specific memory modules designed to support social exchange. ...
... We discovered a clear source memory advantage for female faces associated to disgusting behaviours, which is particularly interesting because previous studies ascribed the memory advantage for faces of trustworthy looking cheaters to a highly specific ''protective mechanism against exploitation by disguised cheaters'' (Suzuki & Suga, 2010, p. 228). The results of Experiment 2 refute this ''protection-against-exploitation'' account and suggest that the results may rather be ascribed to a more general mechanism serving to enhance encoding and retention of information 178 KRONEISEN AND BELL that does not fit into existing schemata, consistent with a more general atypicality account (e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998). Given that the main finding of the present study is an interaction effect depending on the match between a male or female face to a negative or positive background, it is not plausible that the memory enhancement is due to the particular sample of female faces being more memorable than male faces. ...
Article
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The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.
... In the cognitive system, memories inconsistent with one's schema can be successfully retrieved more frequently, as demonstrated in a recognition task (Graesser et al., 1980;Schmidt, 1991;Erdfelder and Bredenkamp, 1998). In layperson's terms, unusual or atypical events are inherently more memorable than usual or typical events. ...
... Memory of a brand could be a predictor of one's attitude for the brand (Malodia et al., 2017), and therefore, an important aim of advertising is to impress consumers. Psychological studies have demonstrated that stereotype incongruency has a benefit for memory in general (Graesser et al., 1980;Schmidt, 1991;Erdfelder and Bredenkamp, 1998), and this effect should be generalizable to memory of advertisements. However, in reality, stereotype-congruent advertisements are more prevalent than incongruent ones. ...
... The results of the present study, which indicate a memory benefit for stereotype-incongruent advertisements due to their higher discriminability, were consistent with those of previous studies that showed a memory benefit for surprising or atypical events or faces (Graesser et al., 1980;Shapiro and Penrod, 1986; Schmidt, 1991;Stangor and McMillan, 1992;Erdfelder and Bredenkamp, 1998). Possibly, compared with typical stimuli, atypical stimuli require more effort to encode (Sweegers and Talamini, 2014;Sweegers et al., 2015) and thus lead to better memory performance. ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown equivocal results about whether atypical or unusual events, compared with typical ones, facilitate or inhibit memory. We suspect that the indefinite findings could be partly due to the recall task used in these studies, as the participants might have used inference instead of recall in their responses. In the present study, we tested the recognition memory for real (Experiment 1) and fabricated (Experiment 2) advertisements, which could be congruent or incongruent with gender stereotypes. In congruent advertisements, a female endorser presented a traditionally considered feminine product or a male endorser presented a traditionally considered masculine product, whereas the gender-product type matching reversed in incongruent advertisements. The results of both behavioral experiments revealed that the participants’ memory performance for stereotype-incongruent advertisements was higher than for congruent ones. In the event-related potential (ERP) recordings in Experiment 3, larger positive amplitudes were found for stereotype-incongruent advertisements than for congruent advertisements on the left parietal sites, suggesting a deeper encoding process for stereotype-incongruent information than for stereotype-congruent information.
... In this paradigm, source memory (corrected for guessing bias) shows an inconsistency effect. That is, source memory is typically better for items that originated from an unexpected source than for items that originated from an expected source (e.g., Bell et al., 2012Bell et al., , 2015Ehrenberg & Klauer, 2005;Kranz et al., 2019;Kroneisen & Bell, 2013;Kroneisen et al., 2015;Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Mieth et al., 2016Mieth et al., , 2021Schaper et al., 2019aSchaper et al., , b, 2021. 1 This inconsistency effect has been explained by an attention-elaboration account (Brewer & Treyens, 1981;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Friedman, 1979;Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Loftus & Mackworth, 1978). According to this account, unexpected source-item pairs attract more attention during study than expected source-item pairs. ...
... Rather than with biased restudy, the inconsistency effects in both groups may be explained by the attention-elaboration account (e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998). Unexpected source-item pairs likely attracted more attention during study than expected source-item pairs and were, therefore, encoded more elaborately and remembered better. ...
Article
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Metamemory monitoring, study behavior, and memory are presumably causally connected. When people misjudge their memory, their study behavior should be biased accordingly. Remedying metamemory illusions should debias study behavior and improve memory. One metamemory illusion concerns source memory, a critical aspect of episodic memory. People predict better source memory for items that originated from an expected source (e.g., toothbrush in a bathroom) rather than an unexpected source (e.g., shampoo in a kitchen), whereas actual source memory shows the opposite: an inconsistency effect . This expectancy illusion biases restudy choices: Participants restudy more unexpected than expected source–item pairs. The authors tested the causal relationships between metamemory and source memory with a delay and a source-retrieval attempt between study and metamemory judgment to remedy the expectancy illusion and debias restudy choices. Debiased restudy choices should enhance source memory for expected items, thereby reducing the inconsistency effect. Two groups studied expected and unexpected source–item pairs. They made metamemory judgments and restudy choices immediately at study or after delay, restudied the selected pairs, and completed a source-monitoring test. After immediate judgments, participants predicted better source memory for expected pairs and selected more unexpected pairs for restudy. After delayed judgments, participants predicted a null effect of expectancy on source memory and selected equal numbers of expected and unexpected pairs. Thus, the expectancy illusion was partially remedied and restudy choices were debiased. Nevertheless, source memory was only weakly affected. The results challenge the presumed causal relationships between metamemory monitoring, study behavior, and source memory.
... What would be the power of the G 2 test for this H 1 in case of a sample size of N = 120 and a type-1 error probability α = .05? In the first step, we calculate the effect size w λ=0 measuring the discrepancy between the H 0 and the H 1 probabilities corresponding to the expected frequencies in Table 1 according to (5). We obtain the rather small effect size w λ=0 = 0.1379 which is close to Cohen's effect size measure w = 0.1503 for the same H 1 . ...
... Researchers preferring to perform power analyses in terms of standardized effect size measures need separate effect size measures for each of the K populations. A suitable index for the k-th population (inspired by [5], Footnote 1) is ...
Chapter
This article shows how to assess and control the power of chi-square tests for categorical data. It discusses both the case of simple null hypotheses (i.e., the category or cell probabilities are completely specified a priori) and the case of composite null hypotheses for parameterized multinomial models requiring parameter estimation (e.g., log-linear models). Power calculations are illustrated for chi-square tests of association and chi-square goodness-of-fit tests using standard examples from behavioral research.
... Compared with variable details, new details should be less likely to be incorporated into participants' scripts as they were not part of the regular activities. Research has shown that information that is inconsistent with a script-that is, has a low likelihood occurring when a script is activated, such as drinking champagne in the bathroom as part of the morning routine-is well remembered because it is unexpected and draws people's attention (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; see also Bower et al., 1979;Hastie, 1980). However, this memorial advantage for script-inconsistent details over script-consistent details, which fit with the theme of the event (such as brushing one's teeth in the bathroom as part of the morning routine) appears to be short-lived: Graesser et al. (1980) found this advantage when memory was tested after a 30-minute delay, but script-consistent details were better remembered than script-inconsistent details after a 1-week delay. ...
... We found differences between new and variable details for participants' free recall reports, and for their later suggestibility for instantiations. In the free recall phase, we expected that participants should report fewer new details than variable details because the new details should be comparatively less likely to be incorporated into participants' event scripts and more likely to be forgotten over time (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Graesser et al., 1980). Indeed, in their free recall reports on the target episode, our adult participants reported fewer new details than variable details, which is consistent with findings from repeated-event experiments with children (Brubacher et al., 2011;Danby et al., 2017;Danby et al., 2019). ...
Article
Witnesses often need to describe individual episodes of repeated crimes, such as family violence. Suggestive questions containing incorrect information reduce the accuracy of adults’ reports of single events; in the current experiment, we examined the effects of suggestive questions on adults’ reports of one episode of a repeated event. Over two weeks, 134 participants completed four activity sessions containing variable details that changed each session, and new details that were not repeated across the series. One week later, they were interviewed and described one (self-nominated) target episode. Next, participants were asked four suggestive questions that varied according to whether the suggested details had been experienced in a non-target episode or not experienced, and detail-type (variable or new). As research with children indicated that question-type might be important, half our participants were asked open suggestive questions; the other half were asked closed suggestive questions. Participants accepted more suggestions about experienced (non-target) than not-experienced details, and about variable than new details. They also accepted more details in open than closed questions, but only for experienced non-target new details. Our results demonstrate the ease with which participants accepted interviewer-suggested details when reporting on an episode of a repeated event.
... When a given schema is activated, so are the highly probable script actions; therefore, the participant has difficulty differentiating between typical actions that were previously mentioned and those that were not. In this way, the false alarm rate for typical actions is greater than the false alarm rate for atypical actions (for discussion of the different theories explaining the typicality effect, see [10]). Following closed-head injury (CHI), most patients show an impaired ability to learn new verbal or visual material (for review, see [11, 12]). ...
... Therefore, the present finding that CHI patients' memory of atypical actions was primarily impaired is more readily explained by theories assuming that atypical actions are mediated by effortful processes [4, 7, 8] than automatic processes [9]. Similarly, previous studies have demonstrated that the typicality effect is affected by divided attention [22] and by cognitive elaboration [10]. Such results are predicted by theories claiming that atypical actions are processed effortfully [4, 7, 8]. ...
Article
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When typical and atypical information about a situation is presented, the latter is usually better recognized. This phenomenon is referred to as the 'typicality effect'. It is claimed by most theories that typical and atypical information are mediated by automatic and effortful processes, respectively. Previous studies reported that patients with closed-head injury (CHI) are impaired only on memory tasks that required effortful but not automatic processes. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that these patients would not show the typicality effect when presented with scripts composed of typical and atypical actions. Twenty-two patients with CHI and 23 matched controls listened to two scripts which consisted of typical and atypical activities. As predicted, the findings of the present study revealed impaired typicality effect for patients with CHI as compared with controls. The advantage of the control group over the CHI group was more pronounced in the recognition of atypical than typical actions. The results are discussed in terms of the limited attentional capacity or passive learning strategy, characteristic of memory impairment in patients with CHI.
... Such a source-memory advantage for schematically unexpected information in line with a general processing advantage of, for example, stereotype-inconsistent information as discussed in social psychology (e.g., Allen et al., 2009;Macrae et al., 1993;Sherman & Frost, 2000;Simpson & Kashima, 2012). In past research, the inconsistency effect on source memory has been explained mainly by the attention-elaboration account (e.g., Brewer & Treyens, 1981;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Friedman, 1979;Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Loftus & Mackworth, 1978). According to this account, unexpected source-item pairs draw more attention than expected pairs. ...
... This may be the case because source memory for unexpected pairs is already quite good, even after the initial study phase (see Fig. 3, see also Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Schaper et al., 2019aSchaper et al., , 2019b. This is in line with the attention-elaboration account, which predicts that unexpected pairs draw more attention and are more strongly elaborated and thus remembered (e.g., Brewer & Treyens, 1981;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Friedman, 1979;Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Loftus & Mackworth, 1978). This explanation accounts for the inconsistency effects on source memory found in studies where participants were not given the opportunity to exert metamemory control (Bell et al., 2012;Ehrenberg & Klauer, 2005;Kroneisen et al., 2015;Kroneisen & Bell, 2013;Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Mieth et al., 2016Mieth et al., , 2020Schaper et al., 2019aSchaper et al., , 2019b. ...
Article
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In source monitoring, schematic expectations affect both memory and metamemory. In metamemory judgments, people predict better source memory for items that originated from an expected source (e.g., oven in the kitchen) than for items that originated from an unexpected source (e.g., hairdryer in the kitchen; expectancy effect; Schaper et al., 2019a). By contrast, actual source memory is either unaffected by expectations or better for unexpected sources (inconsistency effect; Kuhlmann & Bayen, 2016). Thus, the metamemory expectancy effect is illusory. This research is the first to test the hypotheses that such metamemory monitoring of source memory affects metamemory control (i.e., measures taken to achieve a desired level of memory; Nelson & Narens, 1990) and memory. Due to their expectancy illusion, people should choose to restudy unexpected source-item pairs more often. Three participant groups (n = 36 each) studied expected and unexpected source-item pairs. One group rendered metamemory judgments and chose pairs for restudy. A second group made restudy choices only. These two groups then restudied the chosen pairs. A third group did not make restudy choices and restudied a random half of the pairs. All participants completed a source-monitoring test. As predicted, participants chose unexpected pairs more often for restudy based on their illusory conviction that they would remember unexpected sources more poorly. These restudy choices concurred with an inconsistency effect on source memory not shown in the group without restudy choices. Thus, the metamemory illusion related to control and memory in source monitoring.
... An alpha of .005 was used in accordance with previous studies involving multinomial model fits (Bodner et al., 2000; Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; Jacoby, 1998; McBride & Dosher, 2002). Power was above .99 in all fits, and effect sizes ranged from .04 to .12. ...
Article
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In the present study, influences of conceptual processing on automatic forms of memory were investigated, using a category production task. The experiment employed Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure and fits of multinomial models to estimate conscious and automatic memory for semantic and graphemic study tasks. Memory estimates from a generate-source model indicated more automatic memory for semantic than for graphemic items on the category production task. These results provide support for conceptual processing influences on automatic forms of memory.
... Lampinen, Copeland & Neuschatz, 2001; Pezdek, Whetstone, Reynolds, Askari, & Dougherty, 1989; Saab, Trottier, & Wall, 1984), typical daily events (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; Hannigan & Reinitz, 2003; Neuschatz et al., 2002; Trafimow & Wyer, 1993 ...
... Davidson 1994). Different accounts have been proposed for this seeming anomaly (see e.g. Erdfelder & Bredenkamp 1998, Stangor & McMillan 1992). Note that although schema-based selection would seem to affect memory quantity performance rather than accuracy per se, unlike the traditional view of omission errors under the storehouse view, schema-based omissions are inherently biased in the direction of greater compatibility with the operative schemas. ...
Article
There has been unprecedented interest in recent years in questions pertaining to accuracy and distortion in memory. This interest, catalyzed in part by real-life problems, marks a significant departure from the quantity-oriented approach that has characterized much of traditional memory research. We outline a correspondence metaphor of memory underlying accuracy-oriented research, and show how the features of this metaphor are manifested across the disparate bodies of research reviewed here. These include work in the Gestalt tradition, spatial memory, memory for gist, schema theory, source monitoring, fluency misattributions, false recall and recognition, postevent misinformation, false memories, eyewitness research, and autobiographical memory. In examining the dynamics of memory accuracy, we highlight the importance of metacognitive monitoring and control processes. We end by discussing some of the methodological, theoretical, and metatheoretical issues inherent in accuracy-oriented research, attempting to prepare the groundwork for a more coherent psychology of memory accuracy.
... Allerdings konnten einige Maßnahmen identifiziert werden, die nicht mit einer Erhöhung von falsch-positiven Gedächtnisurteilen einhergehen. Zusammengefasst sind sie in einer Technik der Zeugenbefragung, die als »Kognitives Interview« bekannt geworden ist (Fisher, Geiselman, Raymond, Jurkevich & Warhaftig, 1987;Geiselman, Fisher, MacKinnon & Holland, 1985 (Bahrick, Bahrick & Wittlinger, 1975) oder Aussagen über schema-atypische Aspekte des berichteten Geschehens (Bredenkamp & Erdfelder, 1996;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Graesser & Nakamura, 1982). Auch spontane Aussagen über Details, die für den Zeugen persönlich wichtig waren, sind in der Regel zutreffend. ...
Article
Die Gedächtnispsychologie des Augenzeugen hat eine Reihe von Bedingungen identifiziert, unter denen Zeugenaussagen mit Skepsis betrachtet werden müssen. Als problematisch erweisen sich in erster Linie automatische, schemagesteuerte Rekonstruktionsprozesse bei nicht abrufbarem Faktengedächtnis. Auf der anderen Seite kann die Gedächtnisrepräsentation eines Ereignisses aber auch sehr robust gegenüber verschiedenen Einflussfaktoren sein. Dieser Artikel stellt Determinanten verzerrter Gedächtnisurteile vor. Ferner werden Methoden der Diagnose und der Optimierung von Qualität und Umfang einer Zeugenaussage diskutiert.
... Source memory models were also applied to further investigate the influences of schematic knowledge as well as stereotype information on item and source memory judgments (Bayen, Nakamuara, Dupuis, & Yang, 2000;Dodson, Darragh, & Williams, 2008;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Spaniol & Bayen, 2002). Dodson (2007) and Dodson et al. (2008) investigated illusory source recollections and the role of the retrieval process with Bayen's 2HT model. ...
... Like adults, children have the capacity to store large amounts of knowledge in schemata or knowledge structures that contain typical elements of a given entity such as people, objects, places, and events (Fivush, 1984; Nelson, 1986; Schank & Abelson, 1977). In adults, recognition memory for details that are atypical or inconsistent with a script are recognized more than details that are typical or consistent with a script, known as the typicality eVect or consistency eVect (e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; Greenberg, Westcott, & Bailey, 1998; Lampinen, Copeland, & Neuschatz, 2001; Neuschatz, Lampinen, Preston, Hawkins, & Toglia, 2002; Pezdek, Whetstone, Reynolds, Askari, & Dougherty, 1989). Although there is a reliable body of knowledge on the consistency eVect in adults' memories , the consistency eVect has been documented in children's memories on just a few occasions (Davidson & Hoe, 1993; Farrar & Boyer-Pennington, 1999). ...
Article
Participants (6- and 7-year-olds, N = 130) participated in classroom activities four times. Children were interviewed about the final occurrence (target event) either 1 week or 4 weeks later, during which half of the event items were described inaccurately. Half of these suggestions were consistent with the theme of the detail across the occurrences (e.g., always sat on a kind of floor mat) or were inconsistent (e.g., sat on a chair). When memory for the target event was tested 1 day later, children falsely recognized fewer inconsistent suggestions than consistent suggestions, especially compared with a control group of children who experienced the event just one time. Furthermore, the longer delay reduced accuracy only for consistent suggestions. Source-monitoring ability was strongly and positively related to resistance to suggestions, and encouraging children to identify the source of false suggestions allowed them to retract a significant proportion of their reports of inconsistent suggestions but not of consistent suggestions. The results suggest that the gist consistency of suggestions determines whether event repetition increases or decreases suggestibility. <br /
... Consider, for example, an experiment by Frick (2001) who wanted to test the existence of a schema typicality effect in SM. From schema research, it is wellknown that items that are untypical for a schema tend to be remembered better than typical ones (e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998). In an extended replication of an experiment by Bayen et al. (2000), Frick (2001) tested the existence of a typicality effect in SM. ...
Article
The investigation of source monitoring (SM) as a special faculty of episodic memory has gained much attention in recent years. However, several measures of source memory have been used in research practice that show empirical and theoretical shortcomings: First, they often confound various cognitive processes like source memory, item memory and response bias, and second, they do not do justice to the multitude of processes involved in SM according to the framework of Johnson, Hashtroudi, and Lindsay (1993). We therefore review model-based measurement approaches, focusing on multinomial models, and we distinguish between theorizing about source memory and the pragmatics of source memory measurement as two partly separate goals of research. Whereas signal detection models seem to be more adequate theories of the underlying source monitoring process, multinomial models have some pragmatic advantages that nevertheless recommend them as viable measurement tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... For high presentation pace, as in our experiment, stereotype-consistent information may be more readily stored and retrieved (Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1995). However, in recognition memory research, schemas and scripts have also been found to impair memory accuracy for schema-and script-typical information (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998). Most importantly, when attention is low and distraction is high, which is frequently the case in witness situations, stereotyping strongly influences memory performance (Sherman, Groom, Ehrenberg, & Klauer, 2003;Sherman, Macrae, & Bodenhausen, 2000), leading to reporting of false memories (Tuckey & Brewer, 2003). ...
Article
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Eyewitnesses often report details of the witnessed crime incorrectly. However, there is usually more than 1 eyewitness observing a crime scene. If this is the case, one approach to reconstruct the details of a crime more accurately is aggregating across individual reports. Although aggregation likely improves accuracy, the degree of improvement largely depends on the method of aggregation. The most straightforward method is the majority rule. This method ignores individual differences between eyewitnesses and selects the answer shared by most eyewitnesses as being correct. We employ an alternative method based on cultural consensus theory (CCT) that accounts for differences in the eyewitnesses' knowledge. To test the validity of this approach, we showed 30 students 1 of 2 versions of a video depicting a heated quarrel between 2 people. The videos differed in the amount of information pertaining to the critical event. Participants then answered questions about the critical event. Analyses based on CCT rendered highly accurate eyewitness competence estimates that mirrored the amount of information available in the video. Moreover, CCT estimates resulted in a more precise reconstruction of the video content than the majority rule did. This was true for group sizes ranging from 4 to 15 eyewitnesses, with the difference being more pronounced for larger groups. Thus, through simultaneous consideration of multiple witness statements, CCT provides a new approach to the assessment of eyewitness accuracy that outperforms standard methods of information aggregation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
... (Shi and He 2005). Power calculations were performed using the G*Power program (Erdfelder and Bredenkamp 1998). SigniWcance level was set at = 0.05. ...
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A recent study reported that OLIG2 had a significant association with schizophrenia in the UK population. We genotyped three variants scattered among the genomic region of OLIG2, namely rs1005573, rs762178 and rs1059004 in a sample consisting of 329 schizophrenia patients and 288 controls. The results provide further evidence that the SNP rs762178 in OLIG2 seems to be a potential candidate in altering risk for schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population and worthy of further replication and functional study.
... A Type I error rate of .005 was adopted for testing the f it, to avoid rejecting the model because of only slight deviations from the observed results (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; Jacoby, 1998 Jacoby, , 1999). Power to detect a small deviation from the data (w = .1; ...
Article
The process-dissociation procedure was used to investigate conscious and unconscious influences of memory for object location. In two experiments, subjects worked with drawings of household objects and rooms of a house depicted on a computer monitor to simulate placing objects in various locations. Memory for object locations was tested by having subjects search for those objects. A double dissociation was obtained between estimates of conscious and unconscious influences of memory computed from equations that assumed independence between these two influences: Age-related differences were found in the estimate of conscious influences, but not in the estimate of unconscious influences, whereas manipulation of habit strength affected the unconscious estimate, but not the conscious estimate. These results were closely fit by a multinomial model assuming independence between conscious and unconscious influences of memory.
... Probability matching has been observed in source monitoring (e.g., Bayen & Kuhlmann, 2011;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998) and in other tasks, such as oldnew recognition (e.g., Buchner, Erdfelder, & Vaterrodt-Plünnecke, 1995;Ehrenberg & Klauer, 2005) and human choice behavior (e.g., Estes & Straughan, 1954). Furthermore, studies have shown that prior knowledge influences source guessing (Bayen, Nakamura, Dupuis, & Yang, 2000;Ehrenberg & Klauer, 2005;Spaniol & Bayen, 2002). ...
Article
According to the probability-matching account of source guessing (Spaniol & Bayen, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28:631-651, 2002), when people do not remember the source of an item in a source-monitoring task, they match the source-guessing probabilities to the perceived contingencies between sources and item types. In a source-monitoring experiment, half of the items presented by each of two sources were consistent with schematic expectations about this source, whereas the other half of the items were consistent with schematic expectations about the other source. Participants' source schemas were activated either at the time of encoding or just before the source-monitoring test. After test, the participants judged the contingency of the item type and source. Individual parameter estimates of source guessing were obtained via beta-multinomial processing tree modeling (beta-MPT; Smith & Batchelder, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 54:167-183, 2010). We found a significant correlation between the perceived contingency and source guessing, as well as a correlation between the deviation of the guessing bias from the true contingency and source memory when participants did not receive the schema information until retrieval. These findings support the probability-matching account.
... We measure attention to the choice–making task by measuring participants' memory for their options. Increased memory has been reliably linked to increased attention and motivation at the time of encoding (e.g., Belmore, 1987; Bradley, Greenwald, Petry, & Lang, 1992; Craik, Govoni, Naveh–Benjamin, & Anderson, 1996; Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; McKelvie, Standing, St. Jean, & Law, 1993; Willoughby, Motz & Wood, 1997). Accordingly, we predict that independents will better remember options after they choose for themselves, whereas interdependents will better remember options after they choose for someone else. ...
Article
In the present investigation, we build on prior research by examining perceptions of choices and their outcomes as a factor of independent and interdependent self-construals, the identity of the chooser, and the recipient of the choice. Results from two experiments suggest that independent selves prefer to be both chooser and choice recipient, whereas interdependent selves are more amenable to choosing for others and having others choose on their behalf. Particularly, results from Study 2 show that participants high in independence are more attentive to their options when choosing for themselves, whereas participants high in interdependence are more attentive when choosing for someone else. Results from both studies further show that independents like choices they make for themselves more than interdependents, but like choices they make for others and choices others make on their behalf less than interdependents. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... These effects were explained in accordance with the attention-elaboration hypothesis (cf. Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998), which states that schema-inconsistent information attracts more attention and undergoes deeper elaboration than schema-consistent information. Hence, a very unexpected context is better encoded than an expected one. ...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated that context memory performance decreases as a result of cognitive load. However, the role of specific executive resources availability has not been specified yet. In a dual-task experiment, participants performed three kinds of concurrent task engaging: inhibition, updating, or shifting operations. In comparison with a no-load single-task condition, a significant decrease in item and context memory was observed, regardless of the kind of executive task. When executive load conditions were compared with non-specific cognitive load conditions, a significant interference effect was observed in the case of the inhibition task. the inhibition process appears to be an aspect of executive control, which relies on the same resource as item-context binding does, especially when binding refers to associations retrieved from long-term memory.
... First, an extensive literature finds memory advantages for information that is inconsistent with preexisting beliefs (Hunt, 1995;von Restorff, 1933), such as information that violates stereotypes about social groups (e.g., Stangor & McMillan, 1992), schematic expectations (e.g., Hirshman, Whelley, & Palij, 1989;McDaniel & Einstein, 1986), and core knowledge intuitions (e.g., Banerjee, Haque, & Spelke, 2013;Barrett & Nyhof, 2001;Boyer & Ramble, 2001;Norenzayan, Atran, Faulkner, & Schaller, 2006). Erdfelder and Bredenkamp (1998) suggest that belief-or expectation-violating information differentially recruits attention, and as such undergoes more elaborate encoding that facilitates its later retrieval. ...
Article
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Communication is central to human life, yet it leaves humans vulnerable to misinformation and manipulation. Humans have therefore evolved a suite of psychological mechanisms for the evaluation of speakers and their messages. Here, we test a key hypothesized function of these "epistemic vigilance" mechanisms: the selective remembering of links between speakers and messages that are inconsistent with preexisting beliefs. Across four experiments, participants (N = 707) read stories associated with different contexts, with each story containing concepts that violate core knowledge intuitions ("counterintuitive concepts") and ordinary concepts. Exp. 1 revealed that after a brief distractor (2 minutes) participants more accurately attributed counterintuitive concepts to their speakers than ordinary concepts. Exp. 2a-b replicated this finding and found that this attribution accuracy advantage also extended to counterintuitive versus ordinary concepts associated with other contextual details-places and dates. Exp. 3 then tested whether this attribution accuracy advantage was more stable over time for speakers than for places. After a short distractor (20-minutes), there was a counterintuitive versus ordinary concept attribution accuracy advantage for both speakers and places. However, when participants were tested again after a long delay (48-hours), this attribution accuracy advantage more than doubled for speakers but disappeared entirely for places. We discuss the implications of these findings to the set of psychological mechanisms theorized to monitor and evaluate communication to guard our database of beliefs about the world.
... Die Zuverlässigkeit von Augenzeugenaussagen ist jedoch stark eingeschränkt, infolgedessen Fehlurteile entstehen (Arntzen, 1993;Arntzen, 2011; Innocence Project, o.D.). (Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998). Im Vernehmungsalltag kann es unter Umständen auch zu Überlappungen mit aktuellen Geschehnissen, suggestiver Beeinflussung oder auch Überlagerungen kommen (Greuel, 2001;Volbert, 2005). ...
Thesis
In der vorliegenden experimentellen Feldstudie mit N = 105 Kindern (M = 9,81 Jahre) wurde überprüft, wie sich variierende Instruktionen, welche die Zuverlässigkeitsmotivation manipulieren, auf die Aussagegenauigkeit und Quellenidentifikationsleistung auswirken. In Weiterführung von Roebers, Moga und Schneider (2001), welche die positive Wirkung von Belohnung auf die Aussagegenauigkeit nachweisen konnten, wurde in der vorliegenden Untersuchung die Relevanz von Strafe in Kombination mit einer freien und einer forcierten Antwortbedingung untersucht. Dabei wurde verbal und bildlich präsentiertes Material in einer Originalsituation mit einer siebentägigen Latenz abgefragt. Es wurden vier Befragungsbedingungen realisiert, welche sich durch hohe oder niedrige Schwellen der Zuverlässigkeitsmotivation unterscheiden. Dies wurde über die Möglichkeit einer „Ich weiß nicht“ (IWN)-Antwortoption realisiert (Faktor FORCIERUNG). Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass damit Kooperationseffekten entgegengewirkt und das Gedächtnismonitoring erleichtert wird (Hughes & Grieve, 1980; Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996; Roebers et al., 2001). Des Weiteren wurde eine Bestrafung falscher Antworten im Sinne der operanten Konditionierung vorgenommen (Faktor STRAFE), welche die negativen Konsequenzen von Falschaussagen repräsentieren soll. Als abhängige Maße wurden die numerische Anzahl erinnerter Items im freien Bericht und traditionelle Maße der Quellenidentifikationsleistung erhoben. Es wurde festgestellt, dass durch eine obligatorische Antwort die akkuratesten Aussagen resultieren, die Bestrafung hingegen keinen Einfluss hatte. Die Bereitstellung einer IWN-Antwortoption zeigte keine positiven Effekte auf die Aussagequalität hinsichtlich Itemrekognition und Quellenidentifikation. Die Befunde stehen zunächst im Gegensatz zu den Arbeiten von Roebers et al. (2001) und legen die Vermutung nahe, dass Prozesse des Gedächtnismonitorings im Sinne von Koriat und Goldsmith (1996) bei Kindern der untersuchten Altersstufe noch nicht stattfinden. Eine weitere Erklärung zur Entstehung der inkonsistenten Ergebnisse könnte in der unvollständigen Kreuzung der Faktorstufen bei Roebers et al. (2001) zu verorten sein.
... First, an extensive literature finds memory advantages for information that is inconsistent with preexisting beliefs (Hunt, 1995;von Restorff, 1933), such as information that violates stereotypes about social groups (e.g., Stangor & McMillian, 1992), schematic expectations (e.g., Hirshman, Whelley, & Palij, 1989;McDaniel & Einstein, 1986), and core knowledge intuitions (e.g., Banerjee, Haque, & Spelke, 2013;Barrett & Nyhof, 2001;Boyer & Ramble, 2001;Norenzayan, Atran, Faulkner, & Schaller, 2006). Erdfelder and Bredenkamp (1998) suggest that belief-or expectation-violating information differentially recruits attention, and as such undergoes more elaborate encoding that facilitates its later retrieval. ...
Preprint
Communication is central to human life, yet it leaves us vulnerable to misinformation and manipulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that listeners strategically remember the speakers (and potentially other contextual details) of messages that are inconsistent with their pre-existing beliefs. Across four experiments, participants (N = 707) read stories communicated by different people that each contained concepts that violate core knowledge intuitions (“counterintuitive concepts”) and ordinary concepts. Exp. 1 revealed that after a brief delay (2-min) participants more accurately attributed counterintuitive versus ordinary concepts to their speaker. Exp. 2a-b replicated this finding and found that this attribution accuracy advantage extended to counterintuitive concepts associated with specific places and dates. We then tested the relative durability of these associations, with the prediction that counterintuitive concepts associated with persons would exhibit a relatively more stable attribution accuracy advantage over time because of their greater relevance for the ongoing evaluation of communication compared to other contextual details. Exp. 3, using a longitudinal design, found that after a longer delay (48-hours versus 20-minutes) the attribution accuracy advantage for counterintuitive concepts persisted for persons but decayed entirely for other contextual details. Together, these results provide evidence for a key function of the “epistemic vigilance” mechanisms that monitor and evaluate communication. We discuss the implications of these findings to how people evaluate speakers and their messages in real world contexts, and to how this might have stabilized communication in human evolution given risks of manipulation.
... Schemas are thought to influence memory via attention and elaboration (Brewer & Treyens, 1981;Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Friedman, 1979;Küppers & Bayen, 2014;Loftus & Mackworth, 1978). According to this account, unexpected information (i.e., information that is inconsistent with the schema) attracts more attention, and is consequently encoded in a more elaborative way than expected information. ...
Article
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Source monitoring involves attributing information to one of several sources. Schemas are known to influence source-monitoring processes, with enhanced memory for schematically unexpected sources (inconsistency effect) and biased schema-consistent source guessing. The authors investigated whether this guessing bias reflects a compensatory guessing strategy based on metacognitive awareness of the inconsistency effect, or reflects other strategies as proposed by the probability-matching account. To determine people’s awareness of the inconsistency effect, the authors investigated metamemory predictions in a source-monitoring task. In four experiments, participants studied object word items that were presented with one of two scene labels as sources. Items were either presented with their schematically expected source (e.g., kitchen – oven) or with their schematically unexpected source (e.g., kitchen – toothpaste). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants predicted their item memory and their source memory after each source–item presentation. In Experiment 1, people incorrectly predicted both their item memory and, even more so, their source memory to be better for expected than for unexpected source–item pairs. In Experiment 2, this effect replicated with different types of judgment probes. Crucially, item-wise memory predictions did not predict source guessing. In Experiment 3, metacognitive awareness of the inconsistency effect on source memory changed during the test phase. However, metamemory convictions never predicted source guessing. In Experiment 4, the authors manipulated participants’ convictions concerning the impact of schematic expectations on source memory. These convictions also did not predict source guessing. Thus, the results show that schema-consistent source guessing does not reflect a compensatory strategy.
... The effect is less pronounced, however, than in the study by Yekovich & Walker 15 . In general, the RTs in our study are across the board much longer than those in the Yekovich and Walker 15 study (Table 5), which indicates that it is harder to judge the presence of illness script information, compared with everyday script information, and that some form of additional processing might be required to produce recognition responses 60 . Unlike Yekovich & Walker 15 , we found no RT differences between prototypical and atypical stated items, which suggests there is no effect of implicit activation on judgments of the actual presence of statements, at least at immediate testing. ...
Article
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Purpose This study investigates whether the recognition memory phenomena previously found for script-based stories also apply to illness scripts, the hypothesized mental structures expert physicians apply in medical diagnosis. In addition, the development of these scripts is investigated. Method Second and sixth year students and experienced family physicians participated; the influence of typicality of information (prototypical versus atypical statements), textual presence (verbatim or implicit), and delay (15 min or 1 week) on recognition memory discrimination was investigated in a 3×2×2 ANOVA design and on recognition reaction times (RTs) in a 3×2×2×2 ANOVA design. Results The expected developmental differences could not be replicated; all participants appear to dispose of illness script structures, which explains poorer memory discrimination for prototypical than atypical information. The results also show that at a longer delay, medical students and physicians are more inclined to infer unstated, but script-typical information. With regard to the RTs, the interaction between typicality and textual presence on RTs could be replicated: RTs for prototypical unstated items were longer than for any of the other types of information. Apart from this, RTs for different statements did not show a consistent pattern. Discussion The superior memory discrimination for script atypical, compared with script prototypical, information, and at immediate retention, compared to delayed retention supports theoretical notions as well as previous research on illness scripts as general event representations with actual case information “tagged” to these stored representations. This tagged information decays over time. In terms of script development, all participants appear to have their knowledge structured in illness scripts, even students who have little experience with the diseases included in the study.
... The representational shift account predicts that a category-related response would still yield poorer recognition memory despite a reversal in the relative RTs of the study conditions. Second, the depth-of-processing account suggests that the correlation between hit rates and typicality arose from deeper or more distinctive encoding of atypical items (as suggested by longer classification RTs) rather than from top-down effects of the category labels (the attention-elaboration hypothesis; e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998 ). A depth-of-processing account would therefore predict that if the correlation between the amount of elaboration (using the proxy of study decision RTs) and typicality is disrupted, the correlation between typicality and memory will also be disrupted (see Craik & Tulving's [1975] Experiment 5 for similar reasoning). ...
Article
What are the consequences of calling things by their names? Six experiments investigated how classifying familiar objects with basic-level names (chairs, tables, and lamps) affected recognition memory. Memory was found to be worse for items that were overtly classified with the category name--as reflected by lower hit rates--compared with items that were not overtly classified. This effect of labeling on subsequent recall is explained in terms of a representational shift account, with labeling causing a distortion in dimensions most reliably associated with the category label. Consistent with this account, effects of labeling were strongly mediated by typicality and ambiguity of the labeled items, with typical and unambiguous items most affected by labeling. Follow-up experiments showed that this effect cannot be explained solely by differences in initial encoding, further suggesting that labeling a familiar image distorts its encoded representation. This account suggests a possible mechanism for the verbal overshadowing effect (J. W. Schooler & T. Y. Engstler-Schooler, 1990).
... A general negativity bias cannot completely explain these patterns of results. However, it is consistent with other studies showing enhanced memory for unexpected and unusual information (e.g., Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998;Ranganath & Rainer, 2003). There are also many experiments which could show that emotional incongruity captures attention (Rothermund, 2011;Rothermund, Voss, & Wentura., 2008;Wentura, Voss, & Rothermund, 2009). ...
Article
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Enhanced memory for cheaters could be suited to avoid social exchange situations in which we run the risk of getting exploited by others. Several experiments demonstrated that we have better source memory for faces combined with negative rather than positive behavior (Bell & Buchner, Memory & Cognition, 38, 29-41, 2010) or for cheaters and cooperators showing unexpected behavior (Bell, Buchner, Kroneisen, Giang, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1512-1529, 2012). In the present study, we compared two groups: Group 1 just saw faces combined with aggressive, prosocial or neutral behavior descriptions, but got no further information, whereas group 2 was explicitly told that they would now see the behavior descriptions of very aggressive and unsocial persons. To measure old-new discrimination, source memory, and guessing biases separately, we used a multinomial model. When having no expectancies about the behavior of the presented people, enhanced source memory for aggressive persons was found. In comparison, source memory for faces combined with prosocial behavior descriptions was significantly higher in the group expecting only aggressive persons. These findings can be attributed to a mechanism that focuses on expectancy-incongruent information, representing a more flexible and therefore efficient memory strategy for remembering exchange-relevant information.
... Manipulationen, die das Quellengedächtnis beeinträchtigen, haben nicht notwendigerweise auch einen Effekt auf die Rekognitionsleistung (z.B. Klauer & Wegener, 1998, Exp.3; Lindsay, Johnson, & Kwon, 1991) und solche, die die Rekognitionsleistung steigern, können das Quellengedächtnis unbeeinflusst lassen(Erdfelder & Bredenkamp, 1998; Klauer & Wegener, 1998, Exp. 2) oder gar verschlechtern.Dass beiden Aufgaben unterschiedliche mentale Strukturen zugrunde liegen, zeigt sich auch in Untersuchungen an Amnestikern, die häufig vergleichbare Rekognitionsleistungen erbringen wie gesunde Probanden, deren Quellendiskriminationsfähigkeit jedoch zumeist deutlich eingeschränkt ist (für eine Überblick s.Aggleton & Shaw, 1996). Ähnliche Befunde ergeben sich im Vergleich von Menschen unterschiedlicher Altersgruppen. ...
Article
The impact of social expectancies on person memory is investigated in two experiments using a source-recognition paradigm. Multinomial model analyses disentangled effects on item-memory, source-memory, and heuristic reconstructive guessing processes. Cognitive load and retention interval were manipulated. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, participants were presented equal numbers of consistent and inconsistent statements about two stereotyped targets. Source-memory showed an inconsistency effect that is restricted to conditions with load at encoding and longer retention interval. Consistency biases in reconstructive guessing of statement-person associations emerged under load. Item-memory exhibited only a small inconsistency effect in conditions without load and short retention interval. Experiment 2 yielded similar results, although expectancies were induced on-line via the distribution of positive and negative behaviors across non-stereotyped targets. Findings support a model of flexible use of source information, demonstrate the importance of source memory, and of assessing it separately from item recognition and reconstructive guessing.
Article
Abstract The attention-elaboration hypothesis of memory for schematically unexpected information (Brewer & Treyens, 1981) predicts better source memory for unexpected than expected sources. In three source-monitoring experiments, the authors tested the occurrence of an inconsistency effect in source memory. Participants were presented with items that were schematically either very expected or very unexpected for their source. Multinomial processing tree models were used to separate source memory, item memory, and guessing bias. Results show an inconsistency effect in source memory accompanied by a compensatory schema-consistent guessing bias when expectancy strength is high, that is, items are very expected or very unexpected for their source.
Article
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In schema-based source monitoring, people mistakenly predict better source memory for expected sources (e.g., oven in the kitchen; expectancy effect), whereas actual source memory is better for unexpected sources (e.g., hairdryer in the kitchen; inconsistency effect; Schaper et al., 2019a). In three source-monitoring experiments, the authors tested whether a delay between study and metamemory judgments remedied this metamemory expectancy illusion. Further, the authors tested whether delayed judgments were based on in-the-moment experiences of retrieval fluency or updating of belief due to experiences with one’s source memory. Participants studied source–item pairs and provided metamemory judgments either at study or after delay. After delay, they made judgments either on the complete source–item pair (eliciting no source retrieval, Experiment 1) or on the item only (eliciting covert, Experiment 1, or overt source retrieval, Experiments 2 and 3). Metamemory judgments at study showed the established illusory expectancy effect, as did delayed judgments when no source retrieval was elicited. However, when participants retrieved the source prior to delayed judgments, they predicted an inconsistency effect on source memory, which concurred with actual memory. Thus, delaying judgments remedied the metamemory expectancy illusion. Results further indicate that in-the-moment experiences of retrieval fluency and updated general belief about the effect of expectancy on source memory jointly contributed to this remedial effect.
Article
The present research addressed eyewitness memory for weapons, specifically for a modern semi-automatic pistol and an antique flintlock, in order to address the influence of weapon novelty on recall for the given weapon. Additionally, the effect of explanatory backstory was examined in the same context; respondents were given prior information, which was either consistent or inconsistent with the presence of the flintlock in the scene, in order to gauge the influence of appropriate or inappropriate explanatory cognitive context. Finally, the effects of these variables on line-up identification of the ‘suspect’ holding the given weapon were addressed. The results showed that weapon type did not influence recall accuracy for given weapons, although explanatory backstory did have a significant effect here, as initially predicted. Both weapon type and explanatory backstory produced significant effects on weapon recall errors, with the exotic weapon and the more prosaic backstory producing larger numbers of mistakes. Neither of these variables was associated with significant differences in line-up performance. These results indicate the importance of prior cognitive context, as well as the physical appearance of weapons, in a full understanding of eyewitness processing of scenes involving firearms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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11 ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ، 1 ، 2015 ، 45-60 45 ‫اﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫وﻓﱰات‬ ‫وﻧﻮﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﲑﻣﻮك‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮاح‬ * ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺴﺎء‬ ‫أﺑﻮ‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺪ‬ * ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ 18 / 5 / 2014 ‫ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ 24 / 12 / 2014 ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬ : ‫ﺗﻘـﺪﻳ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬ ‫أﺛـﺮ‬ ‫ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻓﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت‬ ‫ﻢ‬) ‫ﻗﺼـﺔ،‬ ‫ـﻮرة‬ ‫ﺻـ‬ (‫ـﺎ‬ ‫وﻧﻮﻋﻬـ‬ ،) ‫ـﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴـ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻴـ‬ ‫ـﻘﺔ،‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴـ‬ (‫ـﺎظ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔـ‬ ‫ـﺮات‬ ‫وﻓﺘـ‬ ‫ـﻲ،‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓـ‬ ‫ـﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄـ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫ﻣـ‬) ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ،‬ 24 ‫أﺳﺒﻮع‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ،‬ (‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟـﺪى‬ ‫واﻻﺳـﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌـﺮف‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘـﺪرة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ـﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﻴﺮﻣـــ‬. ‫ـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳـــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨـــ‬ ‫ـﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻧـــ‬) 100 (‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠـــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒـــ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫وﻃﺎﻟﺒـــ‬ ‫ـﺐ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟـــ‬ ‫ـﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼــــ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓــــ‬ ‫ـﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﻴﺮﻣــــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌــــ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓــــ‬ ‫ـﺎﻟﻮرﻳﻮس‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜــــ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳــــ‬ ‫ـﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻌــــ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣــــ‬ ‫ـﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼــــ‬ 2012 / 2013 ‫م‬. ‫ـﻊ‬ ‫ﻣــ‬ ‫ـﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴــ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻴــ‬ ‫ـﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣــ‬ ‫ـﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗــ‬ ّ ‫أن‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳــ‬ ‫ـﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘــ‬ ‫ـﺮت‬ ‫أﻇﻬــ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮع‬ ‫ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈـﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺼـﺮف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴـﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت‬ ‫ﺗـﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀـﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬) ‫اﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮف،‬ (‫ﻓﺘـﺮات‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫وأن‬ ، ‫ـﺎظ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔـ‬) ‫ـﺎﻋﺔ،‬ ‫ﺳـ‬ 48 ‫ـﺎﻋﺔ،‬ ‫ﺳـ‬ ‫ـﺒﻮع‬ ‫أﺳـ‬ .(‫ذات‬ ‫ـﺮوق‬ ‫ﻓـ‬ ‫ـﻮد‬ ‫وﺟـ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬ ‫ًـ‬ ‫أﻳﻀ‬ ‫ـﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘـ‬ ‫ـﺮت‬ ‫وأﻇﻬـ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫إﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫دﻻﻟﺔ‬) α = 0.05 (‫إﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌـﺰى‬ ‫واﻻﺳـﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ـﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣــ‬ ‫ـﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘــ‬) ‫ـﻮرة‬ ‫ﺻــ‬ ‫ـﺔ،‬ ‫ﻗﺼــ‬ (‫ـﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫واﻻﺳــ‬ ‫ـﺮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌــ‬ ‫ـﺎت‬ ‫درﺟــ‬ ‫ـﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧــ‬ ‫إذ‬ ‫؛‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟـﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀـﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼـﻮرة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺣﺪاث‬. ‫أﻇﻬـﺮت‬ ‫ﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ـﺎﺋ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘـ‬ ً ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧـ‬ ‫ـﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴـ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻴـ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ﻓـ‬ ‫ـﻞ‬ ‫أﻓﻀـ‬ ‫ـﺎن‬ ‫ﻛـ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺼـ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘـ‬ ‫ـﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـ‬ ‫ـﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘـ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺞ‬ ‫ﻏﻴـﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت‬ ‫اﺳـﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ،‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮات‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔـﺎظ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬) ‫واﺣـﺪة‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﻋﺔ‬ .(‫أﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻮل‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮات‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﺪاث‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺣﺪاث‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت‬ ‫إﻟـﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫واﺣـﺪة،‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﺮور‬ ‫ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴـﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮور‬ 48 ‫اﻷﺷـﻴﺎء‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀـﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻴﺎء‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ،‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫أﻓﻀـﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴـﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴـﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﺣـﺪاث‬ ‫اﺳـﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ‫ﻛـﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬ ‫أﺳـﺒﻮع،‬ ‫ﻣﺮور‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮات‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﺪاث‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴـــﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻤـــﺎت‬ : ‫ـﺬﻛﺮ،‬ ‫اﻟﺘــ‬ ‫ـﺘﺪﻋﺎء،‬ ‫اﻻﺳــ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌـــﺮف،‬ ‫ـﺎت،‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣــ‬ ‫ـﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘــ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘــ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺴﺎق‬ / ‫ﻓﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ،‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺴﺎق‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ات‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬. Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the effect of information presentation method (story, picture), information kind (typical/ atypical) with the schema, and the retention intervals (1 h, 48 h, and 1 week) on the ability of recognition and recall among Yarmouk university students. The sample of the study consisted of (100) Yarmouk university undergraduate students in the summer term of the academic year 2013/2014. The results of the study revealed that the remembering of atypical actions was better than typical ones, regardless of the test type (recognition, recall), and recognition is better than recall in all retention intervals (1 h, 48 h, and 1 week). The results also revealed that there were statistical significant differences at the level (α=0.05) in recognition and recall due to information presentation method (story, picture), where the recognition and recall levels of actions in the picture were better than those in the story. The results also revealed that when presenting information by story, the recognition of atypical actions was better than typical ones across all retention intervals, while the recall of atypical actions were better than typical ones only at the (1-h) retention interval. At the longer retention intervals, the recall of typical actions was better than atypical ones. However, when presenting information by picture, the recognition of atypical actions was better than typical ones at (1-h) and (48-h), while the recall of atypical actions was better than typical ones across all retention intervals.
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Two experiments explored how semantic information affects episodic source decisions. Fictitious sources presented statements consistent with their respective professions, consistent with the other source’s profession, and neutral with respect to either profession. Knowledge of the professions was manipulated as being available during encoding and retrieval, during retrieval only, or not at all. Source decisions for profession-related statements were biased by knowledge of the sources’ professions only in the retrieval schema condition. Knowledge of the sources’ professions at encoding actually prevented reliance on profession schemas, resulting in no bias at test. Experiment 2 demonstrated further that the response bias was not due simply to subjective guessing, but was in fact more prominent in higher levels of confidence associated with source decisions. We discuss the implications of these results for the manner in which general semantic knowledge affects source memory and decision processes.
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In the current study, we examined the influence of schema consistency on contradictory and additive misinformation. Sixty-four participants were shown a series of still photographs of common scenes (e.g., a kitchen), were later exposed to narratives containing misinformation, and were then tested on their memory of the photographic scenes. In addition, participants were asked to reflect on their phenomenological experience of remembering by giving remember/know responses. Participants reported greater false memory for schema-inconsistent items than schema-consistent items. The findings failed to replicate Roediger, Meade, and Bergman (2001). Explanations for the discrepant findings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Two taxonomies are introduced concerning the characteristics and the origin of an implausible witness statement. The first describes social psychological influences which can lead to a distorsion of personally relevant experience contents. Four conditions are described which refer to the conversational behavior of the questioning person; four conditions which go into the conversation behavior of the questioned person. Finally, six conditions are portrayed leading to implausible statements due to the specific lay-out of the interview. Well researched mechanisms of memory distortion are described, related to sensory memory, work memory and long time memory. Focussing on forensic relevant states it is differentiated between explicit and implicit information processing. The former concentrates on the episodic and on the semantic memory and their special qualities. Related to implicit memory the focus of description is the meaning of priming, classic conditioning and procedural memory.
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the purpose of the present chapter is to consider functional dissociations between these two classes of tasks and to sketch a theory rationalizing their interrelation the first section of the chapter reviews an approach to explaining dissociations developed within the domain of laboratory memory tasks the second section briefly reviews dissociations between explicit and implicit measures of retention, as a function of both subject variables and independent variables under experimental control the third section considers the standard explanations of functional dissociations between measures of retention in terms of differing memory systems, particularly the episodic/semantic distinction and the declarative/procedural distinction the fourth section is devoted to spelling out an alternative theory that, in many ways, embodies the notion of encoding specificity to explain the dissociations between explicit and implicit retention the fifth section of the chapter is aimed at specifying these ideas better and providing further evidence about their validity the sixth and final section addresses problems of the transfer-appropriate processing approach and suggests future research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Memory schemata may influence the storage of information in memory either by enabling information relevant to the instantiated schema to be more easily comprehended or by selectively allocating processing resources to information that fits the schema. In the experiment reported here, decision times, recall performance, and recognition performance were either typical or atypical of the scripts in which they were embedded. It was found that atypical actions were processed for longer periods of time than were typical actions and that recall performance for the two types of actions was the same. However, recognition of the typical actions was inferior to recognition performance on atypical actions, probably because subjects had difficulty discriminating between those typical actions that were presented and those that were inferred. It was concluded that memory schemata may affect the storage of information both by providing an ideational scaffolding for new information relevant to the schema and by influencing the degree of processing that relevant vs. nonrelevant information receives.
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Proposes a prototypical schema theory of memory. Such a theory assumes the operation of 4 central encoding processes: selection (a process that chooses only some of all incoming stimuli for representation), abstraction (a process that stores the meaning of a message without reference to the original syntactic and lexical content), interpretation (a process by which relevant prior knowledge is generated to aid comprehension), and integration (a process by which a single, holistic memory representation is formed from the products of the previous 3 operations. The supportive and critical evidence for these processes is evaluated in light of the need for any theory of memory to account for 3 fundamental observations; accuracy, incompleteness, and distortion. The central retrieval process of schema theory, reconstruction, is also discussed in this context. Evidence indicates that the memory representation is far richer and more detailed than schema theory would suggest. (6 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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The study presented here investigates Mandler's (1983) claim that memory for scenes is qualitatively similar in children and adults. We assessed 5- to 7-year-olds' and adults' memory for inventory information in scenes as assessed by type changes, in which one object is replaced by a conceptually different object. We tested for effects of three schema-related processes on scene memory. Results showed that both children and adults used two of those processes, which we have called the added unexpected object effect and the congruency effect. In the added unexpected object effect viewers tended to correctly reject any distractor scenes in which a new unexpected object was added. In the congruency effect viewers tended to correctly reject distractor scenes that contained a new unexpected object if each of the original scenes that they had viewed had contained all expected objects, and vice versa. There was no evidence at either age for what we have called the deleted unexpected object effect, in which viewers would notice that an unexpected object in the original scene was now missing in the distractor scene. The only developmental difference was that adults appeared to give relatively greater weight to the added unexpected object effect than to the congruency effect, whereas children weighted them equally. We conclude by speculating on the role of metacognitive awareness in the developmental trend toward greater influence from the added unexpected object effect in memory for scenes.
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Presents a meta-analysis of 128 eyewitness identification and facial recognition studies involving 960 experimental conditions and 16,950 Ss. The meta-analysis was designed to determine what knowledge has been accumulated on factors that influence facial identification performance and what areas of facial identification research would benefit from further research. Two techniques were used: an effect size analysis, which integrates the effect sizes of independent variables across studies, and a study-characteristics analysis, which integrates the influence of study characteristics on performance. A number of variables operating at the encoding and retrieval stages yielded large effects on performance. These variables included context reinstatement, transformations in the appearance of faces, depth of processing strategies, target distinctiveness, and elaboration at encoding. Additional variables yielding strong effects on recognition performance were exposure time, cross-racial identification, and retention interval. There was little correspondence between a variable's impact on hit rate and false-alarm rate. A list of the studies used in the meta-analysis is appended. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reports on 5 experiments with 96 undergraduates, comparing memory for words that were generated by the Ss themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in the Generate condition was superior to that in the Read condition. This held for measures of cued and uncued recognition, free and cued recall, and confidence ratings. The phenomenon persisted across variations in encoding rules, timed or self-paced presentation, presence or absence of test information, and between- or within-Ss designs. The effect was specific to the response items under recognition testing but not under cued recall. A number of potential explanatory principles are considered and their difficulties enumerated. It is concluded that the generation effect is real and that it poses an interesting interpretative problem. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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GPOWER is a completely interactive, menu-driven program for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh personal computers. It performs high-precision statistical power analyses for the most common statistical tests in behavioral research, that is,t tests,F tests, andχ 2 tests. GPOWER computes (1) power values for given sample sizes, effect sizes andα levels (post hoc power analyses); (2) sample sizes for given effect sizes,α levels, and power values (a priori power analyses); and (3)α andβ values for given sample sizes, effect sizes, andβ/α ratios (compromise power analyses). The program may be used to display graphically the relation between any two of the relevant variables, and it offers the opportunity to compute the effect size measures from basic parameters defining the alternative hypothesis. This article delineates reasons for the development of GPOWER and describes the program’s capabilities and handling.
Five experiments are reported comparing memory for words that were generated by the subjects themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in the generate condition was superior to that in the read condition. This held for measures of cued and uncued recognition, free and cued recall, and confidence ratings. The phenomenon persisted across variations in encoding rules, timed or selfpaced presentation, presence or absence of test information, and between- or within-subjects designs. The effect was specific to the response items under recognition testing but not under cued recall. A number of potential explanatory principles are considered, and their difficulties enumerated. It is concluded that the generation effect is real and that it poses an interesting interpretative problem. This is an empirically oriented article whose purpose is to report a set of simple experiments that establish the existence of a robust and interesting phenomenon of memory. This phenomenon, called the generation effect, is robust in that it manifests itself across a variety of testing procedures, encoding rules, and other situational changes. It is interesting in that it does not seem to be easily or satisfactoril y accommodated by any of the currently familiar explanatory notions. We expect that once the phenomenon is described in its initial form, it will be the subject of wider experimental analysis and will eventually become better understood. In contrast to the usual objective reasons for embarking upon a line of research, the present work was neither initiated by any extant theoretical issue nor inspired by any previously published findings. It was carried out with the sole purpose of arriving at a
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A meta-analysis of 54 experiments investigated the influence of social expectations on memory for information that is congruent and incongruent with those expectations. Results showed that overall, memory was better for expectancy-incongruent than expectancy-congruent information on recall and recognition sensitivity measures. Recognition measures that were uncorrected for response biases produced an overall tendency to report expectancy-congruent information as having been seen. A number of moderator variables influenced the strength of these overall effects, including the strength of the expectancy used to guide information processing, the complexity or cognitive demands of the processing task, set size, the type of expectancy, the type of target, Ss' information-processing goals, and the delay between exposure to the stimulus information and the memory test. The overall pattern of results appears to be most parsimoniously explained in terms of the influence of contextual variables on the perceiver's motivation to resolve incongruity.
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This paper extends and analyzes the Batchelder and Riefer (1990, Psychological Review) model for source monitoring. Source monitoring is a popular memory paradigm in which subjects study items from several different sources and later are tested for their ability to recognize the source of each item. The extended model is identifiable, it can handle an arbitrary number of sources, and it enables one to disentangle response bias factors from memory capacities. The model is used to determine the causes of the “picture superiority effect”, where items presented as pictures perform better on source monitoring than items presented as printed words. We analyze a new experiment that shows that the picture superiority effect is due to memory capacity factors rather than response bias factors.
Chapter
This chapter presents a schema based model of encoding and retrieval. Schemas are generic knowledge structures that guide the comprehender's interpretations, inferences, expectations, and attention. A schema consists of knowledge in that its properties typically apply to its referent. Thus, its components, attributes, and relationships may normally apply to a specific referent, but need not apply out of necessity. The content of a schema is highly structured, rather than being simply a list of features or properties. It is convenient to view schemas as having variables, which are eventually filled as a schema guides the comprehension of specific input. These variables are filled with contextually specific referents when someone comprehends a specific restaurant experience. A schema is instantiated when variables have been filled and conceptually interrelated in a specific context. The actions that characters perform in a script are ordered logically, conventionally, or in a manner constrained by the environment.
Article
Judging not only whether a test item had been presented earlier but also its source (e.g., presented acoustically or visually, in red or green, in List 1 or List 2, and so on) is a form of recognition memory called source monitoring (or sometimes reality monitoring or list discrimination). There is a clear disparity between Batchelder and Riefer's (1990) model of source monitoring and a large body of data on recognition memory. Thus, despite the elaborate statistical techniques they developed for estimating parameters of their model, these estimates may not represent psychologically valid measures of source monitoring. It is suggested that models that are based on multidimensional statistical decision theory may be more appropriate.
Article
In three different experiments using general role schemata (e.g., “man of the world”), occupational schemata (e.g., “truck driver”), and person types (e.g., “aggressive male”), subjects showed higher memory discrimination for items that were atypical of a schema than for items that were typical. At the same time, subjects also showed more false recognitions for typical items. Ratings of the degree to which items were typical of a schema proved to be a stronger predictor of false-recognition rates than did interitem similarity. A comparison was also made of conditions in which schemata were explicitly labeled and those in which subjects themselves induced the schemata. This comparison indicated that explicit labeling led to superior memory discrimination in the case of occupational schemata, but not in the case of person types. Results are interpreted as supporting a “schema pointer plus tag” (SP + T) model of person memory, in contrast to a “filtering” interpretation of schema processing. These results al...
Article
It has recently been proposed that in addition to verbatim and propositional text representations, a reader also forms a cognitive representation of the situations addressed by the text. This theoretical position was supported in three experiments which examined encoding processes, the cognitive products, and retrieval processes of the verbatim, propositional, and situational processing components: The degree of propositional and situational processing was successfully manipulated by varying the subjects' study goals. As a consequence of these differential encoding processes, subjects who studied for text summarization remembered more propositional information while subjects with a knowledge acquisition goal remembered more situational information. It was found that the situational encoding and retrieval processes proceeded faster than the respective propositional processes. In a sentence recognition task, subjects more strongly relied upon situational than propositional information, demonstrating the importance of situational representations in text comprehension.
Article
A fundamental aspect of the structure of material contained within a large, intelligent memory system is that the contexts, in which units of the stored information are accessed, are critically important in determining the way that information is interpreted and used. Most of the schemes, currently under active consideration, can be viewed as variants of list structures or semantic network structures. This chapter discusses some implications of these memory structures in regard to how the connections among different memory units are formed and interpreted, and some of the issues of processing that arise when these memory structures are used. It also discusses the nature of memory reference processes that can lead automatically, without particular effort, to the richness of the retrievals that it is believed to be a fundamental property of human memory. When two or more processes use the same resources at the same time, they may both interfere with one another, neither may interfere with the other, or one may interfere with a second without any interference from the second process to the first. The important principle is that a process can be limited in its performance either by the amount of available processing resources, such as memory or processing effort, or by the quality of the data available to it. Competition among processes can affect a resource-limited process, but not a data-limited one.
Article
According to the distinctiveness interpretation, generating words from word fragments leads to more distinctive memory traces than reading intact words. As a test of this hypothesis, the generation effect was experimentally compared to three phenomena previously attributed to distinctiveness. Experiments 1 and 2 proved that the generation effect was unlike conceptual and encoding task distinctiveness. In Experiment 3 the generation effect and the effects of orthographic distinctiveness were compared. These two manipulations had similar effects on memory, but the effects were additive—challenging the hypothesis that the generation effect is a result of the unusual appearance of to-be-generated items. Thus, the generation effect is inconsistent with current theories of distinctiveness. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that generated items receive more encoding resources than read items, and that increased attention to generated items may be at the expense of attention to intact items in the list.
Article
In this research, script-based stories were used to assess recognition and recall of script actions and two types of atypical actions: those that were irrelevant to the goals in the story and those that interrupted the goals in the story. Both irrelevant and interruptive atypical actions were well recognized, and all atypical actions were better recognized than script actions across all retention intervals (1 h, 48 h, and 1 week). The pattern of recall, however, was more complicated. At the 1-h delay all atypical actions were better recalled than script actions. At the longer delays, script actions were better recalled than irrelevant actions, provided that the irrelevant actions were relatively pallid and routine. In contrast, interruptive actions were better recalled than both script actions and irrelevant actions, regardless of delay. In addition, a recall advantage was found for interruptive actions that were not explicitedly corrected in the text. These results are discussed in terms of a script- pointer-plus-tag (SP + T) hypothesis and recent work on text processing.
Article
In two experiments we examined the effects of schematic and proposition‐specific processing on long‐term (1 week) story memory. Subjects read a passage in which letters were deleted from the words contained in some of the idea units in the story, and subjects were instructed to adopt a particular perspective while reading the story. We assumed that the letter‐deletion task and the instructions to adopt a perspective would induce proposition‐specific and schema‐related processing, respectively. In Experiment 1, for both immediate and delayed tests, recall of idea units was found to be an additive function of an idea's importance to the encoding perspective and the letter deletion task. Recognition was also enhanced by the letter deletion task, but there were no differences as a function of idea unit importance. In Experiment 2, using a different story, a similar pattern emerged in delayed recall and recognition. These results suggest that both proposition‐specific and schema‐related processing are important for long‐term retention of narrative prose.
Describes 2 experiments in which 186 university students listened to stories containing scripted activities (e. g., eating at a restaurant) and later received a memory test on the actions. The actions varied in typicality with respect to the scripts. Memory performance at short retention intervals supported the representational assumptions of a "script pointer plus tag" hypothesis that predicts better memory discrimination for atypical than for typical actions and no memory discrimination for very typical actions. Results of Exp I indicate that the relatively poor memory for typical actions was not an artifact of Ss' circumventing memory retrieval; Ss did not prematurely decide that the typical actions "must have been presented." Exp II compared recall and recognition memory after different retention intervals. Assessments of both correct retrieval and guessing differed between recall and recognition tests. For both types of tests, the generic scripts played a more important role in guiding retrieval as the retention interval increased. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined 92 preschool and 92 Grade 1 children's recall and recognition memory for typical and atypical actions in script-based stories. Atypical actions varied in plausibility, from entirely plausible to plausible within the sentence but implausible within the story, to implausible. On the recall task, children reported more atypical than typical script actions, and the less plausible, atypical actions were better recalled than the more plausible, atypical actions. On the recognition task, however, each type of atypical action was equally well recognized. Children also had difficulty distinguishing between typical script actions present in the stories with script actions not present in the stories but equally typical. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In Exp I, 72 undergraduates filled in missing letters in a text or reordered sentences in a scrambled text. Relative to a control condition in which Ss read the passage for comprehension, only the letter-deletion task led to enhanced recall. The data were inconsistent with a difficulty framework. A model focusing on the type of information encoded from different processing manipulations is proposed. Within this perspective the letter-deletion task and the sentence-ordering task lead to the encoding of proposition-specific and relational information, respectively. Further, the nature of the materials, as well as the nature of the processing tasks, determined the type of information that is encoded. These findings were supported in Exp II (40 Ss), and it is argued that in an adequate theory of prose memory the influence of both relational and proposition-specific information must be considered. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated whether stereotypic knowledge would influence social perception in a more realistic setting. In Exp I, 96 undergraduates watched a videotape of a target woman identified either as a waitress or a librarian; Ss more accurately remembered features of the woman that were consistent with their prototype of a waitress (librarian) than features that were inconsistent. The prototype-consistency effect did not interact with the delay time before recognition memory was assessed. In Exp III, 56 Ss learned the occupational information either before or after watching the tape. The prototype-consistency effect from Exp I was replicated. In addition, knowing the target's occupation while watching her led to increased accuracy for both consistent and inconsistent information. The probable role of both encoding and retrieval processes in contributing to this effect is noted. Perceivers' stereotypic prior knowledge influenced their memory of a target person's behavior even in a realistic person-perception situation. Conditions that favor the memorability of consistent vs inconsistent information are discussed. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Considers the failure of several assumptions of stimulus-sampling models in binary prediction studies. An attempt is made to document the direction of current research. Recent trends are examined in research bearing on sequential variables, memory, instructions, discrimination, and age. A number of studies in these areas suggest, contrary to the no-memory, conditioning assumptions of several statistical models, that ss approach the prediction task in an active, hypothesis-testing manner, often relying on prior events in the sequence. Current thinking that attempts to describe these aspects of behavior, often in a cognitive or information-processing framework, is discussed. (4 P. Ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Source monitoring refers to the discrimination of the origin of information. Multinomial models of source monitoring (W. H. Batchelder & D. M. Riefer, 1990) are theories of the decision processes involved in source monitoring that provide separate parameters for source discrimination, item detection, and response biases. Three multinomial models of source monitoring based on different models of decision in a simple detection paradigm (one-high-threshold, low-threshold, and two-high-threshold models) were subjected to empirical tests. With a 3 (distractor similarity) × 3 (source similarity) factorial design, the effect of difficulty of item detection and source discrimination on corresponding model parameters was examined. Only the source-monitoring model that is based on a two-high-threshold model of item recognition provides an accurate analysis of the data. Consequences for the use of multinomial models in the study of source monitoring are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In three experiments subjects performed one of five tasks after an initial study phase. Results showed that performance on conceptually driven retention tasks (those requiring the processing of meaning) was consistently dissociated from that on data-driven tasks (those relying more on analysis of physical features). Performance on conceptually driven tasks of free recall, semantic cued recall, and a task of answering general knowledge questions was enhanced most when target items had been generated rather than read at study (Experiment 1) and when subjects formed mental images of item referents at study (Experiment 3). Conversely, the data driven tasks of word fragment completion and recall using graphemic cues were performed best when subjects read rather than generated items at input (Experiment 1) and when the physical features of study and test items matched in terms of modality (Experiment 2) and typography (Experiment 3). These findings indicate that dissociations among memory tasks are better explained in terms of the degree of overlap between mental operations at study and test than in terms of various memory systems underlying different tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The hypothesized operation of personality traits as conceptual prototypes, analogous to visual-pattern prototypes or scripts for everyday episodes, was investigated in a recognition memory paradigm. 200 trait adjectives were rated for degree of relatedness (high, moderate, minimal) to the prototype concepts extravert and introvert . Selected adjectives were then used to describe 4 characters: an extravert, an introvert, and 2 unextraverted and unintroverted characters. 38 undergraduates participated in a prototype explicit condition (in which the extravert and introvert characters were explicitly identified) and 38 took part in a prototype implicit condition. Data from the recognition memory test revealed significant bias in recognition toward conceptually related but nonrepresented items, as predicted, for only the introvert and extravert characters in both the prototype explicit and implicit conditions. The total results suggest the coexistence of veridical and prototype-biased memory for personality information and closely parallel the findings for simple prototypes (e.g., visual patterns) in cognitive psychology. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A meta-analysis of 54 experiments investigated the influence of social expectations on memory for information that is congruent and incongruent with those expectations. Results showed that, overall, memory was better for expectancy-incongruent than expectancy-congruent information on recall and recognition sensitivity measures. Recognition measures that were uncorrected for response biases produced an overall tendency to report expectancy-congruent information as having been seen. A number of moderator variables influenced the strength of these overall effects, including the strength of the expectancy used to guide information processing, the complexity or cognitive demands of the processing task, set size, the type of expectancy, the type of target, Ss' information-processing goals, and the delay between exposure to the stimulus information and the memory test. Results appear to be most parsimoniously explained in terms of the influence of contextual variables on the perceiver's motivation to resolve incongruity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined how arguments contained in persuasive messages are represented and retrieved from memory. It was proposed that there exist generic schemata that contain typical arguments supporting positions on familiar issues and that guide the representation and retrieval of message content in a manner similar to that hypothesized by A. C. Graesser and G. V. Nakamura's (1982) schema-copy-plus-tag model of prose memory. 261 undergraduates read a political candidate's arguments for his position on several familiar social issues. The arguments varied in their perceived typicality for messages generally supporting each position. After either a 10-min or 2-day delay, Ss were given either a recall or recognition test for the message content. Results strongly support the schema-copy-plus-tag model. Over time, more typical than atypical arguments were correctly recalled, and Ss' recall protocols showed increasing clustering by typicality. However, recall of typical arguments was accompanied more by intrusion errors (false recalls) than was recall of atypical arguments. Furthermore, recognition discrimination was better for atypical arguments at both retention intervals, although this difference was smaller after 2 days. In general, fewer atypical than typical arguments were falsely recognized as having been stated in the message. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for studying the relation between attitudes and memory message content. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
D. A. Kinchla (see record 1994-16291-001) criticizes W. H. Batchelder and D. M. Reifer's multinomial model for source monitoring, primarily its high-threshold assumptions, and advocates an approach based on statistical decision theory (SDT). The authors lay out some of the considerations that led to their model and then raise some specific concerns with Kinchla's critique. The authors point out that most of his criticisms are drawn from contrasting the high threshold and the Gaussian, equal-variance SDT models on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for yes-no recognition memory. The authors indicate how source monitioring is more complicated than yes-no recognition and question the validity of standard ROC analyses in source monitoring. The authors argue that their model is a good approximation for measuring differences between sources on old-new detection and that it has the ability to measure source discrimination as well as detection. The authors also explore a low-threshold multinomial model and discuss the application of SDT models to source monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study tested the generalizability of the consistency effect to real-world settings. The consistency effect refers to the finding that items inconsistent with expectations are better recalled and recognized than items consistent with expectations. In two experiments, subjects walked into a graduate student's office or a preschool classroom. Half of the items in each setting were consistent with expectations about that setting, and half were inconsistent. A recall and a same-changed recognition memory test followed immediately or 1 day later. In both experiments, the consistency effect was affirmed; items inconsistent with expectations were significantly better recalled and recognized than items consistent with expectations. This result is discussed in terms of differences in the encoding processes that operate on inconsistent and consistent items. The present study extends the generalizability of results from picture memory studies to real-world settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article presents a family of processing models for the source-monitoring paradigm in human memory. Source monitoring and the special case of reality monitoring have become very popular as paradigms to assess memory deficits in various subject populations. The paradigm provides categorical data that satisfy product-multinomial constraints, and this lends it nicely to multinomial modeling with processing-tree structures as described in D. M. Riefer and W. H. Batchelder (see record 1988-31527-001). The models developed herein are based on ideas from high-threshold signal-detection models, and they involve item-detection parameters, source-identification parameters, and various parameters reflecting guessing biases. The purpose of the models is to provide separate, theoretically based measures of old-item detection and source discrimination. The models may strengthen traditional analyses that are based on ad hoc statistics, as well as avoid flawed interpretations that the traditional analyses may produce. The usefulness of the models is revealed by analyzing published data sets from the areas of reality monitoring and bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explores how people decide that an event has not occurred. A "metacognitive strategy," based on knowledge about one's own mental functioning, can be used if a distractor item (DI) is judged as memorable but elicits no clear recollection. Under these conditions, this strategy leads to a confident rejection. However, if the DI is not judged as particularly memorable, alternative inferential strategies will be used, and with less confidence. These predictions were supported by 2 studies with a total of 113 university students. In Exp 1, the memorability of words was varied by their salience. In Exp 2, a "presuppositional strategy," based on the linguistic implications of the phrasing of a question, allowed Ss to infer the occurrence of an event from the use of the definite article. Results show that the surface structure of a recognition task does not fix the mental mechanisms used to solve it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines the role that response strategies play in a memory paradigm known as source monitoring. It is argued that several different response biases can interact to confound the interpretation of source-monitoring data. This problem is illustrated with 2 empirical examples, taken from the psychological literature, which examine the role of source monitoring in the generation effect and the picture superiority effect. To resolve this problem, a new multinomial model for source monitoring is presented that is capable of separately measuring memory factors from response-bias factors. The model, when applied to the results of 2 new experiments, results in a clearer picture of which source-monitoring variables are instrumental in the generation effect and picture superiority effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The centrality of a concept within a scripted memory structure is defined by the number of associative connections the concept has to other concepts within the structure. This paper reports four experiments which investigated the relation between degree of centrality of scripted concepts (central, peripheral) and the retrievability of those concepts from episodic text memory. In the experiments, subjects read scripted texts in which central and peripheral target nouns had been mentioned one time, and immediately after each text, subjects took a noun recognition test. In Experiments 1–3, the test lists contained scripted nouns which had been in the texts and unrelated nouns which had not. Under this testing condition, central concepts showed a consistent speed and hit rate advantage over peripheral concepts. In Experiment 4, unstudied but script relevant nouns were included in the test list, and under this condition central concepts were retrieved more slowly, with higher false alarm rates, and lower d′ and β values. The combined results are analogous to the negative and positive fan effects reported by L. M. Reder and B. H. Ross (1983, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9, 55–72); however, in the current case, fan size is determined by the preexisting connections in memory, not by the number of times a concept has been studied. We develop a process model similar to L. M. Reder's (1982, Psychological Review, 89, 250–280) to describe the retrieval of scripted concepts. Finally, we argue against the notion that scripts have representational characteristics different from other memory structures.
Article
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