Hepatitis D virus antigen in HBsAg positive chronic liver disease in Nigeria
Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.East African medical journal 07/1998; 75(6):329-31.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is strongly associated with an aggressive type of chronic active liver disease (CALD) and hepatocellular carcinoma, which tend to present in the relatively young, in sub-Saharan Africa. It is known that co-existent infection with HDV tends to aggravate the course of HBV-associated liver disease. This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) among thirty one consecutive southwestern Nigerians with HBsAg-positive, HCV antibody-negative chronic liver disease. Alongside, we tested for HBsAg and the HDV antigen in fifty randomly selected sera each from blood donors and university freshmen undergoing pre-admission medical tests and who had no clinical evidence of liver disease. The HDV antigen (HDVAg) was found in the sera of two of 31 (6.5%) patients. Among the blood donors and university freshmen, HBsAg prevalence was twelve and eight per cent respectively, while HDVAg was present in none. In addition, liver biopsies of 28 other patients were stained for HDVAg. None of these was positive. These findings show that HDV prevalence is low in our community, and suggest that the virus might play only a minor role in the pathogenesis of HBsAg-associated chronic liver disease among our patients. A review of reports on the epidemiology of HDV in sub-Saharan Africa shows a rather complicated pattern that makes its impact on HBsAg-associated CALD difficult to assess. More studies designed to elucidate this pattern of HDV epidemiology are called for.
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ABSTRACT: There has recently been an observable increase in some forms of cancer the world over. This is attributable in large part to the introduction of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related malignancies into the world of medicine and it is interesting that most of these cases are seen in the developing world, which proportionately leads with the number of AIDS cases. Despite this, some more traditional cancers remain the big killers in these areas of the world, except that in some countries definitive interventions have yielded excellent results in reducing disease burden. In Africa and the developing world, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death, having some clearly established etiologic factors. This review describes the current status of each of these known etiologic factors in the various areas and, using available evidence, suggests options that may be employed to further stem the incidence of HCC and improve on survival in these populations. Semin Oncol 28:179-187.
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ABSTRACT: Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are known sequelae of chronic hepatitis. Early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis could delay or even abort progression to terminal liver disease. Prospective study of 70 consecutive patients with features of early liver disease or discovered with HBsAg (or anti-HCV) during pre-employment and/ or pre-donation screening at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the patients had liver biopsy and the histology evaluated with the Knodell Histological Activity Index. Fifty-three patients had symptomatic disease (M: F ratio, 1.5:1) while 17 were asymptomatic (M: F ratio, 3:1). The mean ages were 49.04 (SD+/-16.78) and 29.82 (SD+/-6.13) for the symptomatic and the asymptomatic patients respectively (P< 0.005). Major symptoms were right upper abdominal pain (68%), weight loss (51%) and fatigue (41.5%). Alcohol consumption was significantly related to symptomatic chronic hepatitis (P< 0.01). Over 50 % of patients with asymptomatic chronic hepatitis had abnormal liver scan and liver function tests. All the asymptomatic cases and 77.4 % of the symptomatic group had HBsAg while only 1 patient (symptomatic) was anti-HCV positive. On liver histology, all the patients with asymptomatic chronic hepatitis had a Knodell score of< or = 8 and none had fibrosis. Over half of the symptomatic patients had a Knodell score of > or = 9 (56.6%) and stage 2 or 3 fibrosis (51 %). Asymptomatic chronic hepatitis patients tend to be younger and of the male sex. Symptomatic chronic hepatitis may signal the onset of significant fibrosis and alcohol abuse may accelerate this process. Serum ALT and liver scan are useful initial screening tests for asymptomatic patients with hepatitis B or C viral markers.
Article: Viral hepatitis and HIV in Africa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With increasing access to antiretroviral therapy across sub-Saharan Africa, progress is finally being made in combating the devastating HIV epidemic. As HIV-infected individuals live longer, the effects of coinfection with chronic hepatitis B and C will likely become an increasingly relevant issue. Indeed, HIV adversely affects the natural history of HBV and HCV, both of which are endemic across the African continent, Issues ranging from appropriate diagnostic testing to prevention and treatment are affected by HIV coinfection, particularly in resource-limited settings. In addition, some of the more complex problems such as occult infection, immune reconstitution, and antiretroviral hepatotoxicity are becoming increasingly important considerations. In this review, we present the available data on coinfection in Africa with a major emphasis on prevalence, routes of transmission, prevention and treatment strategies.
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