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Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study

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Abstract

The gum resin of Boswellia serrata, known in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as Salai guggal, contains boswellic acids, which have been shown to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study forty patients, 23 males and 17 females in the age range of 18 - 75 years having mean duration of illness, bronchial asthma, of 9.58 +/- 6.07 years were treated with a preparation of gum resin of 300 mg thrice daily for a period of 6 weeks. 70% of patients showed improvement of disease as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC and PEFR as well as decrease in eosinophilic count and ESR. In the control group of 40 patients 16 males and 24 females in the age range of 14-58 years with mean of 32.95 +/- 12.68 were treated with lactose 300 mg thrice daily for 6 weeks. Only 27% of patients in the control group showed improvement. The data show a definite role of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

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... According to previous studies, B. serrata improves shortness of breath, bronchitis, and asthma attacks [24][25][26][27][28]. In addition, it has an anti-ulcer effect on the gastrointestinal system and it can lower blood sugar [24][25][26][27][28]. Due to the presence of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) in B. serrata, it has an anti-bacterial effect on oral pathogens and prevents bacterial biofilm formation [29,30]. This substance is used as a decay reducer agent in chewing gums [31]. ...
... In a study by Raja et al [29], the antibacterial effect of B. serrata extract on oral cavity pathogens, such as S. mutans and Actinomyces, was analyzed. They showed that the alcoholic extract of B. serrata with the MIC of 2-4 µg/ml effectively reduced the growth of these bacteria [29]. ...
... In a study by Raja et al [29], the antibacterial effect of B. serrata extract on oral cavity pathogens, such as S. mutans and Actinomyces, was analyzed. They showed that the alcoholic extract of B. serrata with the MIC of 2-4 µg/ml effectively reduced the growth of these bacteria [29]. Camarda et al [35] analyzed the effect of B. serrata essential oil on Grampositive (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria as well as C. tropicalis and C. albicans. ...
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Objectives: Considering the emergence of resistant microbes and side effects of chemical drugs, in this study, the inhibitory effect of organic and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Boswellia serrata (B. serrata) on some oral microbiota was investigated. Materials and methods: In this experimental study, standard strains of Candida albicans (C. albicans; PTCC 5027), Candida glabrata (C. glabrata; PTCC 5295), Candida krusei (C. krusei; PTCC 5297), and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans; PTCC 1688) were collected from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST). Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of organic and hydro-alcoholic extracts of B. serrata was determined based on the CLSI protocol and using the micro-dilution method. The contents of each well were subcultured in Müller-Hinton agar (Candida species) and blood agar (S. mutans). The lowest concentration with no growth was considered as the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) or bactericidal concentration (MBC). Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test. Results: Hydro-alcoholic extract of B. serrata at the concentration of 50 mg/ml inhibited the growth of C. albicans and S. mutans. It also inhibited the growth of C. krusei and C. glabrata at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. Organic extract of B. serrata at the concentration of 200 mg/ml only inhibited the growth of C. glabrata. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extract of B. serrata had a greater inhibitory effect on C. albicans and S. mutans compared to the organic extract.
... [3][4][5]. Natural products continue to encourage to carry out research on their pharmacological activity as a major source of drugs for future development ( Table 1) [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Normally, "natural products" are a combination of various compounds and have been shown to inhibit inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, PGE2 and several cytokines via complex mechanisms [4,[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... Natural products continue to encourage to carry out research on their pharmacological activity as a major source of drugs for future development ( Table 1) [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Normally, "natural products" are a combination of various compounds and have been shown to inhibit inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, PGE2 and several cytokines via complex mechanisms [4,[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
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... Among the known BAs, 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, Fig. 2) possesses the most potent inhibitory activity on 5-LOX [109,112]. A number of studies indicate that Boswellia extract (BE) is beneficial in patients suffering from various diseases such as bronchial asthma and arthritis [32,113,114]. Liu et al. assessed the effects of Boswellic acid on allergeninduced airway inflammation and immune response in acute experimental asthma. The administration of BA markedly reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and OVA-specific IgE, and suppressed airway inflammatory cell infiltration induced by allergens, resulting in decreased numbers of eosinophils and total inflammatory cells in BALF; these findings were confirmed by lung histology. ...
... In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with asthma patients, Gupta et al. [113] tested forty patients with a mean duration of bronchial asthma. In this study, 70 % of the patients showed improvement of the disease, measured by the disappearance of physical symptoms and based on indicators such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, and the number of obstructive attacks; they also demonstrated positive respiratory parameters and lowered eosinophilic counts and ESR values. ...
Article
Inflammation plays a major role in chronic airway diseases like asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the worsening of the lung function resulting in worsening symptoms. The inflammatory process is very complexed, therefore the strategies for developing an effective treatment for inflammatory airway diseases would benefit from the use of natural substances. Parthenolide, apocynin, proanthocyanidins, and boswellic acid present different mechanisms of actions - among others, through NF-κB or NADPH oxidase inhibition, therefore showing a wide range of applications in various inflammatory diseases. Moreover, some of them have also antioxidant properties. Naturally occurring substances may exert some anti-inflammatory effects by modulating some of the inflammatory pathways. These agents have been used in different cultures for thousands of years and have proven to be relatively safe. Parthenolide, apocynin, proanthocyanidins, and boswellic acid present different mechanisms of actions - among others, through NF-þB or NADPH oxidase inhibition, therefore showing a wide range of applications in various inflammatory diseases. Moreover, some of them have also antioxidant properties. This review provides an overview of the anti-inflammatory effects of some of the natural agents and illustrates their great potential as sources of drugs to cover an extensive range of pharmacological effects.
... Botanical medicines have gained traction in the research and clinical communities as effective agents with better safety profiles. Boswellia resin extracts and its active compounds such as Boswellic acids (BAs) and other triterpenoids have shown significant anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in cerebrovascular diseases, brain edema, stroke, osteoarthritis and asthma (17)(18)(19)(20). Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory activities of BAs are mediated by the direct inhibition of both 5-LOX and IκB kinase (IKK), which leads to the inhibition of NF-κB pathway and reduction of inflammatory molecules (21)(22)(23). ...
... The remaining patients (n = 100) were randomized and allocated to Boswellia (n = 50) and placebo (n = 50) groups. Twenty (20) patients overall discontinued the trial of which 13 for non-related surgical procedures, and 7 for personal reasons. The trial interruptions were not due to adverse events or efficacy issues. ...
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Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. TBI can result in neuropsychiatric and cognitive problems as well as neurodegenerative pathologies that can appear right after or develop and persist years after injury. Method: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on patients who suffered from TBI three months to three years ago. The patients were randomized to placebo (n = 34) or K-Vie™ group (n = 46) for a treatment period of 3 months. The main primary outcomes include cognitive assessment in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Recognition Test (RAVLT), Wechsler adult intelligence Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and trail-making test part B (TMT-B). Assessments were performed at baseline and at the month 3 follow-up visit. Linear mixed models were carried out to evaluate cognitive changes from baseline across all cognitive assessment tests. Result: The current study showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in cognitive function of patients who were given K-Vie™ compared with placebo across the RAVLT, DSST and TMT-B performance assessments. A larger cohort would be beneficial to further confirm the clinical utility of K-Vie™ and assess its effects in acute phases of TBI.
... It is used in massages, baths, and treatment of "cough", "excessive discharge or buildup of mucus" in the nose or throat, asthma, and "bronchitis". [33] • It was seen that "alcoholic extract" of "Boswellia serrata" has a notable effect on "asthma". A double-blind placebo control clinical study was conducted and it was found to show a promising "anti-asthmatic effect". ...
... Furthermore, out of the total patients that were made to administer the ethanolic extract of Salaiguggal guggal orally the 68% of the patients showed recovery in physical symptoms and signs of "bronchitis". [33,34] Hypoglycemic Activity ...
Article
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“Boswellia serrata” is a herb used for ages in the Indian system of medicine and other systems of medicines across the world. It comes under the family “Burseraceae”. The Boswellia serrata is called by various local names in different regions, out of which “Kundur” “salai” “guggul” “Shallaki” are very prominently used. “Shallaki” is a widely used active ingredient in the “Unani” “Siddha” and “Ayurvedic” medicines oriented for the treatment of inflammation and pain. It is also used as a component to add fragrance to the products. Boswellia serrata plant contains oleo-gum resins and the ASU drug manufacturer mostly use this resin to prepare Boswellia-oriented drugs and this practice of using resin as the key component of drugs is very old and effective. In ancient ayurvedic texts, particular methods describe the extraction, purification, and usage of this oleo gum resin. Now in the modern era, when a lot of research has been done on this plant and its parts, this plant has come out to be even more important as it is found to be showing specific characteristics beneficial for treating illnesses such as dysentery, urinary tract disorders, hemorrhoids, ulcers, and dyspepsia. The present review provides an overview of some pharmacological activities and the importance of “Salaiguggal” or “ Boswellia serrata “. “Salai guggal” is rich in essential oils, and therefore, it becomes important for the perfume industries as its essential oils are soothing to smell and show therapeutic effects. The essential oils of Boswellia serrata are a mixture of different boswellic acids such as “mono-terpenes”, “di-tepenes” and “sesqui-terpenes”. Whereas the oleo gum resin of “ Boswellia serrata “ comprises monosaccharides such as pentose and hexose sugars. The oleo gum resin of this plant is highly recommended by almost every medical practitioner who deals in herbal medicines as it has shown a huge range of effective characteristics in asthma, cancer, microbial/fungal infections, inflammation, arthritis, diarrhea, and also as an analgesic. A proper systematic literature review was done using different databases that were available online like Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect.
... New pharmacological studies have shown that in addition to anti-inflammatory effects, these compounds regulate the immune system, inhibit leukotriene synthesis, have antioxidant properties and protect the liver [10,11]. They further lower blood sugar [12] and triglycerides [13] and have a positive effect on memory [10]. They are thus used to prevent [14] and treat Alzheimer's disease [15]. ...
... Opportunistically pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms have long posed a major threat to humanity because they cause a variety of diseases. Although many synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and immunosuppressants are well established for use in various types of disease, their long-term use is limited by related side effects or the development of microbial resistance to these drugs [12,38,39]. The need for safe, readily available and effective treatment of various types of diseases leads to the study of herbal medicines. ...
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The use of antibiotics or antifungals to control infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms is currently insufficiently effective because of their emerging resistance. Thanks to the ability of microorganisms to form a biofilm and thus increase their resistance to administered drugs even more, modern medicine faces the task of finding novel substances to combat infections caused by them. In this regard, the effects of essential oils or plant extracts are often studied. Among the relatively neglected plants is Boswellia serrata, which has a high content of biologically active boswellic acids. In this study, we focused on one of the most common nosocomial infections, which are caused by Candida species. The most common representative is C. albicans, although the number of infections caused by non-albicans species has recently been increasing. We focused on the antifungal activity of Boswellia serrata extract Bioswellix against planktonic and adhering cells of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The antifungal activity against adhering cells was further explored by determining the metabolic activity of cells (MTT) and determining the total amount of biofilm using crystal violet. Boswellic acid-containing plant extract was shown to suppress the growth of a suspension population of all tested Candida species. Boswellia serrata extract Bioswellix was most effective in inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation.
... Inflammatory cascades might be affected by anti-inflammatory activities of BAs through inhibition of several of the involved enzymes as well as cyclooxygenase (COX), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), and NF-κB pathway (Ammon 2006(Ammon , 2016Abdel-Tawab et al. 2011). Using BAs anti-inflammatory properties, numerous trials have reported significant clinical consequences in arteritis, osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis, asthma, and brain tumor edema patients (Etzel 1996;Kimmatkar et al. 2003;Gupta et al. 1997Gupta et al. , 1998Kirste et al. 2011). Unlike nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), BAs cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) and do not inflict serious gastrointestinal adverse effects (Ammon 2016;Abdel-Tawab et al. 2011;Husch et al. 2012;Reising et al. 2005;Gerbeth et al. 2013). ...
... Boswellia resin containing BAs has long been used as a remedy in inflammatory states. Outcomes of numerous of clinical studies have supported the benefits of BAs in osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis, asthma, brain tumor, Crohn's disease, collagenous colitis, and pain relief (Gupta et al. 1998(Gupta et al. , 1997Kimmatkar et al. 2003;Kirste et al. 2011). So far, BAs could be a proper candidate for controlling the cerebral inflammation in stroke patients owing to the ability of BAs to cross blood-brain barrier Gerbeth et al. 2013;Reising et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Ischaemic stroke represents one of the main causes of disability. According to the broad investigations, it is widely assumed that the contribution of inflammatory mediators is strongly involved in its pathogenesis. Hence, it seems that stroke treatment needs more efficient and inflammatory-targeted compounds to modulate inflammatory-related pathways. Such strategies paved the way to achieve better clinical outcomes along with conventional therapies. Boswellic acids (BAs), the main bioactive compounds of Boswellia sp. resin; are triterpenoids with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Compared with NSAIDs, BAs cross blood–brain barrier yet they do not cause serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. Considering BAs anti-inflammatory features, we conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of these compounds as a supplementary therapy. This trial randomized 80 ischaemic stroke patients (40–80-years old) with a 4–20 score according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), within 72 h of neurological sign onset, in 1-month follow-up period. We assessed NIHSS as primary and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, 8-isoprostane, and PGE2 as secondary outcomes. According to NIHSS evaluation, patients who were allocated to BA group had a significant recovery in neurological function during the 1-month follow-up, compared with the placebo. The levels of plasma inflammatory markers were significantly decreased in BA group after 7 days of intervention in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2. As a preliminary controlled trial in ischaemic stroke, BAs could improve clinical outcome in the early phases of stroke along with promising changes in plasma inflammatory factors. Clinical trial registrationhttps://www.irct.ir Unique identifier: IRCT20170315033086N5. IRCT is a primary registry in the WHO registry network (https://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/)
... Frankincense (olibanum), gum resin obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia, is mostly used in traditional remedies for decades [14] against fevers, dysentery, antiseptic and as an antitumor agent [15,16]. BAs (bioactive components of frankincense) are mostly isolated from the resins of Boswellia species and considered to have interesting pharmacological, biologic and medicinal applications against chronic colitis, asthma, inflammation, arthritis, stomach ache, ulcerative colitis and hepatitis [17][18][19]. ...
... One new triterpene 1 together with twenty known compounds (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21) were isolated, first time, from the methanolic extract of the oleo-gum resin of B. elongata. Eight compounds (1-5, 11, 19 and 20) were further screened for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fourteen triterpene acids, viz., three tirucallane-type (1–3), eight ursane-type (4–11), two oleanane-type (12, 13) and one lupane type (21), along with boswellic aldehyde (14), α-amyrine (15), epi-amyrine (16), straight chain acid (17), sesquiterpene (19) and two cembrane-type diterpenes (18, 20) were isolated, first time, from the methanol extract of Boswellia elongata resin. Compound (1) was isolated for first time as a natural product, while the remaining compounds (2‒21) were reported for first time from B. elongata. The structures of all compounds were confirmed by advanced spectroscopic techniques including mass spectrometry and also by comparison with the reported literature. Eight compounds (1–5, 11, 19 and 20) were further screened for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 3–5 and 11 showed significant activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 values ranging from 9.9–56.8 μM. Compound 4 (IC50 = 9.9 ± 0.48 μM) demonstrated higher inhibition followed by 11 (IC50 = 14.9 ± 1.31 μM), 5 (IC50 = 20.9 ± 0.05 μM) and 3 (IC50 = 56.8 ± 1.30 μM), indicating that carboxylic acid play a key role in α-glucosidase inhibition. Kinetics studies on the active compounds 3–5 and 11 were carried out to investigate their mechanism (mode of inhibition and dissociation constants Ki). All compounds were found to be non-competitive inhibitors with Ki values in the range of 7.05 ± 0.17–51.15 ± 0.25 µM. Moreover, in silico docking was performed to search the allosteric hotspot for ligand binding which is targeted by our active compounds investigates the binding mode of active compounds and it was identified that compounds preferentially bind in the allosteric binding sites of α-glucosidase. The results obtained from docking study suggested that the carboxylic group is responsible for their biologic activities. Furthermore, the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of the active compounds is reported here for the first time.
... It was confirmed by Gupta et al. (1998) that alcoholic extract of B. serrata has remarkable effect in asthma. In a double-blind placebo control clinical study, they studied promising antiasthmatic effect of alcoholic extract of Salai guggal with 70% of the patients showing recovery in physical symptoms and signs of bronchitis and dyspnea. ...
... In a double-blind placebo control clinical study, they studied promising antiasthmatic effect of alcoholic extract of Salai guggal with 70% of the patients showing recovery in physical symptoms and signs of bronchitis and dyspnea. Mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ and induction of MAPK were also observed [78,79]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Boswellia serrata (Burseraceae) is the most ancient and respected herbs in Ayurveda. In Unani system of medicine, oleo-gum resin of Boswellia serrata named Kundur played a prime ingredient role in modern quality perfumes. The gum is used as a remedy for treatment of illness especially skin diseases and rheumatism in Indian system of medicine (Sidha, Ayurvedic and Unani) for last diverse centuries. Salai guggul is one of the accepted drugs for various complaints such as dyspepsia, dysentery, lung diseases, urinary disorder, haemorrhoids and corneal ulcer in Unani system of medicine for the last several decades.The present article is aimed to provide an overview on various pharmacological activities of Boswellia serrata. The resin fraction of salai guggal is rich in boswellic acids and its essential oils that are composed of a mixture of mono, di and sesquiterpenes while gum fraction chiefly contains pentose and hexose sugars. The oleo-gum resin is quite popular among the practitioners of traditional system and possesses wide range of useful biological properties such as antiasthmatic, anticancer, antifungal, anticomplementary, antihyperlipidemic, antiinflammatory, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antifungal and analgesic.An exhaustive review of literature was performed using various databases on science direct, scopus, pubmed, google scholar and free patents online.This review is a sincere attempt to discuss and present the current status of pharmacological profile of Boswellia serrata.
... Therefore, physicians working in conventional medicine may rely more on RCTs with frankincense than other clinical data. Five RCTs published between 2003 and 2011 with a total of 297 osteoarthritis patients reported pain reduction and functional improvement of knee joints upon treatment with B. serrata [147][148][149][150][151]. Reduced inflammation-associated swelling was reported by Kimmatkar et al. [147]. ...
... Böker and Winking [166] reported one patient suffering from nausea and two patients with skin reactions among a total of 29 patients treated with boswellic acids. Occasional or rare side effects such as eczema, nausea, increased joint pain, diarrhea, epigastric pain, allergic contact dermatitis, abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal symptoms, minor infections, and fever were observed in clinical trials using B. serrata preparations to treat inflammatory and immunological diseases [147,149,153,155,181]. Other clinical trials reported no side effects [159] or no severe adverse events [171]. ...
Article
The oleogum resins of Boswellia species known as frankincense have been used for ages in traditional medicine in India, China and the Arabian world independent of its use for cultural and religious rituals in Europe. During the past two decades, scientific investigations provided mounting evidence for the therapeutic potential of frankincense. We conducted a systematic review on the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Boswellia species and their chemical ingredients (e.g. 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β boswellic acid, α- and β-boswellic acids, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and other boswellic acids, lupeolic acids, incensole, cembrenes, triterpenediol, tirucallic acids, and olibanumols). Frankincense acts by multiple mechanisms, e.g. by the inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, of cyclooxygenase 1/2 and 5-lipoxygenase, of oxidative stress, and by regulation of immune cells from the innate and acquired immune systems. Furthermore, frankincense modulates signaling transduction responsible for cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Clinical trials showed the efficacy of frankincense and its phytochemicals against osteoarthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, psoriasis and erythematous eczema, plaque-induced gingivitis and pain. Frankincense revealed beneficial effects towards brain tumor-related edema, but did not reduce glioma size. Even if there is no treatment effect on brain tumors itself, the management of glioma-associated edema may represent a desirable improvement. The therapeutic potential against other tumor types is still speculative. Experimental toxicology and clinical trials revealed only mild adverse side effects. More randomized clinical trials are required to estimate the full clinical potential of frankincense for cancer therapy.
... It is used in medicinal preparations for the treatment of amenorrhoea, diarrhea, cough, asthma, and bronchitis as an ingredient of embalming fluid, a diuretic stimulant and an emmenagogue. However, its essential oil and absolute oil are used as fixatives in perfumes, soaps, creams, lotions and detergents [10][11][12][13]. A number of phytochemical studies on different organs of several Boswellia species have been reported, and many of these have identified as acetic triterpenes, diterpenes, highly aromatic essential oil, some of them showed antiinflammatory, analgesic, antileukemic, immunosuppressant, and hepatoprotective activities [14,15]. ...
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Phytochemical investigation on Chemical Constituents of Boswellia papyrifera stem barks let to the isolation of new sterol (29-methyl, nonanoate-cholest-7, 22-dien-3β-ol 2) along with three known related compounds, Stigmasterol 1, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside 3 and Spinasterol 3-O-β-Dglucopyranoside 4. Their structures were defined by various spectroscopic studies including 1D, 2D-NMR, MS analysis and by comparison with those reported in the literature.
... Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) is most commonly used in Indian ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions [11][12][13][14]. Apart from the BA, gum resin of Boswellia serrata also contains monoterpenes (a-thujene); Diterpenes (macrocyclic diterpenoids such as incensole, incensole oxide, isoincensole oxide, a diterpene alcohol (serratol)); Triterpenes (such as a-and b-amyrins); Pentacyclic triterpenic acids (boswellic acids); and Tetracyclic triterpenic acids (tirucall-8, 24-dien-21-oic acids). ...
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Present study was planned to investigate the efficacy of SLBSP vs. standardized BSE for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. It was prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, and single-centre clinical trial for symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee. Subjects were randomized to receive SLBSP capsule + BSE Placebo or BSE tablet + SLBSP placebo for two months. Patients were allowed to take rescue analgesics (Acelofenac 100 mg). Improvement in pain and function was assessed utilizing WOMAC, VAS. Level of CTX-II in urine and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF- α , and IFN-γ were measured initially and at end of treatment. WOMAC and VAS score improved markedly in SLBSP as well as in BSE arm (p < 0.05). Difference in VAS and WOMAC scores between the two arms was not statistically significant. Most significant effect was observed in the need for rescue analgesics. SLBSP caused marked lowering of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels whereas a several fold increase was noted in the BSE arm (p < 0.05). Both groups showed marked improvement in pain, SLBSP being superior to BSE with respect to reducing the need for rescue analgesics in addition to modulating inflammatory cytokines.
... The gum resin of B. serrata that contains boswellic acids that have been shown to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis as stated above. The gum resin was used (with a dose of 300 mg daily three times for a period of 6 weeks) to treat in case of a group of patients suffered from chronic bronchial asthma indicates a positive effect of the compound in the treatment of bronchial asthma (Gupta et al., 1998). ...
Book
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A vast majority of the world’s population lacks access to essential medicines and the provision of safe healthcare services. Medicinal plants and herbal medicines can be applied for pharmacognosy, or the discovery of new drugs, or as an aid for plant physiology studies. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the search for new chemical entities and the expression of resistance of many drugs available in the market has led to a shift in paradigm towards medicinal research. Herbal treatments, the most popular form of folk medicine, may become an important way of increasing access to healthcare services. Advanced Pharmacological Uses of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of drug discovery from natural sources that allow for the effective treatment of human health problems without any side effects, toxicity, or drug resistance. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as ethnobotany, therapeutic applications, and bioactive compounds, this book is ideally designed for pharmacologists, scientists, ethnobotanists, botanists, health researchers, professors, industry professionals, and health students in fields that include pharmaceutical drug development and discovery.
... Plants have formed the basis for treatment of diseases in traditional medicine for many years [7]. Several studies have investigated Boswellia genus (family Burseraceae), especially Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carteri for their antiinflammatory, anti-leukotriene, antiacetylcholinesterase, and anticancer activities [8][9][10][11][12]; however there is limited information on Boswellia dalzielii Hutch., the West African species of the frankincense genus. Boswellia trees are short, usually of compound leaves, papery bark and star-like flowers [13]. ...
Article
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. In the past, several drugs with anticancer effects have been extracted from plants. The present research was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of Boswellia dalzielii Hutch stem bark extract. Boswellia dalzielii is indigenous to West Africa and is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders and skin diseases among others. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of its congeners, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of B. dalzielii extract are limited. Our objectives were to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the chloroform (CLBD); ethyl acetate (EABD); and petroleum ether (PEBD) fractions obtained from B. dalzielii stem bark ethanolic extract and their effect in the cell cycle of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (AW8507 cells). Cytotoxicity of CLBD, EABD and PEBD on AW8507 cells were revealed by MTT and clonogenic assays. Effects of the fractions on AW8507 cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometry. All the three B. dalzielii fractions were found to inhibit proliferation and colony formation; and arrested the AW8507 cell cycle in the G2/M phase.
... Different Boswellic acids have been identified including β-Boswellic acid, α-Boswellic acid and these belong to the family of pentacyclic triterpenes. Boswellic acids have been reported as inhibitors of 5lipoxygenase, the key enzyme for leukotriene biosynthesis in inflammatory disorders and human leukocyte elastase [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] . Docking studies of Boswellic acid is carried out on lipoxygenase target to identify the most potent inhibitor of lipoxygenase protein among Boswellic acids and their derivatives. ...
Article
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Boswellia serrata is a deciduos tree in the Burseraceae family. The genus Boswellia has roughly 25 species and are native to India, Pakistan, North eastern coast of Africa and Middle East. Boswellia serrata has been used in traditional medicine for various types of diseases.
... B. serrata (Family-Burseraceae), an oleo-gum-resin, is a medium size tree lavishly full-fledged in dry undulating parts of India. B. serrata has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes such as cancer, inflammation, arthritis, asthma, psoriasis, colitis and as an anti-hyperlipidemic (Marinetz et al 1988;Shao et al 1998;Gupta et al 1998). leukotrienes synthesis by inhibiting 5-ipoxygenase enzyme in an enzyme directed, nonredox, noncompetitive mechanism. ...
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Boswellia serrata (BS) is an important traditional medicinal plant also known as Indian frankincense, is currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour). B. serrata (Salai/Salai guggul), is a moderate to large sized branching tree of family Burseraceae (Genus Boswellia), grows in dry mountainous regions of India, Northern Africa and Middle East. In the present research, B. serrata bark was collected from Pohra forest region, Dist. Amravati Maharashtra. Aqueous and Ethanolic extract of B. serrata bark was prepared to study in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. Our results showed that Ethanolic B. serrata bark extract shows more antioxidant activity i.e. 80% percent inhibition as compare to aqueous extract 60%. The TLC based separation of metabolites was peformed using Choloroform : Methanol (15 : 1) solvent system which suggest the presence of metabolites of several class. The GC-MS anlaysis of the Ethanolic B. serrata bark extract confirms the presence of various bioactive metabolites including sydone-3-benzyl, 4-karene, trans-1,2,4,5-diepoxy-methane, 5-eicosene etc in maximum amount.
... Antihypertensive agent is reserpine obtained from Rauwolfia is a tremendously expensive contribution from Ayurvedic systems. Curcumin is an antiinflammatory agent obtained from turmeric (Bhatt 2001), Withaferin A (Sekhar et al. 2003) (anti-inflammatory from ashwagandha), kutkoside (Gupta et al. 1998) (hepatoprotective from kutki), andrographolide (Chopra et al. 2000) (hepatoprotective from andrographis) and vasicine (Gupta et al. 2000) (bronchodilator and expectorant from vasaka) are chemical entities with beautiful gallows for drug discovery. ...
Chapter
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Since the ancient period, the medicinal plants have been used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, it has gained extreme research importance for their nutraceuticals values. It has been confirmed by WHO that herbal medicines serve the health needs of about 80% of World’s population; especially for millions of people in the vast rural areas of developing countries. This book chapter summarizes the importance of several medicinal plants which are traditionally used in treatment and management of different ailments in India. In addition, some pharmacological models describe the possible mechanism of action of bioactive phytochemicals, which can be successfully used as drug candidates in near future. However, there is urgent need for basic scientific investigations on medicinal plants and this has been highlighted in current research trends in clinical trials.
... A double-blind placebo-controlled study as well witnessed that administration of BSE containing BAs in major proportions led to significant improvement in patients suffering from bronchial asthma. The symptoms such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC, and PEFR, in addition to a decline in the eosinophilic count and ESR, were evidenced [213]. Further, treatment with BSEdecreased cerebral edema in patients irradiated for brain tumors significantly, as evinced by a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial [214]. ...
Article
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Natural compounds, in recent years, have attracted significant attention for their use in the prevention and treatment of diverse chronic diseases as they are devoid of major toxicities. Boswellic acid (BA), a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules, is isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carteri. It proved to be one such agent that has exhibited efficacy against various chronic diseases like arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, etc. The molecular targets attributed to its wide range of biological activities include transcription factors, kinases, enzymes, receptors, growth factors, etc. The present review is an attempt to demonstrate the diverse pharmacological uses of BA, along with its underlying molecular mechanism of action against different ailments. Further, this review also discusses the roadblocks associated with the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of this promising compound and strategies to overcome those limitations for developing it as an effective drug for the clinical management of chronic diseases.
... Gupta I et al. [65] 24. ...
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Bronchial asthma is well-known hypersensitivity disorder which prevalence is being rapidly intensified in present world particularly in developed countries. Since no adequate therapy is made available by modern medicine for its terminal and long lasting cure, complementary and alternative system of medicines are looked up for possibility by patients as well as physicians. Ayurveda being a major system of traditional medicines in the world, it cumulates abundant description on condition and therapy for asthma. Effort has been made to carry out overview about asthma therapy in Ayurveda view with possible comparative studies. Etiopathogenesis given by Ayurveda in ancient terms can be reasonably correlated with the modern findings. Therapeutically Ayurveda has used almost naturals to combat asthmatic condition as like other traditional system of medicines. But the way and sense to bring about use of naturals is extensively differing from the conventional approach of herbal usage. This unique sense of herbal usage by Ayurveda and how it proves advantageous to patients is discussed in present review. Ayurvedic herbal drugs, which have shown anti-asthmatic activity by modern findings, are summarized here to establish optimistic ethnopharmacological correlation. An attempt has also made to highlight other aspects of Ayurvedic therapy for clinical implementations of asthma either as independent or as integrated therapy approach.
... Other monoterpenoids includes β-pinene, cis-verbenol, trans-pinocarveol, borneol, myrcene, verbenone, limonene, and p-cymene, while α-copaene was the only sesquiterpene identified [65,66]. BS possess an anti-inflammatory [67], analgesics [68], immunomodulatory [69], anticancer [70,71,72], hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic [73], antiasthmatic [74], osteoarthritis, and hypoglycemic activities [75]. The n-hexane extract of gum resins of BS in combination with methanolic extract of rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GY) exhibited antiarthritic activity at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg in male wistar rats. ...
Article
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Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. Results: 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plan
... Essential oil n-nonane, tricyclene, athujene, apinene, camphene, thujadiene, sabinene, bpinene, b-mircene, n-decane, -3-carene, P-cymene, limonene, eucalyptole, cis-sabinene hydrate, terpinolene, P-cymenene, linalool, n-undecane, fenchone, a-campholenol, transpinocarveol, cis-verbenol, pinocarvone, cis-sabinol, 4-terpineol, p-cymen-8-ol, a-terpineol, n-dodecane, verbenone, trans-carveol, bornyl acetate, thymol, n-tridecane, carvacrol, -elemene, a-copamene, b-bourbonene, b-elemene, n-tetradecane, b-caryophyllene the key enzyme of leukotriene synthesis, 5-lipoxygenase. [45] More recently, it was found that other BAs such as b-BA could also play an important role, targeting the microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 as well as cathepsin G. [40] Side effects of BAs include abdominal discomfort, nausea, epigastric pain, hyperacidity [46] , and diarrhea. [47] Boswellic acid from B. serrata belongs to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with a different mechanism of action than those of the common NSAIDs. ...
... The key bioactive component of the plant extract is boswellic acid [40][41][42]. The plant extract and active component, boswellic acid, have proven efficacy in treating adults with asthma, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease, as evident by randomized clinical trials, but their clinical effectiveness in pediatrics in these disorders is currently lacking [43][44][45]. A single study conducted by Janssen et al. (2000) evaluated the effectiveness of boswellic acid in the palliative therapy of children with brain tumors [15]. ...
Article
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The pivotal role of childhood nutrition has always roused a growing interest from the scientific community. Plant extracts and bioactive dietary components play a significant role in the maintenance of human health and wellness, with the potential to modulate risk factors and manage symptoms for a large number of common childhood disorders such as memory impairment, respiratory illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic derangements, and pathologies related to the oral cavity. This review is designed to highlight the health benefits of botanical extracts and bioactive dietary components in children as evidenced by clinical trials, considering their safety with regards to childhood sensibilities. The supplementation of children with the herbal extracts or bioactive components mentioned in this review leads to the conclusion that they are useful for treating various ailments, with no serious adverse events being reported. However, for the limited number of investigations specifically focused on the safety of such products in children, time is needed to expand the literature data covering the safety of childhood supplementation with botanical extract and bioactive food components.
... The efficacy of B. serrata oleo-gum resin was assessed in a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 80 patients with bronchial asthma, who received an oral dose of either 300 mg of powdered B. serrata oleo-gum resin (Scompound ® ) or lactose (as placebo), thrice daily (12,26). On days 1 and 42, clinical and laboratory examinations were performed, and a record of asthma exacerbations was kept. ...
Article
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Boswellia species (Burseraceae) are trees or shrubs whose area of distribution covers the wide geographic area between North Africa and India. After incision, their bark produces oleo-gum resin known as frankincense (Olibanum). In traditional medicine, frankincense is often used for medical treatment of arthritis, asthma, ulcerative colitis, coughs, sores, and wound healing. Various frankincense preparations are marketed almost exclusively as dietary supplements. Indian frankincense, or Olibanum indicum, is official in the European Pharmacopoeia. The major components of frankincense are boswellic acids, among which the most important and abundant is 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA). AKBA is a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects. Besides, frankincense contains essential oil, whose composition greatly depends on the biological source, as well as arabinogalactans and glycoproteins. In small clinical trials, certain benefits of various frankincense preparations have been demonstrated in cases of ulcerative colitis, bronchial asthma, mild symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and various disorders of osteo-muscular system. However, for collagenous colitis and Crohn’s disease remission maintenance, the evidence is ambiguous or negative. AKBA-containing extract was found advantageous in patients with osteoarthritis, and to some extent with rheumatoid arthritis. Almost all the trials had serious flaws in experimental design, such as insufficient sample size and/or incomplete reporting of data. For any clinical recommendation of frankincense preparations, larger and better-designed studies are needed.
... The anti-asthmatic activity of B. serrata was confirmed early, in a double-blind placebo controlled clinical study with 300 mg thrice daily dose for 6 weeks (Gupta et al. 1998). In other clinical studies by Houssen et al. (2010) and Al-Jawad et al. (2012) B. serrata extract was effective in the management of bronchial asthma owing to its natural antiinflammatory and leukotriene inhibitory actions. ...
Article
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The most severe cases of COVID-19, and the highest rates of death, are among the elderly. There is an urgent need to search for an agent to treat the disease and control its progression. Boswelliaserrata is traditionally used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung. This review aims to highlight currently published research that has shown evidence of potential therapeutic effects of boswellic acids (BA) and B. serrata extract against COVID-19 and associated conditions. We reviewed the published information up to March 2021. Studies were collected through a search of online electronic databases (academic libraries such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Egyptian Knowledge Bank). Several recent studies reported that BAs and B. serrata extract are safe agents and have multiple beneficial activities in treating similar symptoms experienced by patients with COVID-19. Because of the low oral bioavailability and improvement of buccal/oral cavity hygiene, traditional use by chewing B. serrata gum may be more beneficial than oral use. It is the cheapest option for a lot of poorer people. The promising effect of B. serrata and BA can be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, anti-platelet aggregation, antibacterial, antifungal, and broad antiviral activity. B. serrata and BA act by multiple mechanisms. The most common mechanism may be through direct interaction with IκB kinases and inhibiting nuclear factor-κB-regulated gene expression. However, the most recent mechanism proposed that BA not only inhibited the formation of classical 5-lipoxygenase products but also produced anti-inflammatory LOX-isoform-selective modulators. In conclusion a small to moderate dose B. serrata extract may be useful in the enhancing adaptive immune response in mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. However, large doses of BA may be beneficial in suppressing uncontrolled activation of the innate immune response. More clinical results are required to determine with certainty whether there is sufficient evidence of the benefits against COVID-19.
... Oleo-gum-resin is tapped in the scores and made on the trunk of the tree which is then kept in a traditional type of bamboo basket. The extracts and essential oils of B. serrata oleo-gum-resin have been used as antiseptic agents and to cure cough and asthma (Gupta et al. 1998). Singh et al. (2007) reported the chemical composition of essential oil of commercial samples purchased from northern states of India (Punjab and Delhi). ...
... Pharmacological applications have recently justified the use of frankincense for its anti-tumour and anti-carcinogenic (Huang et al. 2000), anti-inflammatory (Shao et al. 1998, Safayhi et al. 2000, Krieglstein et al. 2001, anti-proliferative (Glaser et al. 1999, Hoernlein et al. 1999, anti-chronic colitis (Gupta et al. 2001) and anti-bronchial asthma (Gupta et al. 1998) effects, as well as for anti-human leukaemia HL-60 cells and the DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in HL-60 cells (Shao et al. 1998). Controlled, double-blind studies have shown that Boswellia extracts are very helpful for ulcerative colitis (Singh and Atal 1986). ...
... Unfortunately only one study was carried out on the effect of Boswellia serrata extract in the treatment of asthma bronchiale, which however provided promising results [52]. Moreover Kirste et al. [22] confirmed previous observations made by Streffer at al. [53] as well as Boeker and Winking [54] regarding positive effects of concomitant administration of frankincense extract on cerebral edema associated with radiochemotherapy in patients with malignant glioma. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants represent a big reservoir for discovering new drugs against all kinds of diseases including inflammation. In spite the large number of promising anti-inflammatory plant extracts and isolated components, research on medicinal plants proves to be very difficult. Based on that background this review aims to provide a summarized insight into the hitherto known pharmacologically active concentrations, bioavailability, and clinical efficacy of boswellic acids, curcumin, quercetin and resveratrol. These examples have in common that the achieved plasma concentrations were found to be often far below the determined IC50 values in vitro. On the other hand demonstrated therapeutic effects suggest a necessity of rethinking our pharmacokinetic understanding. In this light this review discusses the value of plasma levels as pharmacokinetic surrogates in comparison to the more informative value of tissue concentrations. Furthermore the need for new methodological approaches is addressed like the application of combinatorial approaches for identifying and pharmacokinetic investigations of active multi-components. Also the physiological relevance of exemplary in vitro assays and absorption studies in cell-line based models is discussed. All these topics should be ideally considered to avoid inaccurate predictions for the efficacy of herbal components in vivo and to unlock the “black box” of herbal mixtures.
... Resins and gum resins are extracted from plant sources. Several other studies investigated the anti-inflammatory, anti-leukotriene, antiacetylcholinesterase, and anticancer activity of the resin and especially its major components, the boswellic acid derivatives(Ali et al. 2008;Wahab et al. 1987;Ammon et al. 1993;Ammon et al. 1991;Gupta et al. 1997;Gupta et al. 1998;Shao, et al. 1998). ...
... The literature inquiry was extended to the mechanism of action, when known. All data were tabulated along with the following information: family, species (scientific and common name), inscription on the vase and inventory number, part of the plant historically used, historical sources, modern use obtained from the historical medicinal use, mechanism of action, and bibliographic references (for complete data, please see Table S1 [ [294][295][296][297]). ...
Article
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This work is based on the study of 150 majolica vases dated back to the mid XVII century that once preserved medicinal remedies prepared in the ancient Pharmacy annexed to the Ospedale Maggiore Ca’ Granda in Milan (Lombardy, Italy). The Hortus simplicium was created in 1641 as a source of plant-based ingredients for those remedies. The main objective of the present work is to lay the knowledge base for the restoration of the ancient Garden for educational and informative purposes. Therefore, the following complementary phases were carried out: (i) the analysis of the inscriptions on the jars, along with the survey on historical medical texts, allowing for the positive identification of the plant ingredients of the remedies and their ancient use as medicines; (ii) the bibliographic research in modern pharmacological literature in order to validate or refute the historical uses; (iii) the realization of the checklist of plants potentially present in cultivation at the ancient Garden, concurrently with the comparison with the results of a previous in situ archaeobotanical study concerning pollen grains. For the species selection, considerations were made also regarding drug amounts in the remedies and pedoclimatic conditions of the study area. Out of the 150 vases, 108 contained plant-based remedies, corresponding to 148 taxa. The remedies mainly treated gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. At least one of the medicinal uses was validated in scientific literature for 112 out of the 148 examined species. Finally, a checklist of 40 taxa, presumably hosted in the Hortus simplicium, was assembled.
Research Proposal
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Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Frankinens against Staphylococci
Chapter
Frankincense (Boswellia serrata/sacra/carterii) resin has been used in the Middle East for more than 6000 years, mostly in religious rites. The main mode of action of frankincense is through blocking various inflammatory pathways. It may be beneficial for gingivitis, asthma, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, collagenous colitis, Crohn’s disease, urinary tract infection, stress urinary incontinence, breast density, mastalgia, menorrhagia, osteoarthritis, memory impairment, psoriasis, eczema, photoaging, rheumatoid arthritis, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, and radiation-induced brain edema. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on frankincense, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of frankincense’s use in treating oral and dental, pulmonary, cardiometabolic, bowel, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal disorders, among others. Finally, the chapter presents a list of frankincense’s Active Constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a Section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
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Introduction Asthma is a serious allergic disorder of the respiratory system. It affects about 300 million people worldwide. This has a great burden on medical treatment. Several medicines are available, but they have many serious side effects. Therefore, there is a need to search for a new therapeutic agent with no or minimal side effects while most economical for patients. In folk medicine, antiasthmatics herbal medicine has been used and showed potential therapeutic antiasthmatic efficacy due to the presence of potential bioactive compounds. Methods Different databases were searched (ie, Embase, PubMed, CBM, AMED, and CINAHL). We have reviewed the published data of the last 20 years. We used MeSH terms “asthma” herbal treatment of asthma, allopathic treatment of asthma, and treatment strategies for asthma. The traditional medicine was compared with modern medicine and the same pharmacotherapies alone or with placebo. The methodology was evaluated by using the GRADE summary of Finding tables and Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Results There have been some clear-cut indications toward the recognition of further molecular and cellular mechanisms of asthma. Most of them recommend a further target for treatment. The novel procedures, biologics, and pharmaceuticals are evaluated. Both allopathic and herbal treatments of asthma are effective. Due to none or lesser side effects, herbal medicines are safer than conventional medicine. Conclusion The preliminary documentation of the plants discussed in the review show the presence of several secondary metabolites that are responsible for the management of asthma and its relevant complications. Further research studies are needed to identify the bioactive compounds from these plants that have potential efficacy to cure asthma, and clinically based studies are needed to search for a complete cure for this disease.
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Lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and pneumonia are causing many global health problems. The COVID-19 pandemic has directed the scientific community’s attention toward performing more research to explore novel therapeutic drugs for pulmonary diseases. Herein, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry tentatively identified 44 compounds in frankincense ethanol extract (FEE). We investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of FEE against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, isolated from patients with respiratory infections. In addition, its in vitro immunomodulatory activity was explored by the detection of the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, its anticancer activity against the A549 lung cancer cell line and human skin fibroblast (HSF) normal cell line was studied. Moreover, the in vivo lung protective potential of FEE was explored histologically and immunohistochemically in mice using a benzo(a)pyrene induced lung damage model. FEE exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activities besides the significant inhibition of gene expression of TNFα, IL-6, and NF-κB. FEE also exerted a cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line. Histological and immunohistochemical investigations with morphometric analysis of the mean area percentage and color intensity of positive TNF-α, COX-2, and NF-κB and Bcl-2 reactions revealed the lung protective activity of FEE. This study outlined the promising therapeutic activity of oleoresin obtained from B. dalzielii in the treatment of different pulmonary diseases.
Article
Boswellic acids (BAs) are the important active constituents of the plant Boswellia serrata which has been widely used for the treatment of several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. These acids have shown their very potent anti-inflammatory activities in both in vitro and in vivo animal models. Also, their anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-asthmatic, anticancer, anti-microbial, analgesic activity, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory activities have been reported. BAs are specific, and non-redox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), an enzyme involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. Preclinical data has also shown that these compounds have anti-cancer potential against various types of malignant tumours both in cell culture and in vivo models. However, the exact understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects remain unclear. This review summarizes the anticancer activities of BAs on the cellular and molecular level and attempts to assess the data from the perspective of poor pharmacokinetics properties and limited oral bioavailability which limits the beneficial effects of BAs in preclinical studies and human subjects suffering from cancer.
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Tulasiswarasadi Taila is a type of medicated oil. It is a preparation in which oil, a fine paste of the drugs specified in the formulation composition and prescribed liquid media is being boiled together. The efficacy of a formulation can be increased by processing medicinal herbs with different types of oil. Tulasiswarasadi Taila has been mentioned in Sahasrayogam in the context of Taila Prakrana. The ingredients of Tulasiswarasadi Taila are Tulasi Patra (leaves) Swarasa (juice), Kundrushka and Tila Taila (sesame oil). Tulasiswarasadi Taila Nasya (Errhine therapy) has been mentioned for Nasadaurgandhya and Pratishyaya (Allergic Rhinitis). A drug should always be standardized to make it effective in pacifying the disease and it should not create any side effects or complications. Hence, current study was taken to standardize and analyse the Tulasiswarasadi Taila by developing standard protocol for testing. The value of loss on drying, specific gravity, refractive index, saponification value, acid value and iodine value was found to be 0.79%, 0.9219, 1.52, 177.668, 11.781 and 57.31, respectively for Tulasiswarasadi Taila. On HPTLC scan, at 254nm 13 peaks with major peak at Rf 0.15 contributing 23.19% area and at 366nm 3 peaks with major peaks at Rf 0.02 contributing 52.46% area was noted. These parameters can be set as standard values to derive quality constants for Tulasiswarasadi Taila.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common disabling chronic progressive autoimmune diseases affecting the adult world population. Boswellia serrata has been a known anti-inflammatory agent since ancient times. Therefore, research on Boswellia extract based on Acetyl Keto Boswellic Acid (AKBA) content evaluating its efficacy and safety is necessary. The study aimed to find a suitable Boswellia extract rich in AKBA to evaluate its bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic effect. In addition, the synergistic action of AKBA extract with methotrexate (MTX) was also assessed on an animal model. Materials and methods Oral bioavailability of AKBA and the anti-inflammatory activity of 10% AKBA (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg b.w) was assessed and compared with 2% AKBA (40 mg/kg) and diclofenac (10 mg/kg). The effect of 10% AKBA at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg was evaluated in the FCA induced arthritis animal model alone and combined with methotrexate (MTX) at 2 mg/kg b.w. Subplantar injection of FCA produced edema within a few hours with progressive arthritis by the 9th day after injection. All the treatments were initiated from the 10th day until the 45th day. Oral administration of 10% AKBA was done daily and MTX by intraperitoneal route once a week from day 10 to day 45. Paw volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, oxidative markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA), total proteins and liver histopathology were examined. Results 10% AKBA provided 8.48-fold, 24.22-fold, 47.36-fold, and 110.53-fold higher AUC (0-α) of AKBA at 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, respectively compared to 2% AKBA at 40 mg/kg. Percentage paw edema inhibition of 10% AKBA at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg were significantly higher than 2% regular AKBA (40 mg/kg) and diclofenac (10 mg/kg). 10% AKBA at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg significantly reduced ESR compared with FCA treated group. A combination of methotrexate with 10% AKBA showed the highest reduction in ESR. 10% AKBA at both dose levels significantly reduced hepatic marker enzymes and total bilirubin levels. Treatment with 10% AKBA showed a significant increase in total proteins, antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in malondialdehyde levels. Similarly, 10% AKBA protected the hepatocytes compared with the FCA and FCA + MTX treated group. 10% AKBA was capable of significantly minimizing FCA and FCA + MTX induced changes. Conclusion Anti-inflammatory activity of AKBA due to inhibition of lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes supports the use of AKBA in inflammatory disorders. Combination therapy of 10% AKBA with MTX is effective in inhibiting arthritis and circumventing hepatotoxicity produced by MTX in arthritic animals.
Book
Inflammation and Natural Products brings together research in the area of the natural products and their anti-inflammatory action in medical, nutraceutical and food products, addressing specific chronic inflammatory diseases like cancer and the mechanistic aspects of the mode of action of some key natural products. Inflammation is a complicated process, driven by infection or injury or genetic changes, which results in triggering signalling cascades, activation of transcription factors, gene expression, increased levels of inflammatory enzymes, and release of various oxidants and pro-inflammatory molecules in inflammatory cells. Excessive oxidants and inflammatory mediators have a harmful effect on normal tissue, including toxicity, loss of barrier function, abnormal cell proliferation, inhibiting normal function of tissues and organs and finally leading to systemic disorders. The emerging development of natural product formulations utilizing the unique anti-inflammatory compounds such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactive components has shown notable successes. Inflammation and Natural Products: Recent Development and Current Status provides a comprehensive resource, ranging from detailed explanation on inflammation to molecular docking strategies for naturally occurring compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. It is useful for graduate students, academic and professionals in the fields of pharmaceutical and medical sciences and specialists from natural product-related industries.
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Biological activity of Boswellia extract (BE) has been attributed to its main active ingredients; i.e. Boswellic acids (BAs). BE/BAs possess a promising therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative disorders; including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The multifactorial nature of AD pathophysiology necessitates the development of the disease-modifying agents (DMA). Recent multi-targeting approaches for the DMAs development have brought more attention to the plant-derived compounds regarding their better human compatibility because of their biologic origin. This review addresses the current knowledge on the anti-AD activity of BE/BAs based on the available in silico, in vitro, in vivo studies and clinical trials. The contribution of BE/BAs in inflammatory pathways, Tau and β-amyloid proteins, microtubule functions, oxidative stress, cholinesterase and diabetes/insulin pathways involved in AD have been discussed. BAs efficacy in different AD-related pathways has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo. They can be considered as valuable scaffold/lead compounds for multi-targeted DMAs in anti-AD drug discovery and development.
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Inflammatory responses are the consequences of infection, injury, and tissue dysfunctions. In general, these responses associate with the inception of several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, allergy, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. To enhance such responses a number of synthetic drugs are widely used, including steroidal/non-steroidal components, antibodies, and cytokine inhibitors. However, prolonged use of these components may generate some side effects, including the malfunction of digestive tract, liver intoxication, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, alternative application of natural compounds, such as herbal components, against inflammatory responses might be safer and more effective. Frankincense is a gum resin with potential therapeutic effects on various diseases with signs of inflammation. Therefore, frankincense can decrease the indications of numerous illnesses with the least side effects. The identification of critical active constituents in frankincense may be useful for the development of new components with desired biological effects. In this review, the potential therapeutic effects of frankincense will be described based on its anti-inflammatory effects.
Chapter
From ancient days onward, Boswellia and derived extracts had been used in many traditional systems of medicine. Traditional ayurvedic practices have referred the use of Boswellia referred as shallaki in different antiinflammatory disorders. The bioactive constituents responsible for the attributed pharmacological activities include the so-called boswellic acids. The antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antiarthritic activities of different boswellic acids mainly contribute to the benefitted pharmacological activities. Several preclinical and clinical studies report the availability of boswellic acids in the human brain and blood. Some of the studies have reported about related toxicities also. The chapter aims to present an overview on the phytochemical profiling, pharmacological activities, preclinical and clinical study overviews, bioavailability, etc.
Chapter
Traditionally, the gum resin produced from the Boswellia serrata plant has been used in as a therapeutical compound. The gum that contains a chemical known as boswellic acid, AKBA (3-O-acetyl-11 keto-β-boswellic acid), and widely in ayurvedic medicines. This is used to treat the disease like reduction in various inflammatory conditions of the skin, eye, as well as respiratory disorders such as asthma, bronchitis, and laryngitis. The boswellic acids were also found capable to inhibit both hemolysis and chemotaxis of leukocytes and were shown to work by inhibiting C3-convertase, a key enzyme of the classical complementary pathway. In addition to this, the compound shows beneficial effects in various pharmacological properties like immunomodulation activity, polyarthritis, activity against Hepatitis C-virus and other harmful microbes, Colitis and Crohn's disease, and so on. The boswellic acid is also used to treat patients with memory disorders. In this chapter, the chemical nature and isolation of boswellic acid and its therapeutic importance have been highlighted.
Chapter
Aerva lanata L. is a medicinal plant related to the Amaranthaceae family. It is mainly seen growing along roadside and most commonly identified by its small flowers with woollen texture. This plant is usually used to manage asthma (Kumar et al. 2009).
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Human group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (GIIA) is a key enzyme in infammatory reactions, worsening the condition of several chronic infammatory diseases. The natural inhibitors of GIIA potentially block the production of infammatory mediators. In the present study, elemolic acid, a triterpenoid from Boswellia serrata inhibited the GIIA enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value of 5.70 ± 0.02 µM. The mode of GIIA inhibition was studied by increasing the concentration of the substrate from 30 to 120 nM, and calcium from 2.5 to 15 mM, the level of inhibition was not changed. The inhibitor-enzyme interaction was examined by fuorimetry and Circular Dichroism (CD) studies; elemolic acid altered intrinsic fuorescence intensity and shifted far UV- CD spectra of GIIA enzyme, suggesting the direct interaction with GIIA. Elemolic acid neutralized the GIIA mediated indirect hemolytic activity from 94.5 to 9.8% and reduced GIIA induced mouse paw edema from 171.75 to 113.68%. Elemolic acid also reduced the hemorrhagic efect of GIIA along with Vipera russelii neurotoxic non-enzymatic peptide -VNTx-II (VR-HC-I). Thus, the elemolic acid has been proven as a potent inhibitor of GIIA enzyme and modulated the GIIA induced infammatory response by in situ and in vivo methods.
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