Like mother, like child: Intergenerational patterns of age at first birth and associations with childhood and adolescent characteristics and adult outcomes in the second generation

ArticleinDevelopmental Psychology 34(6):1220-32 · December 1998with11 Reads
DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.34.6.1220 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
A 30-year follow-up of 1,758 inner-city children and their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study revealed significant associations in transgenerational timing of age at 1st birth between mothers and their daughters and sons. Intergenerational age patterns were associated with the children's family and personal characteristics during childhood and adolescence and self-sufficiency at age 27-33. Continuity in teenage parenthood was associated with family and personal characteristics unfavorable for optimal child development and successful adult outcomes. Delay in 1st parenthood to age 25 or older was associated with significantly greater odds of more favorable environmental and developmental characteristics and greater adult self-sufficiency. The authors concluded that age at 1st birth of both mothers and children contributes, but in subtly different ways for daughters and sons, to the children's development and adult self-sufficiency.
    • "In summary, the current study provided no support for the notion that adolescent childbearing is associated with vulnerability for depression, conduct problems or substance use. Although being born to an adolescent mother is associated with increased risk for mental health problems in offspring across their lifespan [25, 81] , the current study suggests that postpartum depression and problem behaviors may not add to these risks. Nevertheless, further research is clearly warranted to determine whether the findings reported here are robust over a longer period, and to begin to investigate which aspects of childbearing (e.g. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "Sisters of childbearing teenagers have significantly elevated rates of teenage pregnancy and risky sexual behavior (Cox et al. 1993; East and Felice 1992; East and Jacobson 2001; East and Kiernan 2001; Friede et al. 1986; Hardy et al. 1998; Hogan and Kitagawa 1985 ). There are high concordance rates between sibling sexual activity, especially for younger female siblings (Haurin and Mott 1990; McHale et al. 2006; Kornreich et al. 2003; Rodgers and Rowe 1988; Widmer 1997). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Younger sisters of teenage parents have elevated rates of engaging in unprotected sex. This may result from changes in parenting behavior after a sibling becomes pregnant or impregnates a partner, and be particularly pronounced for girls seeking mental health treatment. The current study examines condom use over time in 211 African-American girls recruited from outpatient psychiatric clinics. Findings indicate that having a sibling with a teenage pregnancy history predicts less consistent condom use 2 years later. After accounting for earlier condom use and mental health problems, maternal monitoring moderates condom use such that for girls with a sibling with a pregnancy history, more vigilant maternal monitoring is associated with increased condom use, while for girls with no sibling pregnancy history, maternal monitoring is unrelated to adolescents’ condom use 2 years later. Findings suggest that targeted interventions to increase maternal monitoring of high-risk teens may be beneficial for girls with a sibling history of teenage pregnancy.
    Article · Oct 2015
    • "One in ten American children has a teenage mother [1]. These children are at greater risk of early sex and parenthood [2][3][4]. Risk for early parenthood may be mediated by family characteristics such as socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal characteristics such as IQ and delinquency [5]. Maternal substance use may also play a role in the risk for inter-generational transmission of early pregnancy. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. Methods: This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. Results: A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, p<.001). The youngest mothers were least likely to be in the "non/unlikely to use" group. Younger maternal age also differentiated between late desistance and increasing likelihood/chronic use, versus decreasing likelihood of use post-partum. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that younger mothers are more likely to use cannabis across 17 years, including later desistance post-partum and increasing/chronic use. Other substance use and chronic depressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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