Induction of immune responses to HIV-1 by canarypox virus (ALVAC) HIV-1 and gp120 SF-2 recombinant vaccines in uninfected volunteers. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group.
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine and St. Louis Veterans Administration Medical Center, Missouri, USA. AIDS
(Impact Factor: 5.55).
To determine the ability of live attenuated canarypox virus expressing HIV antigens to induce CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses and to prime for neutralizing antibody responses to boosting with purified recombinant gp120 subunit vaccine.
A prospective, double-blind, randomized, immunogenicity and safety study was conducted in healthy adults at low risk for acquiring HIV infection and who were seronegative for HIV.
CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directed against Env or Gag expressing target cells were measured after live recombinant canarypox-HIV-1 vaccine priming (vaccine given at days 0, 7, 14 and 21). Neutralizing antibodies were measured after subunit boosting (vaccine given at days 28 and 84).
CD8+ CTL were induced in 64% of volunteers by the live recombinant canarypox-HIV-1 vaccine. All volunteers who received two doses of subunit vaccine after live recombinant canarypox priming developed neutralizing antibodies directed against laboratory strains of HIV-1 and seven out of eight volunteers tested developed neutralizing antibodies to the primary isolate, BZ167, but to none of eight other primary isolates. Unprimed controls had low or absent neutralizing antibodies after two doses of subunit vaccine.
The live canarypox vector was safe, stimulated cytotoxic T-cells and primed for a vigorous neutralizing antibody response upon boosting with subunit gp120 vaccine. This vaccine combination should be evaluated further for inducing protection against HIV infection.
Available from: Beatrice Ondondo
- "Despite the comparatively lower immunogenicity with respect to other poxvirus vectors such as MVA (Zhang et al., 2007) and NYVAC, the fact that ALVAC has no potential pre-existing immunity in humans makes it a more attractive HIV vaccine delivery vector. The ALVAC vector (vCP205) was shown to be safe and to induce strong CD8+ CTL and antibody responses to an HIV vaccine expressing gp120/41 and Gag/Pol sequences [ALVAC-HIV(vCP205)] in a Phase 1 clinical trial in the USA in the 1990 s (Belshe et al., 1998). A related ALVAC-based vaccine expressing multiple HIV antigens comprising Gag, Env, Nef, Pol and Pro [ALVAC-HIV(vCP300)] also induced durable CTL responses in healthy volunteers (Evans et al., 1999). "
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ABSTRACT: Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximize transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502) where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared toward delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy.
Available from: Julià Blanco
- "However, similar to previous human immunizations with envelope monomers or trimmers, no (broadly) neutralizing antibodies were induced. In the best of the cases, earlier studies showed vaccine-induced antibodies able to neutralize easily neutralizable viral isolates or the vaccine strain only [18-21]. These limitations highlight the need for the design of novel immunogens to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, although difficulties related to masked epitopes or tolerance mechanisms induced by self-homologies, among others, remain [22-24]. "
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HIV-1 infection generates numerous abnormalities in the B cell compartment which can be partly reversed by antiretroviral therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the effects that re-exposure to HIV antigens might have on the frequency and functionality of antibody secreting cells (ASC) in patients undergoing structured treatment interruptions (STI). As re-exposure to viral antigens may also boost the production of (neutralizing) antibodies, we also assessed the neutralizing activities during STI cycles.
Retrospective study of 10 patients undergoing 3 cycles of STI with 2 weeks on and 4 weeks off HAART. ASC frequencies were determined by flow cytometry in samples obtained at the beginning and the end of STI. Neutralization capacity, total IgG concentration and anti-gp120-IgG titres were evaluated.
As expected, median viral loads were higher at the end of STI compared to on-HAART time points. The level of CD27 and CD38 expressing ACS followed the same pattern; with ASC being elevated up to 16 fold in some patients (median increase of 3.5% ± 4.13). Eight out of 10 patients maintained stable total IgG levels during the study. After purifying IgG fractions from plasma, HIV-neutralizing activity was observed in the two subjects with highest anti-gp120 titers. In one of these patients the neutralizing activity remained constant while the other showed elevated neutralizing Ab after first STI and once treatment was reinitiated after the 2nd STI.
Our data suggest that STI and its associated transient increases in viral load drive the frequencies of ASC in an antigen-specific manner. In some subjects, this re-exposure to autologous virus boosts the presence of neutralizing antibodies, similar to what is seen after influenza vaccination. STI may not boost clinically beneficial nAb levels but offers opportunities to isolate nAb producing cells at considerably higher levels than in subjects with completely suppressed viral replication.
Available from: Zhiyuan Wen
- "However, the tremendous research effort has not yet yielded an effective AIDS vaccine strategy. Earlier clinical trials using HIV Env-based subunit vaccines elicited antibodies that reacted with gp120 but were not neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and vaccination failed to show protection against HIV infection –. The failure of these trials promoted a shift to the development of HIV vaccines that focus on eliciting T cell responses –. "
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ABSTRACT: Several conserved neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the HIV Env protein and among these, the MPER of gp41 has received great attention and is widely recognized as a promising target. However, little success has been achieved in eliciting MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by a number of different vaccine strategies. We investigated the ability of HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based vaccines, which were designed to enhance the exposure of the MPER in its native conformation, to induce MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies. In characterization of the HA/gp41 chimeric protein, we found that by mutating an unpaired Cys residue (Cys-14) in its HA1 subunit to a Ser residue, the modified chimeric protein HA-C14S/gp41 showed increased reactivity to a conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody against HA and formed more stable trimers in VLPs. On the other hand, HA-C14S/gp41 and HA/gp41 chimeric proteins expressed on the cell surfaces exhibited similar reactivity to monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of guinea pigs using the HA-C14S/gp41 DNA or VLP vaccines induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 as well as to a peptide corresponding to a segment of MPER at higher levels than immunization by standard HIV VLPs. Further, sera from vaccinated guinea pigs were found to exhibit HIV neutralizing activities. Moreover, sera from guinea pigs vaccinated by HA-C14S/gp41 DNA and VLP vaccines but not the standard HIV VLPs, were found to neutralize HIV pseudovirions containing a SIV-4E10 chimeric Env protein. The virus neutralization could be blocked by a MPER-specific peptide, thus demonstrating induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by this novel vaccine strategy. These results show that induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies can be achieved through a rationally designed vaccine strategy.
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