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Water as a Free Electric Dipole Laser

Authors:

Abstract

We show that the usually neglected interaction between the electric dipole of the water molecule and the quantized electromagnetic radiation field can be treated in the context of a recent quantum field theoretical formulation of collective dynamics. We find the emergence of collective modes and the appearance of permanent electric polarization around any electrically polarized impurity.
VOLUME
61,
NUMBER
9
PHYSICAL
REVIEW
LETTERS
Water as a Free Electric Dipole Laser
Emilio Del Giudice
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano,
Italy
Giuliano
Preparata
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Mi/ano, Milano, Ita/y,
and
Sezione di Mi/ano,
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano,
Italy
and
Giuseppe Vitiello
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Salerno, Salerno, Italy,
and
Sezione di Napoli,
Istituto
Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli,
Italy
(Received 23
May
1988)
29
AUGUST
1988
We show
that
the usually neglected interaction between the electric dipole of the
water
molecule and
the quantized electromagnetic radiation field can be
treated
in the context of a recent
quantum
field
theoretical formulation of collective dynamics. We find the emergence of collective modes and the ap-
pearance of
permanent
electric polarization around any electrically polarized impurity.
PACS
numbers:
42.55.Tb,03.70.+k
I==2md; (d
g=0.82A)
(Ref. IO)
and
Ide I
==2ed
e(de
=0.2
A),
l2 •
H,>
2/Lj+A·dej,
where
the
sum
runs over
the
Nmolecules of
the
volume
V,
and
L, is
the
total
angular
momentum
of
the
single
molecule, / its (average)
momentum
of inertia,
and
de its
electric dipole vector. We set
where mis
the
proton mass
and
eits charge.
As we
are
interested in
the
collective aspects of
the
in-
teraction of
the
electric dipoles with
the
quantized
elec-
tromagnetic
field, we
concentrate
our
attention
only on
those electromagnetic modes whose wavelength is
either
larger
than
or
comparable
with
the
size Lof
the
system,
so
that
the
plane-wave
factor
eik 'xshall always be
dropped out.
Following
the
development of Ref. 9, we
can
cast
our
problem [Eqs. (1)
and
(2)] in
the
framework of a
quan-
tum
field
theory
of a complex
scalar
field
V/(u,t),
the
wave field, in interaction with
the
quantized
electromag-
netic field A.
By
standard
quantum-field-theory methods it is
straightforward
to write down
the
relevant
path
integrai
It is well known
that
liquid
water
is a very complicated
system,1,2 and
that
it
may
show significant
departures
from its average
bulk
behavior in
the
presence of macro-
molecules.:' colloidal particles,"
and
polarized impuri-
ties.i' In addition,
there
are
some experimental indica-
tions of its
important
role in
the
dynamics of macro-
molecules."
In recent times very
remarkable
progress has been
made
through
detailed
dynamical
calculations in
the
framework of a model which describes
water
as a net-
work of H-bonded molecules.Ì However, it seems legiti-
mate
to us to wonder
what
effect on
the
structure
of
liquid
water
could
the
quantized
electromagnetic field
have, which is usually neglected.
That
our
question
might
be totally nontrivial is suggested by
the
surprising-
ly close analogy
that
one can establish with
the
free-
electron laser. 8
There
the
undulator
field induces on a
bunch
of free electrons an oscillating electric dipole,
transverse to
their
motion, which gets coherently coupled
to
the
appropriate
modes of
the
electromagnetic
radia-
tion. On
the
other
hand, it is well known
that
the
water
molecules possess a considerable electric dipole.
The
aim of this
paper
is to investigate
whether
under
suitable conditions
the
electric dipoles of
water
molecules
can
interact
coherent1y with selected modes of the
radia-
tion field, as it
just
happens in
the
free-electron laser.
We shall employ atheoretical
approach
that
has
already
been applied to describe successfully some
important
as-
pects of free-electron-laser dynamics."
Th
us
our
model
for liquid
water
in a volume Vis defined by
the
following
Hamiltonian
(A
denotes
the
electromagnetic field in
the
radiation gauge):
N
H==
1:n;
j-l
(1)
©1988
The
American
Physical Society 1085
VOLUME
61,
NUMBER
9
PHYSICAL
REVIEW
LETTERS
29
AUGUST
1988
that
describes
the
dynamics or our system (we use the
natural
units h
==
c
==
1),
Z
=o
JId",d",*][da, da,*]exp(iW["" v"
,a,a*)),
where the action integraI (u is the unit vector in the dipole direction) is given by
W=
J
dnudt
Hu,d;
L(U,I)
==
-4
iI:a,*
(k.r
>a,
(k,d
+
",*
(u,di~(u,d
-
",*
(u,d~
",(u,t)
Jr
r,k
ut
4md
g
+
2e~~
iL[; ]1/2
(E,'
u)
",*
(u,d
",(u,tHa,
(k,de
rikt -a,*
(k,de
ikt},
V
r,k
L2is the square of the angular momentum operator In terms of the new functions ç
and
br,the Lagrangian
(7) scales as
l
[8
. 8 8
2]
L2
==
---
--sln8-+--
siné 80
ao
al/J2'
Liu.t)
==NI(u,t),
(11)
(15)
where l
(u.r
)has, in terms of çand br,precisely
the
same form as L
but
for the extremely
important
dif-
ference
that
the
coupling strength 2ed
e/V
1/2 now gets
multiplied by tbe very large
number
N1/2; furthermore,
Eq. (9) can now be rewritten as
J
dnuç*(u,dç(u,d
=1.
(12)
By changing variables in
the
path
integrai (5), we clearly
see
that
the solution of
our
quantum
field theory consists
simply of the "classical" solution of the variational prob-
lem
(lO)
oJldnudt=O,
(13)
modulo
"quantum
fluctuations" whose size is
0(1/
NI/2) o9
The
variational problem (13) yields the follow-
ing Euler-Lagrange equations:
/Jç~u,d
=
~ç(u,d
-i
led,
[N
v]1/2
L(E,.
ul ( k
2]1/2
{b,(k,t)e
rikt -b,*
(k,t
)eikt}
ç(u,t),
l4mdg k,r
oBb,
(k,l)
_o
ikt
[
Nk
]1/2 ( ) J*( ) ( )
l
al
-le
2V
Led;e, ko
dnuuç
u,t
ç
u,t
.
.,,(U,/)
==
N1/2ç(u, / ),
and
ar(k,/)
is the amplitude of
the
mode k with polariza-
tion r[k·
€r(k)
==0,
from the transversality conditionl.
The
Noether
theorem leads to tbe following conserved
quantity:
where Nis
just
the
number of dipoles contained in the
volume V.
As emphasized in Ref. 9, Eq, (9), implying
tbat
the
paths contributing to Z must have the "macroscopic"
size N1/2, suggests the relevance of the folIowing rescal-
ings:
In order to proceed any
further
we must get back to
the
meaning of
the
complex functions
ç(u,t)
and
br(k,t)o
It is clear
that
N1
ç(u,t)
12represents the aver-
age number of dipoles in the volume V
that
are polarized
in
the
udirection, while NIbr(k, t)I2is the average
number of pbotons in
the
mode k,r, By expansion of
ç(u,/)
in spherical harmonics, i.e., writing
(16)
NI
c;
(t)
12denotes the number of molecules
that
popu-
late the rotational
state
Il
.m)
of
our
rigid rotator,
which, neglecting alI interactions, at
thermal
equilibrium
should follow a Boltzmann distribution with El
==
l (l
+
1)/
4mdjo
Under
normal conditions (unpolarized bulk
waterlthe levels l
==0
and l
==
l have comparable popula-
tions. To simplify
our
problem, II from now on we shall
work in the subspace spanned by the four states 10,0)
and Il,
m),
and restrict
the
electromagnetic modes to the
resonating ones, i.e., those for which k
==wo
==
1/2mdj.
12
Setting
ro
(t )
==
C00
(/
),
Ym(t )
==
Clm(t )e-
iooot,
and calling b
(t)
the
amplitude of
the
electromagnetic
mode coupled to transition Il,m)+-+ 10,0), one can cast
the system (14) and (15) in
the
form
ro(t)
==
nI:mb:
(t)
Ym
(t),
rm
(l
)
==
-nbm
(l
)
Yo
(t
), ( l7)
bm(1)
==
2n
Yd
(t )Ym(1),
1086
VOLUME
61,
NUMBER
9
PHYSICAL
REVIEW
LETTERS
29
AUGUST
1988
where
Aed, [N]
1/2
n=
J3
2lùOV
lùO-Glù().
(}8)
Note
that
in
pure
water
(H20),
G---17.
Taking
advan-
tage
of
the
rotational
symmetry
of
the
problem,
our
sys-
tem
can
be
further
simplified by
setting
Ym
(t)
==
rl
(t)
and
bm
(t
)
==
b
(t
).
One
thus
obtains
ro(t)
==
3nb*
(t
)rl
(t
),
rl(t)
==
-
nb(t)ro(t),
6
(t)
==
2
il
r6
(t)
rl
(t),
which
admits
the
following
constants
of
motion:
IroI2+31
rl
I2
==
l,
21
rl
12+1b12
==
tsin
290,
(20)
(21 )
and
the
small
oscillations
around
it
are
controlled
by
the
pulsation
Wl
==
2.J2l1
-tsin
22Bo]
1/4
il.
(26)
It is
easy
to see
that
access to
the
limit
cycle
can
be
obtained
only for
Bo:>
Te14.
Note
that
the
"thermal
start"
lBoltzmann
distribution,
in
normal
conditions
ro(O)
---r 1(O)]
corresponds
to
Bo
==
Te13.
On
the
other
hand,
for
Bo
<
Tel4
the
system
(19)
goes
through
a
quasi-
periodic
motion
with
average
pulsation
iii
==
(2 cos2Bo)
1/2
n. (27)
From
our
definitions it is
straightforward
to
calculate
the
polarization
along
any
direction
n; one finds
Pn==(çln-ulç>
==
(21
J3
)ro(t)r
1
(t)
COS(W2
-wo)t.
where
the
angle
Bo
(O
<:
Bo
-<
Te/2)
specifies
the
initial
conditions as
1ro(O) 12==cos
2BO,
1
rl
(O) I2
==
tsin
290,
Ib(O)12==0.
If
we call
ro,rl,B
and
l/Jo,l/Jl,1fI
the
modulus
and
the
phase
of
re-
rl,b, respectively,
the
system
(19)
admits
a
limit
cycle:
Let
us now suppose
that
within
the
volume
Vwe have
an
impurity
with
asizable
electric
dipole,
which
gen-
erates
an
electric
field Ed
oriented
in
the
zdirection.
The
static
part
of
the
Hamiltonian
H,
[Eqs.
(1)
and
(2)]
will
acquire
a new
term
Vd
==
-de}·
Ed,
(29)
which will mix
the
states
10,0>
and
Il,0>,
to
produce
the
new
eigenstates
lO)
==cosa
1O,O>+sina
Il,0>,
(30)
1i>
==
-sina
10,0>+
cosa
Il,0>,
ro(t)
==fo
==
(1I
J3
)[1+cos 290+(1 - tsin
22(
0)
1/2]
1/2,
r,
(t)
==fl
==
(1/J3)(1
-
fJ)
1/2,
(24)
B(t)
==
li
==
(t )
1/2(fJ
- cos 2(0)
1/2,
with eigenvalues
ÀO,1
==(wo/2)[1
+=
(1
+4V}l(6)
1/2],
and
tga
==
[WO -
(w6+4V})
II2]/2Vd.
(31)
larization
around
an
impurity
that
carries
asizeable
electric dipole
(organic
macromolecules
are
known to
have
this
property).
The
amount
of
such
polarization
turns
out
to be
(P3(t»
==
(1/J3)
sin2a
(f6
-
fr),
(34)
which in
the
region
where
2Vd/
Wo
is
--1
attains
very
respectable
values.
Note
that
in
the
absence
of
the
col-
lective
interaction
analyzed
in
this
paper,
one
must
have
f6=fr,
as
prescribed
by
thermal
equilibrium,
and
no
significant
electric
polarization
can
emerge
even for
rath-
and
For
Vd
not
too
strong
(a <
TeIS)
the
dynamics
of
our
sys-
tem
is
practically
unchanged,
except
for
the
rotation
(30),
induced
by
the
electrostatic
mixing,
which
modifies
the
form (2S) of
the
polarization
P3 as
P3(t)
==
(I/J3)
fsin2a
(ra
-
rr)
+cos2a
2ro(t
)rl
(t
)COS([W2
-
(w6+4V})
1/2]t
>I.
Equations
(24)
to (2S)
and
(31)
to
(33)
display
the
essence of
this
work.
Let
us see
what
their
physical
meaning
is.
For
different initial conditions (90),
the
sys-
tem
will
exhibit
different
dynamical
behaviors; however,
for 90<
Te/4
the
frequencies involved will fall in
the
in-
terval
lsee
(27)]
O<v<
500
cm
-l;
while for Te/3> 90
>
Te/4
the
frequencies
populate
three
distinct
bands
around
1600, 750,
and
400
cm - l. It
should
be recalled
that
in
our
frequency
range
the
main
absorption
bands
of
pure
water
are
located
at 1640, 5S0,
and
180 cm
-1.13
But
the
most
intriguing
result
of this work is
the
pre-
diction
(33)
of
the
emergence
of a
permanent
electric
po-
1087
VOLUME
61,
NUMBER
9
PHYSICAL
REVIEW
LETTERS
29
AUGUST
1988
er strong electric fields.
So far no account has been made for the radiative en-
ergy losses from the volume V, which clearly is not an
electromagnetic cavity. By taking such losses into ac-
count one can easily see
that
the lifetimes of our collec-
tive modes are of the order of
27C/
lOo, and thus consider-
abIy larger than the periods
27C/
lO1,
27C/
102, and
27C/
iii of
the collective dynamics.
Far
eo>
n/4 the energy losses
will bring the Fo and Tr to their limit-cycle values, and
the system will resume "lasering" in such a regime onIy
when the thermai processes will have brought 80 above
n/4.
Even though, it must be admitted, our analysis is in
many ways at a preliminary,
rather
rudimentary stage,
nevertheless, we believe
that
we can draw anumber of
relevant eonelusions: (i) In the study of the dynamics of
water, the neglect of the eoherent interaetion of water
molecules with the quantized radiation field is complete-
ly unjustified, for we have shown
that
its coupling to col-
lective
quantum
states of size
Zn]
lOo (a few hundreds of
microns) is indeed very large (G =17); (ii) because of
the
latter
fact, the time scale associated with the
eoherent interaetion is much shorter
(=
lO- 14 s) than
those connected with short-range interactions. In such
coherent dynamics, our analysis has
a1so
recognized the
relevanee of frequeney bands which can be related to the
observed absorption bands of pure water; (iii) amacro-
scopic, permanent polarization can easily arise in water
in the presence of a small eleetric disturbance such as the
Ioeai field produeed by a macromolecule, or the field at
the surface of a colloid grain or within clays.
As a result, one can envisage the possibility
that
the
eoherent interaction between the water electric dipoles
and the radiation field fulfills the very important task of
generating ordered structures in macroscopic domains
(Le., within a few hundred microns) which could then
have a fundamental role in the organization of inanimate
as well as living
matter
14 in the wonderful ways
that
physical analysis is incessantly revealing.
Of
course
mueh more work is needed in this direetion.
1088
We wish to express our thanks to Professar Silvia Do-
glia far her encouragement and for giving us useful in-
formation on the present experimental knowledge of wa-
ter.
IWater, A Comprehensive Treatise,
edited
by F.
Franks
(Plenum,
New
York,
1972-1982),7
Vois.
2C. A. AngelI,
Annu.
Rev. Phys.
Chem.
34, 593 (1983);
S. H.
Chen
and
J.
Teixeira,
Adv.
Chem.
Phys. 64, l (1986).
3Biophysics of Water,
edited
by F.
Franks
and S.
Mathias
(Wiley,
Chichester,
1982).
4D.
Eagland,
in Ref. 1, VoI. 4,
Chap.
1, p. 305.
5J. B.
Hasted,
H. M.
Millany,
and
D. Rosen, J.
Chem.
Soc.
Faraday
Trans.
77, 2289 (1981).
6V.
Dahlborg,
V. Dimic,
and
A.
Rupprecht,
Phys. Scr. 22,
179 (1980); G. Albanese, A.
Deriu,
F. Ugozzoli,
and
C. Vig-
nali,
Nuovo
Cimento
9D, 319 (1987).
7H. E.
Stanley,
J.
Teixeira,
A.
Geiger,
and
R. L.
Blumbery,
Physica
(Amsterdam)
l06A,
260 (1981); E.
Clementi,
in
Structure
and
Dynamics
oJ
Nucleic
Acids, Proteins
and
Mem-
branes,
edited
by E.
Clementi
and
S.
Chin
(Plenum,
New
York, 1986).
8G.
Dattoli
and A.
Renieri,
in
Laser
Handbook
Volume
4,
edited
by M. L.
Stitch
and
M.
Bass
(North-Holland,
New
York, 1985).
9G.
Preparata,
Phys. Rev. A
38,233
(1988).
10This value refers to
the
highest
moment
of
inertia
of
the
water
molecule.
See
Ref. 1.
110ne
can
see
that
in
thermal
equilibrium
the
ratios R[ be-
tween
the
populations of
the
state
I
Lm)
and
the
state
10,0>
are
R
1=0.887,
R2
=0.698,
R3
=0.487,
R4
=0.301,
Rs
=0.165,
etc.
For
heavy
water
020,
the
same
ratios
are
0.942, 0.835,
0.698, 0.549, 0.406,
...
,respectively.
12This obviously implies
that
the
size Lof
our
Vis now con-
strained
to be less
than
2Jr/mD
==
4.3xlO - 2cm.
13G. E.
Walrafen,
in Ref. 1, VoI. 1, p. 151.
14E. Del Giudice, S. Doglia, M.
Milani,
and
G. Vitiel1o, in
Modern
Bioelectrochemistry,
edited
by F.
Guttmann
and
H. Keyzer
(Plenum,
New
York,
1986),
and
Nucl. Phys.
8275
[FSl7],
185 (1986).
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We define quantum analogs as vibrational excitations of quasi-particles coupled to electromagnetically-mediated resonance energy transfer in water (a crystal lattice). This paper addresses how neural magnetic resonance spectra of the brain's magnetic field influence dipolar oscillation waves in crystal lattices of interfacial water molecules to produce correlates of phenomenal consciousness. We explore dipolar oscillation waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids as a conduit for coherent propagation of vibrational excitation and hydrogen bond distortion associated with phase coherence present in the magnetic field intensity oscillations at a frequency at which the energy switches from its trapped form as excited phonon states to free, cavity-mode magnetic field energy states. A quasi-polaritons that reflect "hydro-ionic waves" is a macroscopic quantum effect of crystal lattice vibrations, consisting of vibron polaritons coupled to ions across the neocortex, except the cerebellum, due to the absence of protein-protein interactions. They are quantum-like at the core and hence can exhibit quantum-like signaling properties when resonant energy is transferred as dipolar waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids. This is due to aromatic residue flexibility in molecular electromagnetic resonances. Finally, the archetypal molecular patterning of conscious experiences, which carries an inherent ambiguity necessary for non-contextually applying 'meaning' that encompasses cognitive signatures of conscious experience, satisfies the nature of quantum analogs and their transmutative properties.
... The functional role of crystal lattices of interfacial water molecules was shown to act as a conduit where energy is transferred like a dipolar wave [50]. The frequencies of dipolar fields are comparable to the coherent order of interfacial water dipolar molecules. ...
... The flow of protons, i.e., positively charged hydrogen ions, across the mitochondrial membrane gives the metabolic enzymes energy to produce ATP molecules (biological energy quanta) through chemiosmosis. Such external feeding of energy through the ATP molecule reaction may trigger the formation of macroscale quantum-like solitons in interfacial water [50,58] when coupled with photons [40] to generate quasi-phonon transport through Volume 1 Issue 1, June 2022 (i.e., high degree of coherence), leading to stability. It is understood that self-organization is a process by which biological systems spontaneously develop a 'biological order' at a higher level [68]. ...
... It is understood that self-organization is a process by which biological systems spontaneously develop a 'biological order' at a higher level [68]. Del Giudice and his colleagues [50] advocated quantum properties of interfacial water, but no specific mechanism was proposed. Some have argued that the preferred EM frequencies can be found in the range corresponding to intrinsic quantum fluctuations. ...
Article
We define quantum analogs as vibrational excitations of quasi-particles coupled to electromagnetically-mediated resonance energy transfer in water (a crystal lattice). This paper addresses how neural magnetic resonance spectra of the brain’s magnetic field influence dipolar oscillation waves in crystal lattices of interfacial water molecules to produce correlates of phenomenal consciousness. We explore dipolar oscillation waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids as a conduit for coherent propagation of vibrational excitation and hydrogen bond distortion associated with phase coherence present in the magnetic field intensity oscillations at a frequency at which the energy switches from its trapped form as excited phonon states to free, cavity-mode magnetic field energy states. A quasi-polaritons that reflect “hydro-ionic waves” is a macroscopic quantum effect of crystal lattice vibrations, consisting of vibron polaritons coupled to ions across the neocortex, except the cerebellum, due to the absence of protein-protein interactions. They are quantum-like at the core and hence can exhibit quantum-like signaling properties when resonant energy is transferred as dipolar waves in hydrophobic protein cavities of aromatic amino acids. This is due to aromatic residue flexibility in molecular electromagnetic resonances. Finally, the archetypal molecular patterning of conscious experiences, which carries an inherent ambiguity necessary for non-contextually applying ‘meaning’ that encompasses cognitive signatures of conscious experience, satisfies the nature of quantum analogs and their transmutative properties.
... Pioneering research by H. Fröhlich started to demonstrate that the concept of quantum coherence is an inherent property of living cells, used for long-range interactions such as synchronization of cell division processes. This avenue (Ricciardi and Umezawa, 1967;Fröhlich, 1968;Del Giudice, 1983, 1988 has been confirmed also by recent advances in quantum biology that demonstrate that coherence is one of the key quantum phenomena supporting life dynamics (Ball, 2011;Salari et al. 2011). Coherent phenomena are well explained by QFT, a well-established theoretical framework within quantum physics. ...
... Several studies in the last decades (Ricciardi, Umezawa, 1967;Fröhlich, 1968;Del Giudice, 1983, 1988Vitiello, 1995Vitiello, , 2001 and recent advancements of quantum biology demonstrate that coherence, as a state of order of matter coupled with electromagnetic fields, is one of the key quantum phenomena at the basis of life (Al-Kahalili, Mc Fadden, 2015). ...
... According to QFT, the dynamics that regulate the behavior of elementary components in a physical system can generate the formation of coherent structures with a large extension compared with the dimensions of the components. Mathematical analysis and experimental confirmations show that this coherence emerges from a break of symmetry: a correlation wave is generated whose effect is to put in phase (phase locking) the elementary components (Del Giudice, 1988). ...
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Keywords: quantum field theory, raman spectroscopy, biological intelligence, Nambu Goldstone bosons, quantum coherence. Highlights 1. The principles of quantum field theory/quantum elec-trodynamics (QFT/QED) and Gauge frameworks explain multi-level coherence in living organisms, in terms of balanced competition between Gauge and Nambu Gold-stone (NG) bosons, as emerging from symmetry break-ings (SB); 2. Biological Intelligence (BI) is an expression of connect-edness, multi-level coherence and reactive adaptability in living organisms; 3. The presence of NG boson condensations, responsible for order and coherence in living matter, can be studied through Raman spectroscopy. Abstract Living organisms can be considered open systems, operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium-and creating , storing and exchanging energy, matter, and information with the environment. Overall, through these capabilities, living organisms pursue continuous self-adaptation to environmental changes, which is the expression of Biological Intelligence (BI). This paper argues that self-adaptation, and, in general, BI, is based on symmetry breaking (SB) phenomena that are well explained by an extension of the principles of quantum field theory/quan-tum electrodynamics (QFT/QED) and Gauge frameworks. SBs would be responsible for the emergence of multi-level coherence in living organisms, in terms of balanced competition between Gauge and Nambu Goldstone (NG) bosons. This balanced competition of bosonic fields, across all organisms, would allow the coupling with the environment up to the quantum level. Leveraging on the fact that more than 70% of the body is made up of water, the paper proposes a practical method, based on Raman spectra measures in water, for detecting NG boson condensations responsible for ordering information, coherence and memory storage in living matter.
... Such a precise description would be useful to understand the pathophysiology of various pathological disorders. The foundations of quantum biology can be traced back to the work of scientists such as Dicke in 1954 on superfluorescence [2], and Emilio Del Giudice and co-workers during the eighties who advanced the development of the theory of water coherent dipole interactions [3,4]. They again proposed a pioneering model to explain Raman spectra of active metabolic cell processes [3] through collective quantum-based mechanism. ...
... The discoveries that gave rise to quantum biology are largely due to advances in physics [3,4] and physical chemistry [16], rather than those in biomedicine, especially because biomedical research needs to rapidly find effective therapies for patients. Moreover, the typical study programme of biomedical students does not include an in-depth understanding of higher mathematics or quantum physics. ...
... The idea that quantum physics may have a role in biology is not recent: Bohr, Frohlich, Schrödinger, and Penrose dealt with physics aspects of life in a series of lectures and publications [57,[148][149][150]; Dicke, Del Giudice, Jibu, Kobe, and Cefalas laid the foundation of basic concepts needed in quantum biology [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10], and quantum biology has rapidly been extended to the human cell [23,71]. ...
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The recent advances of quantum biology suggest a potential role in biomedical research. Studies related to electromagnetic fields, proton pumping in mitochondrial respiratory chain, quantum theory of T-cell receptor (TCR)-degeneracy, theories on biophotons, pyrophosphates or tubulin as possible carriers for neural information, and quantum properties of ions and protons, might be useful for understanding mechanisms of some serious immune, cardiovascular, and neural pathol-ogies for which classic biomedical research, based on biochemical approach, is struggling to find new therapeutic strategies. A breakthrough in medical knowledge is therefore needed in order to improve the understanding of the complex interactions among various systems and organs typical of such pathologies. In particular, problems related to immune system over-activation, to the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, to the clinical consequences of ion channels dysfunction and inherited cardiac diseases, could benefit from the new perspective provided by quantum biology advancement. Overall, quantum biology might provide a promising biophysical theoretic system, on which to base pathophysiology understanding and hopefully therapeutic strategies. With the present work, authors hope to open a constructive and multidisciplinary debate on this important topic. Keywords: quantum biology; electromagnetic fields; quantum properties of protons and ions; information transmission in neurons; DNA point mutations; immune dysfunction; cardiovascular disease ; neural dysfunction; stem cells; reactive oxygen species (ROS); obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome Citation: Calvillo, L.; Redaelli, V.; Ludwig, N.; Qaswal, A.B.; Ghidoni, A.; Faini, A.; Rosa, D.; Lombardi, C.; Pengo, M.; Bossolasco, P.; et al. Quantum Biology Research Meets Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Mechanisms: A Biomedical Perspective. Quantum Rep. 2022, 4, 148-172.
... Currently, considerable attention is being focused on the study of the structural properties of water and the possibility of data transfer through water and memory of water (Johansson, 2009). This principle is based on quantum electrodynamics (Del Giudice et al., 1988). This follows that liquid water should be a multiphase, non-equilibrium, and, therefore, the active complex system. ...
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The research focused on determining the economic value of a selected collection of 20 shrubs from a wild-growing population of Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. from Arboretum Mlyňany and Nitra region. By morphological analysis, we determined weight of fruits 0.18-0.50 g, the height of fruits 5.57-13.22 mm, the width of fruits 0.98-11.00 mm, and the number of seeds 1.67-5.30 pcs. The content of macro-and microelements was found in the fruits and leaves. M. aquifolium samples are a very valuable source of potassium as the main mineral element contained in leaves (10.437 mg.kg-1) and fruits (9.763 mg.kg-1). Microelements such as manganese and iron prevailed in leaves (80.1 mg.kg-1 of Mn and 35.0 mg.kg-1 of Fe), fruits (29.7 mg.kg-1 of Mn and 25.0 mg.kg-1 of Fe), and heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Hg) are present only in the small amounts with the most abundant aluminium (17.6 mg.kg-1 of Al in leaves and 3.6 mg.kg-1 of Al in fruits) content and can be used as indicator suggesting the environmental pollution status in the region. We determined the antioxidant activity by the Trolox method in methanol extracts (76.2 and 101.2 mg TE.g-1 DW), in ethanol extracts (54.3 and 47.4 mg TE.g-1 DW), in acetone extracts (63.4 and 51.9 mg TE.g-1 DW) and water extracts (35.5 and 60.3 mg TE.g-1 DW) for fruits and leaves, respectively. Extraction of whole fruit (A1-WF), mashed fruit (A1-MF), and fruitless clusters (A1-CT) in structured (activated) water obtained by Kalyxx for 5 days determined a significant reduction trend pH in mashed fruits (A1-MF). The electrolytic conductivity and total dissolved solids of the extracts decreased significantly from the third day of extraction in variants A1-MF and A1-WF. Significant stability of pH, electrolytic conductivity and total dissolved solids during the experimental period was determined for the fruitless clusters' extracts (A1-CT). The results show that Mahonia aquifolium has a multifunctional practical use even in the conditions of the Slovak Republic.
... Furthermore, we found a review article (Elia et al. 2015) that asserts experimental evidence of DS of tremendous persistence (surviving even drying or lyophilization) in liquid water induced by low-energy physical perturbation (succussion). The assertion has the theoretical support of QED coherent calculations (Del Giudice et al. 1988;Arani et al. 1995). The review article also mentions that at room temperature liquid water is a mixture of coherent (coherence domain -CD) and incoherent water. ...
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Water not only plays a very important role in sustaining our lives through routine matters like drinking, cooking, washing, bathing, agricultural work, etc, but, when properly treated, may also play the role of healer or curative agent, though this is not explainable by conventional science. Electrical power can also be generated from water. This paper searches for the properties behind these aspects of water. The putative curative power of water seems to be manifested through its allotrope-like (allo-trope means "different physical forms having the same chemical composition") forms left induced by solutes in aqueous dilutions followed by succussion. Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is adopted here as a tool for explaining these puzzling phenomena. In the process, an amazing specialty of water-electric power generation from it, seemingly with great technological promise-is also explained. Experimental investigations conducted by a number of researchers support the outcomes. This article will be relevant to medicine, biology, and electric power generation.
... In particular, this fact is confirmed by the linear correlation between electrical conductivity and other physicochemical variables [Elia et al. (2020)]. The interrelation of our observations with the formation of coherent domains within the framework of the theory of a quantum electromagnetic field [Del Giudice et al. (1988)] requires special studies. This theory can be used to interpret the stable phase of water in EZ [Marchettini et al. (2010); Del Giudice et al (2013); Yinnon et al. (2016)]. ...
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The review provides evidence that water of any degree of purification is a microdispersed system. The dispersed phase (DP) of liquid water is represented by hydrophilic particles (mainly NaCl microcrystals) covered with a liquid crystalline hydration shell. The size of DP particles, visible through an optical microscope, is a few microns. DP is prone to aggregation and forms large associates (tens to hundreds of microns in diameter) floating in continual bulk water. Water activation by any kind of physical impact is accompanied by the disaggregation of associates and an increase in the total area of the interphase surface. This naturally changes a number of physicochemi-cal parameters of the system (pH, Redox Potential, viscosity , electrical conductivity). The effect was described many times in the literature, but had no scientific explanation within the framework of the classical theory of water structurization at the molecular level. From this point of view, the method of manual stirring of different hydro-philic surfaces with water is also considered. Based on the portrait similarity of the physicochemical properties of structured near-wall water with polywater described by Lippincott et al in 1969, the authors believe that under room conditions there are only two phases of water-continuous and polywater. Highlights: 1. Water is a microdispersed system at any degree of purification. 2. The microdispersed phase is represented by hydro-philic particles (mainly NaCl microcrystals) covered with a liquid crystalline hydration shell. 3. Aggregation-disaggregation of the dispersed phase is accompanied by a change in the area of the inter-phase surface. This entails a change in the physico-chemical state of the system. 4. Under room conditions, there are two phases of water ordinary continuous water and structured poly-water near hydrophilic surfaces.
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The biological activity of ultrahigh dilutions (HDs) as used in homeopathy, especially those beyond Avogadro's limit, is still controversial and an intriguing problem for scientists. Homeopathic remedies are mostly prepared by iterative centesimal dilution under vigorous shaking, called dynamization. Cn corresponds to a dilution factor of 10⁻²ⁿ, and C12 (10⁻²⁴) to the theoretical limit of molecular presence. Since the 1990s, NMR relaxation of water protons has emerged as a potent tool for investigating HDs. This article reviews studies of high methodological quality by five independent teams over more than two decades. They demonstrate an increase in T1 and T1/T2, with a decrease in T2, although less constant, in dynamized aqueous HDs. No variation was observed in the similarly treated solvent controls. The phenomenon seems to be common, regardless of solute, dissolved oxygen, material used (glass or plastic), method of shaking, frequency from 0.02 to 600 MHz. Strikingly, the changes in relaxation times increased gradually with dilution, even in the C12-C30 ultramolecular range and they totally vanished after a heating-cooling cycle directly applied on the sealed NMR tubes. The results were interpreted in terms of increasing correlation times of water, greater than 10⁻⁸ s, resulting from the formation of growing solute-induced nanostructures involving nanobubbles and various elements coming from the medium, the atmosphere and the container. Another unexpected result was that HDs were able to enhance some leaching processes in glass containers.
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By employing numerical simulations we describe non-equilibrium processes leading towards the breakdown of symmetry within Quantum Brain Dynamics (QBD) in 2+1 dimensions. We adopt time evolution equations for coherent electric fields, dipole moment density and the time derivative of dipole moment density, and the Kadanoff–Baym equations for incoherent dipoles and photons. We show that the Bose–Einstein distributions apply to incoherent dipoles and photons in the time evolution. Triggered by nonzero initial electric field, the system’s dipoles are aligned in the same direction. We argue that these results can be applied as representative for memory formations in QBD.
Book
This volume collects a number of the invited lectures and a few selected contrib­ utions presented at the International Symposium on Structure and Dynamics of Nucleic Acids, Proteins and Membranes held August 31st through September 5th, 1986, in Riva del Garda, Italy. The title of the conference as well as a number of the topics covered represent a continuation of two previous conferences, the first held in 1982 at the University of California in San Diego, and the second in 1984 in Rome at the Accademia dei Lincei. These two earlier conferences have been documented in Structure and Dynamics: Nucleic Acids and Proteins, edited by E. Clementi and R. H. Sarma, Adenine Press, New York, 1983, and Structure and Motion: Membranes, Nucleic Acids and Proteins, edited by E. Clementi, G. Corongiu, M. H. Sarma and R. H. Sarma, Adenine Press, New York, 1985. At this conference in Riva del Garda we were very hesitant to keep the name of the conference the same as the two previous ones. Indeed, a number of topics discussed in this conference were not included in the previous ones and even the emphasis of this gathering is only partly reflected in the conference title. An alternative title would have been Structure and Dynamics of Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Higher Functions, or, possibly, "higher components" rather than "higher functions.
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Multilayers of beef haemoglobin were deposited by the Langmuir–Blodgett method onto glass slides bearing an evaporated aluminium electrode. Evaporation of another electrode onto the surface of the topmost layer allowed measurement of the capacitance and conductance of the preparation and hence calculation of the loss factor, tan δ, and other properties. Preparations with 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 21 and 29 layers have been measured in the frequency range 10–3–105 Hz. For a given preparation, the measured values depended on the presence of adsorbed water, and the frequency variation of the electrical properties depended on ambient temperature and the value of the measuring voltage. The capacitance measurements show that the thickness of the preparations increased linearly with the number of layers at the rate of ca. 5 nm per layer. When the preparations were measured in air at room temperature and humidity there was a loss feature centred at a frequency in the range 10–2–10 Hz. This feature disappeared when measurements were made in a hard vacuum but at the same temperature. For measurements made in air, the position of the loss feature moved to higher frequencies as the temperature was increased and the activation enthalpy of the process was ca. 1.8 eV (41 kcal mol–1). However, if the temperature was raised above ca. 328 K or if the measuring field strength was above ca. 1 × 107 V m–1, large persistent changes were brought about in the measured capacitance and loss. These may have been brought about by changes in protein structure; but afterwards, the measured values of capacitance and loss reverted towards the initial values over a period of some weeks.
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This talk will summarize the present status of an ongoing research program designed to answer the question posed in the title. Since a snapshot of liquid water with a subpicosecond shutter speed reveals that this system (a hydrogen-bonded liquid) is above its percolation threshold, it is tempting to imagine that connectivity concepts of the sort encompassed in percolation theory may prove useful. We find that the traditional approach of random-bond percolation theory-developed to describe the onset of gelation - is not sufficient, since water is well above its gelation threshold. Hence we develop a new correlated-site percolation model, whose predictions are found to be in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics calculations and in qualitative agreement with a wide range of experimental data on low-temperature water. The picture that emerges is that of an ``infinite'' hydrogen-bonded network subject to continuous restructuring. At any instant of time, there are many strained and broken bonds. Tiny patches of this network have a local density and local entropy lower than the global density and global entropy of the network. These patches - described by correlated-site percolation theory - are all possible sizes and are characterized by highly ramified (``tree-like'') shapes, just as in random-site percolation. In particular, this model explains the paradoxical facts that at sufficiently low temperature, the isothermal compressibility KT ~
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NMR, X-ray and Rayleigh scattering of Mössbauer radiation (RSMR) measurements have been performed on agarose-water systems for different levels of water content. The NMR data provided information on the relaxation rates of protons in both polysaccharide and solvent. The RSMR measurement allowed us to determine the mean square atomic displacements <u 2> as a function of the scattering vector. The <u 2> values of carbon and oxygen atoms are larger when measured at distances corresponding to the helix diameter than along the chain bonds. At low hydration levels, the water molecules closely associated to the polysaccharide chains follow the dynamics of the polymer. A marked change in the dynamics of both polymer and water has been evidenced when the water weight exceeds 20% of the total weight of the sample.
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Dynamical effects of electromagnetic interaction among electric dipoles in biological systems are studied. On the basis of a previous analysis in terms of spontaneous breakdown of symmetry we show that the Anderson-Higgs-Kibble mechanism occurs, which manifests itself in a self-focusing mechanism of propagation for the electromagnetic field inside the biological systems. Phenomenological consequences, such as the formation of filamentary structures of the type occurring in cell cytoskeleton, are analyzed. The appearance of nonzero temperature due to the finite size and polarization of the system, and the relation with dissipativity are also discussed.
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A simple N-electron free-electron-laser (FEL) Hamiltonian is seen to define a (1+1)-dimensional quantum field theory. For large N, the FEL dynamics is shown to be solved by a single-electron Schroedinger equation in a self-consistent field. The fluctuations around such a Schroedinger wave function are shown to be O(1/ ..sqrt..N ) and computable by a perturbative strategy. A number of observations are also reported on the best strategy to solve the Schroedinger equation.
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