Nucleated red blood cells in infants of smoking mothers

Department of Neonatology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel.
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 03/1999; 93(3):403-6. DOI: 10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00442-6
Source: PubMed


To evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is elevated in term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants born to smoking women.
We compared absolute nucleated RBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, AGA infants, one group born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (n = 30) and the other born to mothers who did not smoke (n = 30). We excluded infants of women with diabetes, hypertension, or alcohol or drug abuse, and infants with heart rate abnormalities, hemolysis, blood loss, or chromosomal anomalies.
There were no differences between the groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, corrected white blood cell counts, lymphocyte counts, or hematocrits. The median absolute nucleated RBC count in infants of smoking mothers was 0.5 x 10(9)/L (range 0 to 5.0) versus 0.0005 x 10(9)/L (range 0 to 0.6) in nonsmoking controls (P < .002). Regression analysis that included Apgar scores, gestational age, and number of cigarettes smoked per day showed a significant correlation of absolute nucleated RBC count only with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (P < .001).
At birth, term AGA infants born to smoking mothers have increased circulating absolute nucleated RBC counts compared with controls. The absolute nucleated RBC count in newborns correlates with the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy.

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    • "Department of Health and Human Services (2004)). Yeruchimovich et al. (1999) shows elevated nucleated red blood cell counts, a marker of fetal hypoxia, among infants born to women that smoked actively during pregnancy. Dollberg et al. (2000) shows these same elevated nucleated red blood cell counts among women who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. "
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking restrictions in workplaces have been shown to reduce the demand for cigarettes but little is known of their downstream effect on individual well-being. In this paper, I examine the impact of local workplace smoking restrictions on birth outcomes. It is known that maternal and passive smoking during pregnancy reduce birth weight and that low birth weight infants are more likely to experience acute health and develop-mental difficulties that inflict significant costs on society. I use variation in the timing of local smoking ordinances in California between 1988 and 2004 in combination with a large sample of birth certificates to identify the effects of these ordinances on birth weight. The results indicate that the state workplace ordinance decreases the average city birth weight. While the results show no effect on birth outcomes from local ordi-nances and only small effects from the state ordinance, the point estimates consistently suggest the opposite of what is expected. This detrimental outcome, while seemingly counterintuitive, supports Adda and Cornaglia (2006b).
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