An Unusual Case of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Liver
The authors present an unusual case of an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the liver in a 67-year-old man who was admitted for resection of a gastric adenocarcinoma. At operation, a 3 x 3 cm mass in the right liver lobe was also removed. This mass consisted of duct-like structures with dual differentiation. The inner layer was composed of an epithelial lining, and the outer layer consisted of clear cells, all unrelated to the moderately well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. The clear cells were positive for S-100 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, suggesting myoepithelial origin. The mass was considered to be low-grade epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. However, the patient had a history of an oral nodule present since childhood, resected 10 years previously. These slides were reviewed and revealed a mixture of clear cells and basal cells with squamous differentiation. In addition, there were duct-like structures with the two-layer pattern found in the liver tumor. This tumor had numerous mitotic figures and showed perineural invasion, suggesting a high grade of malignancy. These findings led to an interpretation of the oral tumor as also being epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, which had remained as "benign" for more than 50 years and subsequently underwent malignant transformation. During this long period, liver metastases may have occurred and remained low-grade. Alternatively, the liver and oral tumors may have arisen separately in the foregut during embryologic development, remaining low-grade until malignant transformation occurred.