Edelman: Socioeconomic and Behavioural Factors Leading to Acquired Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Developing Countries

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 01/1999; 5(1):18-27. DOI: 10.3201/eid0501.990103
Source: PubMed


In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and from persons with community-acquired infections. Complex socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with antibiotic resistance, particularly regarding diarrheal and respiratory pathogens, in developing tropical countries, include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, unskilled practitioners, and laypersons; poor drug quality; unhygienic conditions accounting for spread of resistant bacteria; and inadequate surveillance.

Download full-text


Available from: Robert Edelman, Apr 21, 2014
  • Source
    • "Reported factors associated with the development of antibiotic resistance include nonadherence , under dosing, counterfeit products and irrational use of the drugs in human and veterinary medicine (Prescott & Baggot, 1993; Okeke et al., 1999; van den Bogaard & Stobberingh, 2000; Singer et al., 2003; Turnidge, 2004; Phillips et al., 2004). * Correspondence E-mail: "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Irrational antibiotic use is an important factor for development and spread of resistance to currently used antibiotics. This study was carried out to assess antibiotic prescribing practices among cases diagnosed as malaria at three hospitals in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Tanzania journal of health research
  • Source
    • "The high level of resistance to tetracyclines obtained in this study may be as a result of it being the most commonly available antimicrobial agent used as a growth promoter and routine chemoprophylaxis among livestock in Nigeria (Olatoye 2010). Penicillin and tetracycline are known to be extensively used in developing countries to treat respiratory infections, diarrhoea, mastitis and other infectious diseases in beef and dairy cattle (Hart and Ariuki 1998; Okeke et al. 1995). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli (n = 300) isolated from selected rivers in Osun State, Nigeria. The identities of the E. coli isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antibiotics conventionally used in clinical cases was assessed in vitro by the standardized agar disc-diffusion method. All the isolates were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, amikacin and gatilofloxacin. The isolates were variously susceptible to the other antibiotics as follows: ciprofloxacin (96 %), kanamycin (95 %), neomycin (92 %), streptomycin (84 %), chloramphenicol (73 %), nalidixic acid (66 %), nitrofurantoin (64 %), gentamycin (63 %), doxycycline (58 %), cefepime (57 %), tetracycline (49 %) and cephalothin (42 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance indexing ranged from 0.50 to 0.80 for all the sampling locations and exceeded the threshold value of 0.2, suggesting the origin of the isolates to be of high antimicrobial usage. Our findings signify an increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli towards conventionally used antibiotics necessitating proper surveillance programmes towards the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance determinants in water bodies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Source
    • "The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become an important health problem; it is common in isolates from healthy persons and from patients with community acquired infections in developing countries. Resistance is increasing, particularly to first line, inexpensive, and broadspectrum antibiotics but also to the new drugs; therefore the search of new alternatives is necessary [1] [2]. In the specific case of dental caries there are reports of bacterial resistance to the substances used to prevent this disease [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a very important issue and the search of new alternatives is necessary. In this work, a combination of chitosan gel with silver or gold nanoparticles was prepared and characterized using thermal, rheology, bactericide, and biocompatibility analyses. ESEM images were also taken to visualize the incorporation of the nanoparticles into the gel matrix. Thermal analysis showed a better thermal stability in the chitosan-gold nanoparticles gels compared to the chitosan-silver nanoparticles gels. Rheology analyses showed that the viscosity of the gels decreased when velocity increased and there were differences in viscosity when silver and gold nanoparticles concentrations change. ESEM images showed the presence of agglomerates of silver and gold nanoparticles into the gel matrix with a good distribution; in some cases the formation of microstructures was found. Bactericide results show that these materials present an antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. coli. The biocompatibility test showed neither negative reaction nor wound healing delay after the application of the gels in an in vivo test. The gels with silver and gold nanoparticles could be used to treat wound infections in oral or skin applications.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Nanomaterials
Show more