Tobacco and alcohol use in G-rated children's animated films

Article (PDF Available)inJAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 281(12):1131-6 · March 1999with505 Reads
Source: PubMed
Tobacco and alcohol use among youth are major public health problems, but the extent to which children are routinely exposed to tobacco and alcohol products in children's films is unknown. To identify the prevalence and characteristics associated with tobacco and alcohol use portrayed in G-rated, animated feature films. Design All G-rated, animated feature films released between 1937 and 1997 by 5 major production companies (Walt Disney Co, MGM/United Artists, Warner Brothers Studios, Universal Studios, and 20th Century Fox) that were available on videotape were reviewed for episodes of tobacco and alcohol use. Presence of tobacco and alcohol use in each film, type of tobacco or alcohol used, duration of use, type of character using substance (bad, neutral, or good), and any associated effects. Of 50 films reviewed, 34 (68%) displayed at least 1 episode of tobacco or alcohol use. Twenty-eight (56%) portrayed 1 or more incidences of tobacco use, including all 7 films released in 1996 and 1997. Twenty-five films (50%) included alcohol use. Smoking was portrayed on screen by 76 characters for more than 45 minutes in duration; alcohol use was portrayed by 63 characters for 27 minutes. Good characters use tobacco and alcohol as frequently as bad characters. Cigars and wine are shown in these films more often than other tobacco or alcohol substances. More than two thirds of animated children's films feature tobacco or alcohol use in story plots without clear verbal messages of any negative long-term health effects associated with use of either substance.
    • "There is now strong evidence that adolescent exposure to paid-for advertising and other alcohol or tobacco media imagery in the media increase subsequent alcohol101112131415 and tobacco use161718192021. Media exposure includes films and television programmes, in which both tobacco2223242526 and alcohol [13,262728293031 imagery are common. Further, social media have provided tobacco companies with new opportunities to promote their products [32] and generate favourable attitudes towards tobacco, including intention to smoke, in young non- smokers [33]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsTo quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content.DesignTen-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos over a 12 week period in 2013/14; online national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos.SettingGreat Britain.Participants2,068 adolescents aged 11–18 years who completed an online survey.MeasurementsOccurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos; proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos.FindingsAlcohol imagery appeared in 45% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 33% to 51%) of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI 13% to 27%), and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI 0% to 4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI 2% to 11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI 0% to 7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI 0% to 3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were respectively Absolut Tune, Marlboro, and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI 85%, 89%) had rewatched least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, p < 0.001.Conclusions Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
    • "To date, little attention has been paid to the influence of film images of other behaviours, such as alcohol and illicit drug use, on young people's own use of these substances. Alcohol consumption is also very commonly portrayed in films, including in (US) G-rated (General Audience) [27] and animated [28] films. A content analysis of 100 of the top grossing US films between 1986 and 1994 reported that 96% had references that supported alcohol use, and 79% included at least one character who used alcohol. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the promotion of alcohol and tobacco to young people through direct advertising has become increasingly restricted, there has been greater interest in whether images of certain behaviours in films are associated with uptake of those behaviours in young people. Associations have been reported between exposure to smoking images in films and smoking initiation, and between exposure to film alcohol images and initiation of alcohol consumption, in younger adolescents in the USA and Germany. To date no studies have reported on film images of recreational drug use and young people's own drug use. Cross sectional multivariable logistic regression analysis of data collected at age 19 (2002-4) from a cohort of young people (502 boys, 500 girls) previously surveyed at ages 11 (in 1994-5), 13 and 15 in schools in the West of Scotland. Outcome measures at age 19 were: exceeding the 'sensible drinking' guidelines ('heavy drinkers') and binge drinking (based on alcohol consumption reported in last week), and ever use of cannabis and of 'hard' drugs. The principle predictor variables were an estimate of exposure to images of alcohol, and of drug use, in films, controlling for factors related to the uptake of substance use in young people. A third of these young adults (33%) were classed as 'heavy drinkers' and half (47%) as 'binge drinkers' on the basis of their previous week's consumption. Over half (56%) reported ever use of cannabis and 13% ever use of one or more of the 'hard' drugs listed. There were linear trends in the percentage of heavy drinkers (p = .018) and binge drinkers (p = 0.012) by film alcohol exposure quartiles, and for ever use of cannabis by film drug exposure (p = .000), and for ever use of 'hard' drugs (p = .033). The odds ratios for heavy drinking (1.56, 95% CI 1.06-2.29 comparing highest with lowest quartile of film alcohol exposure) and binge drinking (1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.30) were attenuated by adjustment for gender, social class, family background (parental structure, parental care and parental control), attitudes to risk-taking and rule-breaking, and qualifications (OR heavy drinking 1.42, 95% CI 0.95-2.13 and binge drinking 1.49, 95% CI 1.01-2.19), and further so when adjusting for friends' drinking status (when the odds ratios were no longer significant). A similar pattern was seen for ever use of cannabis and 'hard' drugs (unadjusted OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.24-2.62 and 1.57, 95% CI 0.91-2.69 respectively, 'fully' adjusted OR 1.41 (0.90-2.22 and 1.28 (0.66-2.47) respectively). Despite some limitations, which are discussed, these cross-sectional results add to a body of work which suggests that it is important to design good longitudinal studies which can determine whether exposure to images of potentially health-damaging behaviours lead to uptake of these behaviours during adolescence and early adulthood, and to examine factors that might mediate this relationship.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011
    • "Researchers have argued that overestimation of smoking prevalence is influenced by the increased salience given to the act of smoking in movies and television25262728. We measured exposure to tobacco imagery in the media with a dichotomous indicator variable for having often seen television shows or movies where someone was smoking during the previous week. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS), a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: "Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?" Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010
Show more

Recommended publications

Discover more