Survival in air of Mytilus trossulus following long-term exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound.

Department of Biological Science, California State University, Chico 95929-0515, USA.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part C, Pharmacology, toxicology & endocrinology 01/1999; 122(1):147-52. DOI: 10.1016/S0742-8413(98)10098-1
Source: PubMed


Mussels, Mytilus trossulus, were sampled in 1996 from beaches in Prince William Sound (PWS) which contained residual oil resulting from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989, and from one beach which had been lightly oiled in 1989, but contained no residual oil in 1996. The latter mussels served as un-oiled references. Mussels were also collected from Tee Harbor, Southeast Alaska, to be used as an additional reference group. Where the size of the individuals in the resident population would permit, two size groups were sampled, 32-35 and 18-20 mm in length. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussel tissue, and air survival time were determined for each group of mussels. Total PAH concentrations were significantly greater in tissue of mussels from oiled beds (0.6-2.0 micrograms g-1) than from references (0.01-0.12 microgram g-1) (P < 0.01). Oil-exposed mussels had significantly lower LT50 values (P < 0.05) for air survival than reference groups. Tolerance of small mussels to air exposure was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than large mussels in both the unoiled reference and oil exposed groups.

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    • "The grave consequences of oil pollution for living organisms are their mortality, impaired larval development, changes in oxygen consumption, nutrition, growth, as well as various molecular, cellular, biochemical and physiological modifications resulting in a change in overall enzymatic activity, transformations in the macromolecule and membrane structures and properties and, finally, ecophysiological consequences—a general decline in the population vitality leading to changes in the ecosystem at large (Capuzzo, 1987; McDowell et al., 1999; Lavado et al., 2006; Lima et al., 2007; Baussant et al., 2009; Hannam et al., 2010; Baussant et al., 2011). The oil pollution effect on the organism as well as the impact of most organic and inorganic contaminants depends on many accompanying physical and biological factors such as salinity and oxygen conditions, temperature changes, currents, presence of the ice and snow cover, season, reproduction cycle and others (Wilson et al., 1992; Eertman et al., 1993; Thomas et al., 1999; Schiedek et al., 2006; Broeg and Lehtonen, 2006; Monserrat et al., 2007; Hamer et al., 2008; Bussell et al., 2008). Oil spill effect on organisms is primarily caused by exposure to lipophilic organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons (including PAH) which can be accumulated in lipid-rich tissues of marine animals (Capuzzo and Leavitt, 1988; McDowell et al., 1999; Nechev et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: A study on the effect oil pollution under normal and reduced salinity had on blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea in an aquarium-based experiment and in the natural habitat revealed a change in gill total lipids as a compensatory response. The cholesterol concentration and the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio in gills were found to reflect the impact of the environmental factors (oil pollution and desalination), and evidence adaptive changes in the cell membrane structure. An elevated content of storage lipids (chiefly triacylglycerols) in the mussels in the aquarium experiment indicates, first of all, the uptake and accumulation of oil products in gill cells under both normal and reduced seawater salinity, while high triacylglycerols level in gill littoral mussels from 'control' biotope in the Gulf of Kandalaksha is primarily associated with the mussel׳s pre-spawning period.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    • "In particular, we monitored the occurrence of a stress syndrome at the molecular and cellular level, measuring the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in gills and digestive glands of mussels and, at the individual level, performing a tolerance test, referred to as a stress on stress response representing survival in air (time to kill 50% of sample: LT 50 ; Thomas et al., 1999). The LT 50 value is referred to as an immune response, is comparable with stress indices determined at the cellular level (Viarengo et al., 1999), and has been employed to evaluate the physiological status of bivalves (Da Ros et al., 2007; Eertman et al., 1995; Hellou and Law, 2003; Marin et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-fouling biocide zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) was recently demonstrated to be more persistent than expected in the coastal environment, and to have a potential for bioaccumulation. We investigated the occurrence of adverse effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis when exposed to non-lethal concentrations of the contaminant (0.2 and 0.4 μM ZnPT), through the use of a battery of biomarkers from the molecular to the individual level. In particular, the expression of HSP27, HSP60, HSP70 and the presence of genotoxic damage were investigated in the gills and digestive gland of mussels by means of Western blot and TUNEL procedures, respectively. In addition, a stress on stress response test was performed in order to highlight a possible general stress conditions in the exposed bivalves.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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    • "Survival in air has been suggested as a useful tool to reflect even finer differences than other parameters such as condition factor, feeding rate and glycogen content (Thomas et al., 1999). A link between anaerobic performances as survival capacity and biochemical data has been demonstrated between Venus gallina and Scapharca inaequivalvis (Brooks et al., 1991) and for individuals of Littorina saxatilis (Sokolova et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Intertidal individuals of Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to anaerobiosis in laboratory at 22°C and a set of biochemical metabolites and survival potential determined. Differences in survival potential between individuals emersed or kept in oxygen-free seawater were residual according to ST50 values (survival time, P≈0.05) but emersed individuals survived significantly longer when considering ST90-100 values (P<0.05). Anaerobiosis was similarly activated under both emersion and incubation in anoxic seawater after 6 h according to a seven-fold increase in succinate. Longer exposure of individuals (up to 48 h) caused succinate (and propionate) to increase but in a higher magnitude under incubation with anoxic seawater. Propionate appeared in soft tissues after 24 h of incubation in anoxic seawater and after 48 h when individuals were emersed. Glycogen was not utilized after 6 h in any case, but was progressively used with longer exposure times and in a higher magnitude under incubation in anoxic seawater (48 h). Adenylate energy charge (AEC) was highly affected by both exposure time (P<0.001) and anaerobic treatment (P<0.01). Rapid breakdown of ATP and phospho-L-arginine (PLA) did occur during the first 24 h of anaerobiosis, the latter ATP drop was accompanied by slight increase of ADP but strong increase of AMP that accumulated in a higher magnitude under incubation in anoxic seawater. Biochemical results of the present study suggested a certain degree of aerobiosis for emersed M. galloprovincialis that in turn is linked to a slight but significant longer survival performance. Most significant biochemical changes occurred during the first 24 h of oxygen deprivation, but significant differences between treatments were observed after 24-48 h. These lag differences in biochemical metabolites together with more accurate survival analyses have to be considered when investigating the energy metabolism linked to the anaerobic performance of M. galloprovincialis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK
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