Bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition of children with chronic renal failure with and without growth hormone treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)

Department of Paediatrics, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Clinical Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.46). 12/1998; 49(5):665-72.
Source: PubMed


Osteopenia has been reported in adult patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Only a few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, body composition in children with CRF and to study the effect of GH on these variables.
Two groups were identified: patients with growth retardation who received GH (GH-group) and patients most of whom were not growth retarded who did not receive GH (no-GH-group). After an observation period of 6 months, the patients in the GH-group started GH treatment. Patients were studied every 6 months during 18 months.
Thirty-six prepubertal patients (27 boys and 9 girls), mean age 7.9 years, with CRF participated in the study. The GH-group consisted of 17 patients of whom 14 completed one year treatment. The no-GH-group consisted of 19 patients, of whom 16 were followed for 6 months, 14 for 12 months and 13 for 18 months.
Lumbar spine BMD, total body BMD and body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, compared to age-and sex-matched reference values of the same population and expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS). BMD of appendicular bone was measured by quantitative microdensitometry (QMD). Blood samples were obtained to assess bone metabolism and growth factors.
Baseline mean lumbar spine and total body BMD SDS of all patients were not significantly different from normal. Mean lumbar spine and total body BMD SDS did not change significantly in the GH-group during GH treatment. The change of QMD at the midshaft during the first 6 months of GH treatment was significantly smaller than during the observation period (P < 0.01). Height SDS and biochemical markers of both bone formation and bone resorption increased significantly during GH treatment; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D remained stable. Lean tissue mass increased (P < 0.001) and percentage body fat decreased (P < 0.01) during GH treatment. BMD, the biochemical markers of bone turnover which are independent of renal function, and body composition remained stable in the no-GH-group.
Mean lumbar spine and total body BMD of children with chronic renal failure did not differ from healthy controls. The lack of a GH-induced increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, probably due to treatment with alpha-calcidol, might be linked to the absence of a response in BMD during GH treatment in children with chronic renal failure.

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Available from: Joana E Kist-van Holthe
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    • "Johnson et al. (2000) also reported reduced lean mass and high fat mass in children with CKD and an increase in lean mass and a decrease in fat mass over a 6-month period of recombinant human GH treatment. Similar results have been reported in pre-pubertal children with CKD, confirming the lipolytic and anabolic effects of GH, although neither of these two studies adjusted the data for height or body size (Boot et al. 1998; Van der Sluis et al. 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Growth failure is a common yet complex problem of childhood chronic kidney disease caused by multiple factors encountered due to the primary disease or secondary to the renal impairment. This review seeks to describe the various patho-physiological mechanisms contributing to growth failure in the various stages of childhood with particular emphasis on nutritional problems and endocrine dysfunction encountered whilst managing these children. In addition, we shall examine the role of body composition in chronic kidney disease, their relationship with growth and nutrition and the potential effect of abnormalities in fat mass and lean mass on long-term morbidity and mortality.
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    ABSTRACT: Body composition is altered in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) and contributes to the significant growth failure seen in these children. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been used in the past several years to improve the somatic growth of children with CRF. To determine if the growth achieved in these children occurs concomitantly with body compositional changes, seven prepubertal (n=6) and pubertal (n=1) children with chronic renal insufficiency (n=4) and end-stage renal disease (n=3) underwent measurements of total body fat (FM), fat free mass (FFM), bone mineral density (BMD), total bone mineral mass (TBBM), total body water (TBW), and total body potassium (TBK) before and 6 months after initiation of subcutaneous recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) at 0.35 mg/kg per week. The techniques used included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (for measurement of FM, BMD, and TBBM), total body potassium counting (for measurement of TBK), and deuterated water for assessment of TBW. Significant increases in both height and weight were seen following 6 months of rhGH therapy. These increases were accompanied by significant reductions in FM (4.4+/-1.4 kg vs. 3.6+/-1.2 kg, P=0.002) and percentage fat (18.6+/-3.9% vs. 14.5+/-3.4%, P=0.04), while FFM (17.9+/-3.0 kg vs. 20.7+/-3.6 kg, P=0.04) increased significantly as did TBBM (776+/-171 g vs. 844+/-177 g, P=0.001). Increases in TBK, a measure of body cell mass, were also seen. No difference in total BMD was observed. Thus, growth in CRF is occurring with repletion of the FFM and TBBM compartments. Despite these improvements, no change was observed in the body mass index (BMI). Measurement of BMI alone does not define the compartmental catabolic losses in FFM.
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic bone disease and growth retardation are common complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition and growth in children with CRF, and the effect of growth hormone treatment (GHRx) on these variables. Thirty-three prepubertal patients with CRF were enrolled including 18 children with growth retardation, who were treated with growth hormone for 2 years. Every 6 months, BMD of lumbar spine and total body, and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical parameters of bone turnover were assessed. Mean BMD of children with CRF did not differ from normal. During GHRx, BMD and bone mineral apparent density of lumbar spine and height SDS increased, whereas BMD of total body did not change. Lean body mass increased in the GH group. Alkaline phosphatase increased significantly in the GH group only. The other biochemical parameters of bone turnover increased in both groups, none of them correlated with the changes in BMD. No serious adverse effects of GHRx were reported. In conclusion, BMD of children with CRF did not differ from healthy children. Adequate treatment with α-calcidiol or the short duration of renal failure may have attributed to the absence of osteopenia in our patients. BMD of the axial skeleton and growth improved with GHRx.
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