Tucker, KL, Hannan, MT, Chen, H, Cupples, LA, Wilson, PFW & Kiel, DP. Potassium, magnesium and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 727-736

Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 04/1999; 69(4):727-36.
Source: PubMed


Osteoporosis and related fractures will be growing public health problems as the population ages. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors.
We investigated associations between dietary components contributing to an alkaline environment (dietary potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables) and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects.
Dietary intake measures were associated with both cross-sectional (baseline) and 4-y longitudinal change in BMD among surviving members of the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire, and BMD was measured at 3 hip sites and 1 forearm site.
Greater potassium intake was significantly associated with greater BMD at all 4 sites for men and at 3 sites for women (P < 0.05). Magnesium intake was associated with greater BMD at one hip site for both men and women and in the forearm for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with BMD at 3 sites for men and 2 for women. Greater intakes of potassium and magnesium were also each associated with less decline in BMD at 2 hip sites, and greater fruit and vegetable intake was associated with less decline at 1 hip site, in men. There were no significant associations between baseline diet and subsequent bone loss in women.
These results support the hypothesis that alkaline-producing dietary components, specifically, potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables, contribute to maintenance of BMD.

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    • "Regarding micronutrients, a higher intake of calcium tended to be positively associated with acid load (P = 0.0933); higher phosphorus intake was significantly associated with higher acid load (P < 0.0001), while higher intakes of both magnesium and potassium were significantly associated with lower acid loads (P < 0.05 for all trends). Dietary potassium and magnesium intake are highly interrelated because potassium-rich foods are usually magnesium-rich.28,29 "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary intake has been shown to influence the acid-base balance in human subjects; however, this phenomenon is poorly understood and rarely reported for the least well-studied segment of older people in a developing country. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify estimates of daily net endogenous acid production (NEAP) (mEq/d) in a sample of otherwise healthy elderly aged 50 years and above; and (2) compare NEAP between the elderly and young to determine the effects of aging, which could contribute to changes in the acid-base balance. Analyses were carried out among 526 elderly and 131 young participants (aged 50-80 and 23-28 years, respectively), all of whom were free of discernible disease, nonsmokers, and not on any chronic medication. Selected anthropometric factors were measured and 24-hour dietary recall was recorded. We used two measures to characterize dietary acid load: (1) NEAP estimated as the dietary potential renal acid load plus organic acid excretion, the latter as a multiple of estimated body surface area; and (2) estimated NEAP based on protein and K. For the young and elderly, the ranges of NEAP were 12.1-67.8 mEq/d and 2.0-78.3 mEq/d, respectively. Regardless of the method used, the mean dietary acid-base balance (NEAP) was significantly higher for the elderly than the young (P = 0.0035 for NEAP [elderly, 44.1 mEq/d versus young 40.1 mEq/d]; and P = 0.0035 for the protein:potassium ratio [elderly, 1.4 mEq/d versus young 1.1 mEq/d]). A positive and significant correlation was found between NEAP and energy, protein, and phosphorus (P < 0.05 for all trends). The findings from this study provide evidence of the relatively higher production of NEAP in older people, possibly as an effect of higher consumption of certain acid-producing foods by the elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Clinical Interventions in Aging
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    • "This study did not show a relation between vegetable intake and BMD, although several studies have shown a positive relation between vegetable consumption and BMD.2) A possible explanation may be that the tendency that unlike fruit, most vegetables in this study were consumed after being cooked.26) "
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    ABSTRACT: Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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    • "It is well accepted that nutrition is of great importance also for bone health. Most interest has this far focused on calcium and vitamin D. Much less interest has been paid to other important nutrients such as protein, and especially to minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and vitamins such as C and K. Recent studies suggests that increased intake of plant fibers, fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased bone mineral density also in elderly subjects, both women and men [22,23]. Of all the many pure fibres available it is mainly the effects of oligosaccharides have been more thoroughly studied, but so far mainly in experimental animals Calcium absorption, bone calcium content, bone mineral density, bone balance and bone formation/bone absorption index are generally reported to be significantly increased, and that as early already as after three weeks of supplementation of a mixture of inulin and fructooligosaccharides. "
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    ABSTRACT: Western lifestyle is associated with a sustained low grade increase in inflammation -increased levels of endotoxin in the body and increased activation of Toll-like receptors and neutrophils, which leads to impaired immunity and reduced resistance to disease, changes which might explain the epidemic of chronic diseases spreading around the globe. The immune system cannot function properly without access to bacteria and raw plants, rich not only in bacteria but also in plant fibre, antioxidants, healthy fats and numerous other nutrients. Modern food technology with plant breeding, separation, condensation of food ingredients, heating, freezing, drying, irradiation, microwaving, are effective tool to counteract optimal immune function, and suspected to be a leading cause of so called Western diseases. Supply of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics have sometimes proved to be effective tools to counteract, especially acute diseases, but have often failed, especially in chronic diseases. Thousands of factors contribute to unhealth and numerous alterations in life style and food habits are often needed, in order to prevent and cure "treatment-resistant" chronic diseases. Such alterations include avoiding processed foods rich in pro-inflammatory molecules, but also a focus on consuming substantial amounts of foods with documented anti-inflammatory effects, often raw and fresh green vegetables and tubers such as turmeric/curcumin.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Clinical and Translational Medicine
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