Article

Parental Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions: Longitudinal Relations to Quality of Children's Social Functioning

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Abstract

Relations between self-reported parental reactions to children's negative emotions (PNRs) and children's socially appropriate/problem behavior and negative emotionality were examined longitudinally. Evidence was consistent with the conclusion that relations between children's externalizing (but not internalizing) emotion and parental punitive reactions to children's negative emotions are bidirectional. Reports of PNRs generally were correlated with low quality of social functioning. In structural models, mother-reported problem behavior at ages 10-12 was at least marginally predicted from mother-reported problem behavior, children's regulation, and parental punitive or distress reactions. Moreover, parental distress and punitive reactions at ages 6-8 predicted reports of children's regulation at ages 8-10, and regulation predicted parental punitive reactions at ages 10-12. Father reports of problem behavior at ages 10-12 were predicted by earlier problem behavior and parental distress or punitive reactions; some of the relations between regulation and parental reactions were similar to those in the models for mother-reported problem behavior. Parental perceptions of their reactions were substantially correlated over 6 years. Some nonsupportive reactions declined in the early to mid-school years, but all increased into late childhood/early adolescence.

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... Research suggests that the amplification of negative emotion, especially among clinically referred youth, may necessitate prolonged emotional scaffolding (Guyer et al., 2016;Morris et al., 2017;Steinberg & Silk, 2002). However, research has documented increases in non-supportive parental responses to emotion during this developmental window (Eisenberg et al., 1999) that are likely linked to marked structural changes in the parent-child relationship and increases in parent-child conflict (Branje, 2018;Granic, Hollenstein, Dishion, & Patterson, 2003;Steinberg & Silk, 2002). For all these reasons, we expect the transition to adolescence to have ample variability in key constructs, representing a rich period when clinically meaningful associations between parental responses to negative emotion, emotion dysregulation, and reactive aggression may be detected. ...
... Previous research suggests that parental responses to negative emotion, one key component of emotion socialization, may function to increase (or decrease) reactive aggression over time via indirect effects on emotion dysregulation (Eisenberg et al., 1999;Morris et al., 2007). However, despite its transdiagnostic relevance, very little research has examined this developmental risk pathway, and no studies have done so during the volatile and vulnerable transition to adolescence. ...
... Finally, while our study demonstrated prospective associations between parents' response to emotion and emotion dysregulation and reactive aggression, it focused on only two time points. Continued longitudinal work with additional follow-ups would allow for the examination of reciprocal associations between parental emotion socialization and youth outcomes in line with transactional models (Patterson, 1982;Sameroff, 1975) and previous empirical work in this area (Eisenberg et al., 1999). ...
Article
Parental responses to negative emotion, one key component of emotion socialization, may function to increase (or decrease) reactive aggression over time via indirect effects on emotion dysregulation. However, despite its transdiagnostic relevance, very little research has examined this developmental risk pathway, and no studies have done so during the volatile and vulnerable transition to adolescence. The current study uses a sample of clinically referred youth (N = 162; mean age = 12.03 years; 47% female) and their parents to examine supportive and non-supportive parental responses to negative emotion using a multi-method (questionnaire, ecological momentary assessment [EMA], observation), multi-informant approach (child-, parent-, clinician-rated). Emotion dysregulation and reactive aggression were assessed via child report during a 4-day EMA protocol completed concurrently and 9 months later. Multivariate structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect paths from parental responses to emotion to daily reports of emotion dysregulation and reactive aggression. Consistent with hypotheses, parental responses to emotion predicted reactive aggression via effects on emotion dysregulation. This indirect effect was present for supportive and non-supportive parental responses to emotion, such that supportive parental responses decreased risk, and non-supportive responses increased risk. Moreover, findings indicated differential prediction by informant, and this was specific to supportive parental responses to emotion, whereby child-reported support was protective, while parent-reported support, unexpectedly, had the opposite effect. The clinical significance of integrating supportive and non-supportive parental responses to negative emotion into etiological and intervention models of reactive aggression is discussed.
... In addition, parents and children discuss negative emotions differently depending on the type of negative emotion , and these differential parental reactions to different negative emotions have been found to be associated with differences in children's functioning (Eisenberg et al., 1999). Very few studies have looked into the associations between parental reactions to different negative emotions, children's adaptive coping and functioning. ...
... Also, parental differential reactions to different negative emotions have been found to be associated with differences in children's functioning; parents responded more negatively to angry feelings than to feelings of fear or sadness. This negative response by parents was associated with more child problem behavior (Eisenberg et al., 1999). Although unstudied, this association between worse parent-child interaction and more behavioral problems could be explained by the use of less adaptive coping strategies when exposed to angry feelings. ...
... The current findings additionally showed that more approach-oriented adaptive coping in dealing with feeling angry was associated with fewer symptoms of posttraumatic stress. This is -inversely-in line with the study of Eisenberg et al. (1999), which found that particularly negative parental reactions to angry feelings were associated with child problem behavior. Negative emotions such as fear and sadness expressed in internalizing behavior may lead to positive, sensitive parental responses and child recovery in a straightforward fashion, while negative emotions mixed with anger and expressed in externalizing behavior may elicit parental aversive responses (Buss & Goldsmith, 1998;Eisenberg et al., 1999). ...
Article
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Children exposed to traumatic events are at increased risk for developing symptoms of a Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Children often discuss emotional, and therefore also traumatic, events in their lives with their parents, and the quality of these discussions can facilitate coping and further development. The study aim was 1) to explore whether the association between the quality of dialogue between mothers and children about emotional events and children’s posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) might be indirectly linked through children’s adaptive coping skills, and 2) whether this association differed when discussing different negative emotions. 169 mother–child dyads with interpersonal trauma-exposure (86% domestic violence, 14% mother and/or child sexually abused) participated in the Autobiographical Emotional Events Dialogue (AEED). Quality of mother–child emotion dialogue, captured in maternal sensitive guidance and child cooperation, and approach-oriented coping were coded from transcripts. PTSS was measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Lower quality of mother–child emotion dialogue was associated with less approach-oriented coping and more symptoms of posttraumatic stress. There was an indirect effect of approach-oriented coping with angry feelings linking quality of mother–child emotion dialogue and child PTSS. Children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress were reflected in the quality of mother–child dialogues about traumatic and other emotional events. Findings support that dialogues about emotional events may be a promising target for intervention with children exposed to trauma.
... Fabes et al., 2002;Park et al., 2012). For instance, one longitudinal study of 94 preschoolers and their parents found that parentreported distress responses predicted youths' own regulation two years later (assessed by parent report), highlighting the critical role parents' distress plays in early emotional development (Eisenberg et al., 1999). ...
... Some research has failed to find relations between parental distress responses and youth depressive symptoms. For instance, the longitudinal study of preschoolers described above found that while parents' distress reactions were correlated with parents' reports of child internalizing problems (including anxiety and depression) both crosssectionally and across timepoints, parental distress did not predict changes in youths' subsequent internalizing symptoms, suggesting no support for causal links between these constructs (Eisenberg et al., 1999). A more nuanced relation between parental socialization and depressive symptomology emerges in other research. ...
... Third, most studies in this field have relied on single informant reports of parents' emotional reactions and youths' clinical outcomes (e.g. Eisenberg et al., 1999;Shaffer et al., 2012). Utilizing single parent-or child-reports introduces concerns regarding monomethod variance and reporter bias that may erroneously inflate the relation among these constructs. ...
Article
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The current multimethod longitudinal study examines how parents’ distress reactions to adolescents’ negative emotions may shape youths’ own perceptions of negative life events and subsequent increases in depressive symptomology. Ninety adolescents (41 girls, 49 boys, average age = 16.5 years old) and their parents were assessed over three timepoints. We found that greater parent-reported distress reactions to adolescents’ emotions predicted subsequent increase in youths’ own self-reported negative reactions to stressful experiences over a two-week period, which in turn predicted steeper increases in youth-reported depressive symptoms across this same two-week period. Moreover, youths’ negative reactions mediated the relation between parent emotion socialization and increases in adolescent depressive symptoms. These findings support the use of interventions that simultaneously target parent and child distress to prevent the onset of adolescent depression.
... Since the work of Eisenberg [3] and Gottman [5], two decades of research support the relation between parents' supportive and unsupportive emotion-related behaviours, particularly parental reactions to the child's negative emotions, and children's adjustment and development [7,8]. Parents' unsupportive reactions to children's negative emotions are associated with children's psychopathology, externalizing [9,10] and internalizing problems [10,11], and lower levels of socio-emotional competence [12]. On the other hand, parents' supportive reactions to children's negative emotions seem to have a less clear pattern of associations [12], although some evidence suggests significant relations with positive aspects of children's emotional and social functioning [10,13]. ...
... Since the work of Eisenberg [3] and Gottman [5], two decades of research support the relation between parents' supportive and unsupportive emotion-related behaviours, particularly parental reactions to the child's negative emotions, and children's adjustment and development [7,8]. Parents' unsupportive reactions to children's negative emotions are associated with children's psychopathology, externalizing [9,10] and internalizing problems [10,11], and lower levels of socio-emotional competence [12]. On the other hand, parents' supportive reactions to children's negative emotions seem to have a less clear pattern of associations [12], although some evidence suggests significant relations with positive aspects of children's emotional and social functioning [10,13]. ...
... Parents' unsupportive reactions to children's negative emotions are associated with children's psychopathology, externalizing [9,10] and internalizing problems [10,11], and lower levels of socio-emotional competence [12]. On the other hand, parents' supportive reactions to children's negative emotions seem to have a less clear pattern of associations [12], although some evidence suggests significant relations with positive aspects of children's emotional and social functioning [10,13]. ...
Article
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Parents’ emotion socialization practices are an important source of influence in the development of children’s emotional competencies This study examined parental reactions to child negative emotions in a clinical sample using a cluster analysis approach and explored the associations between clusters of parents’ reactions and children’s and parents’ adjustment. The sample comprised 80 parents of Portuguese children (aged 3–13 years) attending a child and adolescent psychiatry unit. Measures to assess parental reactions to children’s negative emotions, parents’ psychopathological symptoms, parents’ emotion dysregulation, and children’s adjustment were administered to parents. Model-based cluster analysis resulted in three clusters: low unsupportive, high supportive, and inconsistent reactions clusters. These clusters differed significantly in terms of parents’ psychopathological symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and children’s adjustment. A pattern characterized by high supportive reactions to the child’s emotions was associated with higher levels of children’s adjustment. On the other hand, an inconsistent reactions pattern was associated with the worst indicators of children’s adjustment and parental emotion dysregulation. These results suggest the importance of supporting parents of children with emotional and behavioural problems so that they can be more responsive to their children’s emotional manifestations.
... Parental acceptance is defined as parental affection and compassionate responses towards children and their emotional needs (Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2003). The absence of parental acceptance is shown to predict later externalizing, but not internalizing, problems in middle childhood (aged 6 to 8; Eisenberg et al., 1999;McCarty, Zimmerman, Digiuseppe, & Christakis, 2005), predict both internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence (aged 8-12; Eisenberg et al., 1999;Rothenberg et al., 2020), and are associated with both problems in adolescents (aged 12 to 18; Buckholdt, Parra, & Jobe-Shields, 2014). ...
... Parental acceptance is defined as parental affection and compassionate responses towards children and their emotional needs (Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2003). The absence of parental acceptance is shown to predict later externalizing, but not internalizing, problems in middle childhood (aged 6 to 8; Eisenberg et al., 1999;McCarty, Zimmerman, Digiuseppe, & Christakis, 2005), predict both internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence (aged 8-12; Eisenberg et al., 1999;Rothenberg et al., 2020), and are associated with both problems in adolescents (aged 12 to 18; Buckholdt, Parra, & Jobe-Shields, 2014). ...
Article
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A vast array of family processes is linked to child mental development, among which (1) low parental acceptance and (2) high family conflict are known as transdiagnostic risk factors for child internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. In contrast to most prior research adopting cross-sectional or lagged designs, the current study applied fine-grained multilevel modeling to elucidate the complex relationships among parental acceptance, family conflict, and child psychopathology, considering the nesting structure of children within families and longitudinal changes within children. We focused on preadolescents from the two-wave Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (N = 4,953; aged 9-12) and accounted for parental psychopathology and sex differences. Our findings suggest that consistent between-family and between-child differences in parental acceptance play a transdiagnostic role for both child internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, whereas family conflict is only significantly associated with externalizing psychopathology. Additionally, short-term within-family and within-child improvements in parental acceptance and family conflict across one year were associated with decreased externalizing, but not internalizing, psychopathology. These findings support the potential importance and feasibility of targeting these family process factors for child externalizing problems outside of an intensive treatment setting. We further discussed how such findings serve as a foundation for future research on family processes and child internalizing problems. The varying results across different grouping levels highlight the importance of decomposing within- from between-family/child effects in future studies on family processes and child psychopathology.
... Parents play a central role in children's emotion socializationi.e., the process by which children learn to identify and manage emotions (Eisenberg et al., 1999;Eisenberg, Cumberland, & Spinrad, 1998). Socialization practices include parent and family-wide expression of emotion, parental reactions to their child's emotion expression, and parental discussion of emotion, otherwise known as the tripartite model of socialization (Eisenberg et al., 1998;Morris, Silk, Steinberg, Myers, & Robinson, 2007). ...
... Though extant literature has predominantly focused on socialization of children's negative emotions (e.g., Hurrell, Hudson, & Schniering, 2015), the field of emotion socialization has increasingly recognized the importance of children's ability to appropriately experience and regulate positive emotions (Bai & Repetti, 2018;Stifter, Augustine, & Dollar, 2020;Tugade & Fredrickson, 2006). Children cultivate these emotionrelated competencies through parents' responses to their emotions, a key component of emotion socialization (Eisenberg et al., 1998(Eisenberg et al., , 1999. Parental responses to positive emotions are traditionally conceptualized as either "enhancing" (i.e., encouraging emotional expression) or "dampening" (i.e., reprimanding the child, teaching more appropriate expression, or experiencing discomfort) within prior literature, with some exceptions (e.g., Yi et al., 2016). ...
Article
The present study examined associations between parental socialization of positive emotion and child emotional lability across African American, Asian American, and European American parents (n = 1148). Examination of mean differences with invariant measures across groups indicated notable trends between parents, such that African American and Asian American parents were more likely to teach and express discomfort in response to child positive emotions compared to European American parents; in contrast, all groups were equally likely to encourage their children's positive emotions. Structural equation modeling yielded good model fit for African American and Asian American, but not European American, parents. Examination of paths for African American and Asian American parents indicated positive effects of encouragement responses on child emotional lability for both parent groupos, and positive effects of discomfort responses on child emotional lability for African American, but not Asian American, parents. Findings contribute to our understanding of sociocultural influences on the socialization of positive emotion and associations with child emotional lability.
... When parents see their children as temperamentally difficult with high negative emotionality and having difficulty in regulating themselves, parents may feel stressed and less likely be emotionally supportive (Eisenberg et al. 1996(Eisenberg et al. , 1999. This may be particularly difficult for parents of adolescents, who may encounter various other stressors in life (e.g., meeting family financial needs, coping with stress from work, handling relationships issues) and need to overcome communication barriers to emotionally support their Figure 2. Prospective within-person effects of adolescent-reported parental ES practices. ...
... When previous waves of outcomes were controlled in longitudinal studies (controlling for stability), researchers have revealed stronger effects of negative ES than positive ES on children's development of psychopathology, including depressive symptoms (e.g., Cui et al., 2020;O'Neal et al., 2017;Otterpohl et al., 2022). These patterns of empirical findings may suggest stronger evidence for within-domain predictions rather than cross-domain predictions, such that positive ES contributes to gains in effective ER and positive development, whereas negative ES contributes to emotion dysregulation and developmental psychopathology (e.g., Eisenberg et al., 1999;O'Neal & Magai, 2005;Otterpohl et al., 2022;Zvara et al., 2018). However, more research is warranted to test within-versus cross-domain prediction. ...
Article
Previous research indicates that parental emotion socialization (ES) practices play important roles in adolescents’ social and emotional development. However, longitudinal studies testing bidirectional effects are relatively scarce. Additionally, most studies have focused on people from Western societies. In the current three-year, multi-informant, longitudinal study of Chinese adolescents and their parents, we investigated prospective bidirectional effects between parental positive ES practices and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms). Adolescents (N = 710 at T1, 50% boys, Mage = 12.41, SD = 0.59) reported on parental positive ES practices and their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem when they were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade. Mothers and fathers reported on their own use of positive ES practices at all three time points. We utilized a random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) to examine between- and within-family effects. Overall results showed robust effects of adolescent depressive symptoms on parental positive ES practices and bidirectional effects between parental ES and adolescent self-esteem. Effects differed by informants whether using adolescent-perceived data, or mother- or father-reported data. However, these child effects and bidirectional effects did not differ by adolescent sex. Our findings add to the understanding of parental ES and adolescent psychosocial adjustment.
... Furthermore, children's maladaptive emotion regulation-such as proneness to giving-up or withdrawing-or difficulties engaging in adaptive emotion regulation strategies may manifest in the form of greater emotional and behavioral problems (i.e., prolonged or intense negative emotions), and may be associated with worsened implications for child socioemotional development later in life (Braet et al., 2014). Parenting practices, parents' own expression of positive emotions, parents' negative reactions to children's negative emotions, as well as parents' active regulation of their child's emotions are known factors associated with children's emotion regulation (Eisenberg et al., 1999(Eisenberg et al., , 2005Morris et al., 2007;Rutherford, Wallace, Laurent, & Mayes, 2015). However, few studies have specifically examined the links between parental RF and child emotion regulation. ...
Article
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Parental reflective functioning (RF), the ability to consider the child's behavior as a function of mental states (cognitions, emotions), is theorized to promote emotion regulation in children via its positive impact on parenting sensitivity. Using a sample of mothers and toddlers (N = 151 dyads; 41% Latinx; 54% girls; MAge = 21 months; SDAge = 2.5 months), we measured mothers’ self‐reported RF (high RF = low certainty/high interest–curiosity/low prementalizing), toddlers’ distress during a standardized challenging behavioral task (toy removal), and three methods of children's coping with distress. Then, we tested whether RF moderated the association between children's observed distress and coping during the task (mother‐directed adaptive coping, task‐directed adaptive coping, maladaptive aggression) as an index of emotion regulation. Although RF was not associated with toddlers’ distress, indices of RF moderated the associations between distress and coping. As maternal RF increased, the positive association between toddler distress and mother‐oriented behavior increased, whereas the association between toddler distress and child aggression decreased. Findings were present only for certainty of mental states, whereas no effects were present for prementalizing or interest/curiosity. We discuss these findings in terms of their contributions to theory regarding parent–child relationships, maternal RF, and child emotion regulation.
... With this change, for many adolescents, family members became more central companions and sources of support for adolescents. Parents certainly play a crucial role in providing support during times of stress, and the way they respond to adolescent distress has been shown to affect adolescent adjustment following acute stressful situations like 9/11 (Gil-Rivas, Silver, Holman, McIntosh, & Poulin, 2007) and more generally (Eisenberg et al., 1999). The role of siblings, though, should not be overlooked. ...
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents' typical social support systems have been disrupted. The present study examined adolescent adjustment during the pandemic (summer, 2020) while controlling for pre-pandemic adjustment (2017-2018) in 170 youth (ages 12-20) from Missouri and Florida. We also examined whether positive and negative relationship qualities with four close others (i.e., mothers, fathers, siblings, and best friends) interacted with COVID-related stress to impact adolescent adjustment. In general, we found that close relationships impacted adolescent adjustment in expected directions (i.e., positive relationships better for adjustment, negative relationships more detrimental), but while mothers and fathers impacted adolescent adjustment in largely similar ways to pre-pandemic studies, influences of relationships with best friends and sibling were more impacted by COVID-related stress.
... Further, some studies reveal that mothers and fathers use different ESPP for boys and girls depending on the displayed emotion, with fathers being more differentiated than mothers in their ESSP towards their sons and daughters, as fathers are most likely to encourage and reinforce the expression of gender-stereotyped emotion (e.g., Garside & Klimes-Dougan, 2002). In this regard, fathers are particularly punitive in response to their sons' displays of vulnerable negative emotions like sadness and fear (e.g., Eisenberg et al., 1999) and reward their daughters more for expressing the same emotions (e.g., Garside & Klimes-Dougan, 2002). ...
Article
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This paper reviews the available research exploring Emotion Socialization Parenting Practices (ESPP) of mothers and fathers of adolescents. PRISMA guidelines for systematic review were used to conduct the literature search. Seven studies that met the criteria were included, indicating insufficient research focusing simultaneously mother and fathers’ ESPP. In general, the studies presented good methodological quality. Results suggest that both parents show more positive ESPP than negative. However, mothers tend to have more positive ESPP than fathers and fathers tend to show more negative ESPP than mothers. The association of parental ESPP with adolescent’s psychological outcomes appears to vary with parent’s gender and with the type of outcomes (externalizing vs. internalizing symptoms). When considering the combined effects of mother and father ESPP, the results showed that parental consistency in the use of negative ESPP was associated with higher levels of adolescent psychopathology.
... The researchers pointed out the importance of effortful control of emotional arousal. The authors referred to the conceptualizations of Derryberry and Rothbart (1997) and Eisenberg et al. (1999) who define effortful control as a dimension of temperament that influences behavioral and physiological regulatory responses under high levels of emotional challenge. The results indicated that sad and tense/angry emotional expressions and impulsivity of all children increased, whereas positive emotional expressions decreased, during the "lose" period of the competition. ...
Article
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Preschool children naturally display competitive behavioral patterns. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between preschool children’s regulation (regulatory and control components) and competitive behaviors (task-oriented and other-referenced). A total of 260 preschool children (47.7% girls) ranging in age from 49 to 72 months (M = 63.83, SD = 6.17) were recruited for the current study. The participating teachers reported on children’s regulation and competitive behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses that accounted for the nesting structure of the data revealed that children’s regulation and control skills were significantly related to their task-oriented competition. Child gender moderated the association between regulation and task-oriented competition such that being highly regulated contributed to children’s task-oriented competition, specifically for boys. Control skills were negatively associated with children’s other-referenced competition. Implications of the study and future directions are discussed.
... Specifically, children's effortful control was positively associated with positive parenting, such as setting of boundaries, responsiveness, and boosting the child's autonomy (Lengua et al. 2007;Slobodskaya et al. 2019). However, there are bidirectional relations between children's temperament and parental response (e.g., Eisenberg et al. 1999;Lengua 2006). When children are more adaptable, calm and social, it is more likely for their parents to show warm attitude and responsiveness in contrast to irritable or socially withdrawn children (Kochanska et al. 2000). ...
Chapter
Recent research offers new insights on the role of parents and teachers in the development of children’s self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Parental behaviors that support children’s early learning efforts, such as parental contingent support and autonomy encouragement, are associated with the development of children’s SRL skills. When children enter school, teachers are expected to foster students’ learning and SRL skills, but this is often not the case. Teacher professional development programs aiming at promoting teacher self-regulation of their own learning and teaching as well as student SRL show promising results but also highlight the constraints of transferring such knowledge in teaching practices in the classroom. The implications of research findings for the cultivation of student SRL by parents and teachers are discussed from the point of view of theoretical and methodological shifts needed.
... 하지만 실제 자녀양육에 이러한 의식과 역할을 반영하지 못 한 현실은 아버지의 양육스트레스를 야기 및 증가시켰다 (Hyun, 2018;Ok & Chun, 2012 (Eisenberg et al., 1999). 부모가 지지적 인 반응을 보일수록 유아는 높은 사회적 기술과 행동을 보 이며, 공격적 행동이 감소하는 것으로 나타났다 (Eisenberg, Fabes, & Murphy, 1996) ...
... One important aspect of parents' emotion socialization concerns parents' reactions to their children's negative emotions (Parke, 1994). Research based mostly on European and European American families suggests that parents' nonsupportive reactions to their children's negative emotions, such as minimization and punishment, may contribute to adjustment problems among children (Eisenberg et al., 1999;Jones et al., 2002;Miller-Slough et al., 2016). However, according to Eisenberg et al.'s (1998) heuristic model of emotion socialization, the links between parental emotion socialization and child adjustment may be moderated by the personal characteristics of children. ...
Article
According to a heuristic model of emotion socialization, the implications of parental reactions to child emotions may vary by child characteristics. Children's knowledge about culturally bound, emotion display rules may be one of such characteristics, as it may alter children's interpretations of their parents' behaviors. The interrelationships among parental unsupportive reactions to child negative emotions, child emotion knowledge, and child social competence, however, have rarely been investigated. The present study examined whether Chinese children's emotion knowledge moderated the associations of mothers' minimizing and punitive reactions with changes in children's peer acceptance, social cognition, and aggression over time. On two occasions separated by about 1 year, data were collected from 330 children, their mothers, and class teachers from 10 kindergartens in Hong Kong, China. The age of children in Wave 1 averaged 4.81 years (SD = 0.38), and 56% of them (n = 186) were girls. Multilevel models indicated that maternal minimizing reactions were not significantly linked to changes in child social competence. But, for children with more knowledge about emotion display rules, maternal punitive reactions were linked to increases in child peer acceptance and social cognition and decreases in aggression over time. Theoretically, findings demonstrated the interplay of parental socialization practices and child individual characteristics in shaping child development. Practically, findings pointed to the importance of explaining emotion display rules to children in Chinese communities and helping children to balance self-expression of emotions with consideration of others' feelings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... A negative parenting style influences children's negative affect experience. Compared with the supportive positive parenting style, the refusal negative parenting style lowers a child's ability to deal with emotions in social situations [40]. A negative parenting style, which includes severe obedience and punishment, can hinder children's ability to regulate their emotions. ...
Preprint
To explore the impact of parenting styles on the perception of campus non-physical bullying, 492 students in upper elementary school grades were surveyed by using the Delaware Bullying Victimization Scale, the Negative Coping Style Scale, the Negative Affect Scale, and the Egna Minnen Beträffende Uppfostran Questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province. The results showed that cyberbullying was not significantly related to an anxious parenting style, but negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perception of campus non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). The refusal parenting style was shown to be an important factor that affected students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying; it was observed to directly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying and indirectly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and negative coping styles had a chain-like mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perception of campus verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences had a partial mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perceptions of campus cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. Implications and suggestions based on these results are also discussed.
... Previous studies showed that either a permissive parenting style (high affection and low behavioral control) or an authoritarian parenting style might be related to poor emotional regulation strategies in children. 25,26 Feeding infants when they do not feel hungry might disrupt an infant's self-regulation, which is the crucial factor in social-emotional development. 27 Social emotional competence of children depends on both the individual's factors (e.g. ...
Article
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Objective: We aimed to determine the association between bedtime parenting practices and infant social-emotional competence (SEC).Material and Methods: Data from a birth cohort called: Prospective Cohort Study of Thai Children, were analyzed. Information on bedtime parenting and infant’s sleep information were collected at 3 and 12 months of age. Modified Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (MITSEA) were used to measure the SEC at 12 months of age. All participating infants with a MITSEA score >75th percentile were classified as having high SEC. The association between bedtime parenting practices and high SEC were analyzed using multiple logistic regression.Results: Data from 2,109 infants were analyzed (male:female=1:1). Median age of mothers was 26 years. Ninety-two percent of caregivers shared a bed with their infants, at either their 3rd- or 12th-month-visits. Two-thirds of the caregivers reported bed sharing at both visits. About 70.0% of caregivers fed their infants until the infant fell asleep, and about two-thirds responded to infant’s awakening with milk feeding. Infants who were never fed until falling asleep were more likely to have high SEC, compared with infants who were always fed until sleep (odds ratio 1.49; 95% confidence interval 1.14, 1.96). Bed sharing showed no association with a high SEC. Older, female mothers, higher socioeconomic status and quality time were associated with a high SEC.Conclusion: The bedtime parenting practice associated with a high SEC was: “non-feeding until falling asleep”. Bed sharing, which was a popular practice in this cohort, showed no association with high SEC.
... For example, parental stress stemming from a dissatisfied relationship with a child has been linked to more unsupportive reactions and less supportive reactions to child negative emotions (Root & Rasmussen, 2017). Children's difficult temperamental characteristics such as negative emotionality reported by mothers are positively associated with parental unsupportive reactions and negatively associated with supportive reactions (Eisenberg et al., 1996;Eisenberg et al., 1999). One mechanism may be that parents' stress and frustration levels may increase when they see their children misbehaving and/or being difficult to deal with, which may prompt them to respond in unsupportive ways (Deater-Deckard, 1998). ...
Article
This study investigated the integrative effects of parents' perceptions of child difficultness and parental emotion dysregulation on emotion-related parenting among a group of Chinese parents of school-age children. One hundred and fifty parent-child dyads (121 biological mothers and 29 biological fathers as primary caregivers; Mage = 39.22 years) from urban Beijing, China participated in the study. Parents reported on their own emotion dysregulation and their children's difficultness, as well as their emotion socialization practices. Children (Mage = 8.54 years; ranged from 6 to 12 years) reported on their parents' use of psychological control strategies. Main and interactive effects were tested using path analysis. Results indicated that parents' perceived child difficultness was negatively associated with supportive reactions to children's expression of negative emotions, and parental emotion dysregulation was positively associated with unsupportive reactions. When parents perceived their children to be difficult and also reported emotion regulation difficulties of their own, they showed the highest levels of psychological control (child reports). These findings suggest differential effects of parent cognition and emotion on supportive and unsupportive reactions to children's negative emotions. Both cognition and emotion play important roles in relation to parents' use of psychological control.
... Several comprehensive reviews have shown that parents of children with anxiety disorders tend to display overprotective or over-controlling patterns of parenting, characterised by excessive regulation of children's behaviour, high levels of intrusion and vigilance, and decreased autonomygranting (Bögels et al., 2006;Rapee, 1997;Wood et al., 2003). These parenting behaviours have the potential to influence children's emotion regulation capacity in difficult situations (Denham et al., 2007;Eisenberg et al., 1998Eisenberg et al., , 1999Fabes et al., 2002). Parents of children with anxiety disorders frequently hold negative beliefs about anxiety and its consequences for children (Francis & Chorpita, 2010), and reinforce anxious and avoidant behavioural responses in their child Dadds et al., 1996). ...
Article
This study examined: 1) the relationship between negative parental beliefs about child anxiety (i.e., it is harmful), insecure parental attachment and parental accommodation of child anxiety; 2) whether parental attachment insecurity moderates the effect of negative beliefs about anxiety on parent accommodation; and 3) a path model of parental factors affecting accommodation and child anxiety severity. Participants were 139 parents of children (6–18 years) with a primary anxiety disorder. Parents completed measures of parental accommodation of their child’s anxiety, beliefs about child anxiety, and attachment security. Child anxiety diagnosis and severity was determined using semi-structured clinical interviews. Negative beliefs about child anxiety were directly associated with levels of parental accommodation. There was no direct relationship between insecure attachment and accommodation; however anxious attachment moderated the effect of parental beliefs about anxiety on parental accommodation. Among parents with more secure attachment, negative beliefs about anxiety were associated with greater parental accommodation. However, among parents with less secure attachment, accommodation was high regardless of beliefs about anxiety. A path model suggested that negative beliefs about anxiety was related to increased parental accommodation, which in turn was related to increased child anxiety severity. Psychoeducation about the nature of anxiety is likely to be beneficial in helping to reduce accommodation among parents with more secure attachment styles. However, among those with greater anxious attachment, psychoeducation may need to be tailored to focus on corrective information about the impact of treatment processes on the parent–child relationship.
... Therefore, we expect them to behave more socially proper, be cooperative and sensitive. Researchers found relationship between empathy of children and adolescents and positive behaviors of them like helping, comforting, and their social competence and these results are in line with theoretical predictions (Davis, 1994;Eisenberg, Fabes, Shepard, Guthrie, Murphy, & Reiser, 1999). ...
... Punitive responses to children's negative emotions in Chinese (Tao et al., 2010), Indian (Raval et al., 2014), and Turkish mothers (Corapci et al., 2010) were related to poor social outcomes in children. These findings are consistent with studies in the United States (e.g., Eisenberg et al., 1999), and suggest cross-cultural similarities in the relation between early emotion socialization practices and children's later developmental outcomes. ...
Article
Tuning in to Kids (TIK) is a parenting program that focuses on emotion coaching and is evidenced to be effective in Western populations. This study used a randomized controlled trial to examine the intervention effects of TIK on Chinese parents of low to middle socioeconomic status in Hong Kong. One hundred four parents (99 mothers and five fathers; Mage in years = 37.92) of preschoolers aged 3–6 years were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 54) or waitlist control group (n = 50). Parent and child outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1), immediately after the 6-week intervention (Time 2), and 6 weeks postintervention (Time 3), using the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale, Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, and Emotion Regulation Checklist. The experimental group reported significant reductions in punitive parenting and parenting stress at Time 2, and these effects were maintained at Time 3. Delayed improvements in parents’ use of expressive encouragement and children’s emotion lability/negativity were observed at Time 3 in the experimental group. The immediate intervention effects were replicated in the waitlist control group at Time 3 after they attended the training. This study represented one of the few randomized controlled trials of TIK conducted in a non-Western sample. Our results corroborated the findings of prior studies of TIK and provided preliminary support for its effectiveness across different cultural contexts.
... Parents of children with high levels of irritability report significantly more negative interactions with their child, such that they experience less pleasure and more hostility in their interactions [51,52]. Furthermore, irritability in children has been associated with lower levels of parental responsiveness and warmth, and higher levels of parental distress, negativity, and rejection [53][54][55][56][57]. Greater tonic irritability in children likely has the most significant impact on the child and parent-child interaction domains of parenting stress, as parents must address the noncompliance and negativity that results from higher levels of child tonic irritability, while also experiencing less warmth, reward, and positivity in their interactions with their children. ...
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Parents of children with ADHD typically report higher levels of parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. Children with ADHD display developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Some children with ADHD are also prone to particularly high levels of tonic irritability that may explain some of the impairments typically found in ADHD. The present study sought to determine the unique impact of ADHD and tonic irritability on child-related parenting stress domains (e.g., difficult child, parent–child dysfunctional interactions). 145 mothers of children with and without ADHD aged 7–12 years participated in the current study. Mothers completed self-report measures of parenting stress as well as a diagnostic structured interview. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to assess tonic irritability in an ecological environment. Indirect effects models were specified using PROCESS Model 4. For the parent–child dysfunctional interaction domain, the data were best fit by a model specifying a significant total effect of ADHD that was fully accounted for by an indirect effect through irritability. For the difficult child domain, model testing indicated a significant total effect of ADHD that was partially accounted for by an indirect effect through irritability. The current study adds support to the growing body of literature acknowledging the role of tonic irritability in children with ADHD. Furthermore, the results provide novel insight in the complex relation of irritability, child ADHD, and domains of parenting stress.
... analyses on unsupportive, as opposed to supportive, responses toward distress. This was due to research demonstrating the relatively greater link between unsupportive responses and mothers' insecure attachment (Jones et al., 2014), and between unsupportive responses and children's poor social-emotional functioning (e.g., Eisenberg et al., 1999;Fabes et al., 2001;Perry et al., 2012;Shewark and Blandon, 2015), both aspects of functioning that relate to differences in brain structure (Gee, 2016). However, supportive responses were also examined in exploratory analyses. ...
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Ample research demonstrates that parents’ experience-based mental representations of attachment—cognitive models of close relationships—relate to their children’s social-emotional development. However, no research to date has examined how parents’ attachment representations relate to another crucial domain of children’s development: brain development. The present study is the first to integrate the separate literatures on attachment and developmental social cognitive neuroscience to examine the link between mothers’ attachment representations and three- to eight-year-old children’s brain structure. We hypothesized that mothers’ attachment representations would relate to individual differences in children’s brain structures involved in stress regulation—specifically, amygdala and hippocampal volumes—in part via mothers’ responses to children’s distress. We assessed 52 mothers’ attachment representations (secure base script knowledge on the Attachment Script Assessment and self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety on the Experience in Close Relationships scale) and children’s brain structure. Mothers’ secure base script knowledge was significantly related to children’s smaller left amygdala volume but was unrelated to hippocampal volume; we found no indirect links via maternal responses to children’s distress. Exploratory analyses showed associations between mothers’ attachment representations and white matter and thalamus volumes. Together, these preliminary results suggest that mothers’ attachment representations may be linked to the development of children’s neural circuitry related to stress regulation.
... For example, a mother's negative reaction (e.g., neglect or punishment) to a child's anger can prevent the child from learning to resolve the negative affect experience of anger [35]. Parents' negative reactions to their children's emotions, such as pain, fear, tension, and sadness, are usually considered to be related to their children's negative emotional results [36,37]. One possible reason is that children who show negative affect experience gradually learning to hide their emotions, but they feel anxious and nervous when the emotions are aroused because there is a repeated connection between the rejection and punishment of negative parenting styles and the ability to express emotions. ...
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At present, school bullying incidents frequently occur, attracting increased attention from researchers. In this study, we attempt to explore the impact of parenting styles on perceived school non-physical bullying. Four hundred ninety-two students in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province were surveyed. To control any potential confounding factors, a randomized sampling survey method was used to distribute questionnaires. The results showed that negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perceived school non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). Perceived verbal bullying differed significantly by gender, grade, and only/non-only children (p < 0.05). Perceived relationship bullying significantly differed between grades (p < 0.05). The gender difference in perceived cyberbullying also reached a significant level (p < 0.05). The rejection parenting style was shown to be an important factor that may be associated with students’ perceived school non-physical bullying; it was observed to be directly associated with students’ perceived school non-physical bullying and indirectly associated with students’ perceived school non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and coping styles may have a chain-like mediating effect between the rejection parenting style and students’ perceived school verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences may have a partial mediating effect between the rejection parenting style and students’ perceived school cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. This study provides first-hand empirical data support for schools, families, and education authorities to guide and manage non-physical bullying incidents in schools. They also provide a theoretical basis for subsequent related research in the field of non-physical bullying.
... Certain methodological limitations of our study warrant acknowledgment and consideration. First, the relationship between parenting and school bullying or cyberbullying may be bidirectional (Eisenberg et al., 1999;Lengua, 2006). A child who aggresses against his peers may be intemperate, rebellious, and antagonistic at homewhich can arguably undermine the intention and effort of proper parenting (Thornberry, 1987). ...
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Bullying and cyberbullying prevention remain a major priority for schools, communities, and families, and research is clear that positive, constructive parenting practices can play a key preventive role. The current work explores six dimensions of parenting (warmth, structure, autonomy support, rejection, chaos, and coercion), and their specific relationship to school and online bullying. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of 1474 English-speaking 12- to 17-year-old US youth, we found that students whose parent(s) exhibit warmth, structure, and autonomy support are less likely to have engaged in bullying or cyberbullying offending, while those with parental relations marked by rejection, chaos, and coercion are more likely to have participated in both forms of peer aggression. Implications for developing stronger parent-child relationships through improved parenting practices as a mechanism for bullying prevention are discussed.
... Parent emotion socialization has recently become one of the most popular issues in child development and psychology. Parent emotion socialization is defined as parents' responses to their children's emotions such as sorrow, fear and anxiety resulting from negative situations and parents' methods of communication with their children in such cases (Eisenberg et al., 1999). The most widely known model in parental emotion socialization is Heuristic Model. ...
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This study aims to analyse the predictiveness of the emotion socialization behaviours of the mothers of 6-year-old children on the children's attachment levels. The study group of this descriptive research designed with the screening model, one of the quantitative research methods, included 143 pairs of mothers and 60-to 72-month-old normally-developing children attending two kindergartens affiliated with the İstanbul Başakşehir Directorate of National Education during the 2019-2020 academic term. The data collection instruments used in the study were the parent form designed by the authors to collect sociodemographic data from the children and families who participated in the study, the Incomplete Doll Family Story Scale (IDFSS), which was used to determine the children's levels of attachment, and the Coping With Children's Negative Emotions Scale (CCNES). Calculation of descriptive statistics of scores for the Incomplete Doll Family History scale and the Dealing with Children's Negative Emotions scale. The model formed at the end of the multiple linear regression analysis shows that mothers' emotion socialization behaviours accounted for 57% of the variance related to the children's attachment level. The t-test results of the multiple linear regression coefficients revealed that the mothers' emotion socialization behaviours predict children's attachment levels significantly, the problem-focused reactions and minimization reactions sub-scales of emotion socialization behaviours predict children's attachment levels significantly, while the emotion-focused reactions, punitive reactions, distress reactions and expressive reactions sub-scales do not predict children's attachment levels significantly.
... According to Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad [56], one of the important components of parental socialization of emotion is caregivers' reactions to children's emotions. Emphasis has been placed on how caregivers react to children's negative emotional expression [57,58]. Caregivers vary in their reactions, with research showing that they generally respond to their children's negative emotions in a supportive or unsupportive manner [59]. ...
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There is a lack of knowledge regarding the connection between parental emotional responsiveness and children’s executive functioning (EF). This study aimed to explore the relations between caregivers’ reactions to their children’s distress and children’s EF. Mothers of 136 preschoolers reported their reactions to their children’s negative emotions using the Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale. Children’s EF was assessed through the mothers and teachers’ reports using the Behavioral Inventory of Executive Functioning for Preschool Children. Results showed that the mothers’ perceived use of negative emotional regulation responses (i.e., punitive and minimizing reactions) was associated with lower levels of EF in children, as reported by both mothers and teachers. The association between the mothers’ use of positive emotional regulation responses (i.e., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and expressive encouragement reactions) and children’s EF was not significant. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the mothers’ use of negative emotional regulation responses accounted for significant proportions of variance in EF indexes. These findings suggest that parental socialization of emotion could be important for children’s EF. Specifically, caregivers’ negative emotional regulation responses to children’s distress may serve as a risk factor for poorer EF in children. Efforts to improve children’s EF may be more effective when parental emotional responsiveness to their distress is considered.
... Liczne badania wskazują, że uczuciowość ze strony rodziców, częsta ekspresja pozytywnych emocji, ciepło oraz wspieranie autonomii połączone z autentycznym zaangażowaniem w proces wychowawczy kształtują wysokie zdolności w zakresie samoregulacji u dzieci, w tym regulacji emocji (Contreras, Kerns, Weimer, Gentzler, Tomich, 2000;Eisenberg i in., 2005;Finkenauer, Engels, Baumeister, 2005;Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, 2011). Z kolei postawy rodzicielskie charakteryzujące się surowością, nadmierną kontrolą i wrogością prowadzą do znacznego obniżenia zdolności regulacyjnych (Calkins, Gill, Johnson, Smith, 1999;Eisenberg i in., 1999;Gottman, Katz, 2002;Morris i in., 2007). Badania przeprowadzone przez Jabeen, Anis-ul-Haque i Riaza (2013) na grupie 194 adolescentów wskazały, że autorytatywny styl rodzicielski, a więc wiążący się z wysoką responsywnością i ciepłem rodziców przy jednoczesnym zachowaniu odpowiedniej kontroli, stanowił istotny predyktor dla rozwoju efektywnej regulacji emocji u nastolatka. ...
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Celem niniejszej książki uczyniono charakterystykę zagadnienia zaburzenia regulacji emocji u sprawców przestępstw seksualnych jako zjawiska pełniącego istotną rolę w procesie stawania się sprawcą oraz zjawiska istotnego z perspektywy profesjonalistów pracujących z osobami wykorzystującymi dzieci. W rozdziale pierwszym przedstawiono funkcjonujące w literaturze definicje przemocy seksualnej wobec dzieci, ujęte w perspektywie klinicznej, prawniczej oraz społecznej, opisano skalę zjawiska oraz przedstawiono teorie wyjaśniające mechanizm leżący u podłoża wykorzystania seksualnego dziecka. Rozdział drugi zawiera przegląd koncepcji regulacji emocji oraz ich analizę w kontekście sprawstwa przemocy seksualnej przeciwko dzieciom, a także przedstawia dotychczasowe badania udziału regulacji emocji w przestępstwie seksualnym. Rozdział trzeci porusza zagadnienie znaczenia i miejsca procesów regulacyjnych w oddziaływaniach terapeutycznych prowadzonych wobec tej populacji.
... Ebeveynlerin duygusal ifadeyi teşvik etmesi olumlu sonuçlarla ilişkilendirilirken, olumsuz duyguların kısıtlanması küçük çocuklarda sıkıntı ile ilişkilendirilmiştir (Eisenberg, 1998). Çocukların olumsuz duygularına yönelik destekleyici olmayan ebeveyn tepkileri, çocukların duygusal olarak uyarılmalarına ve davranışsal olarak düzensiz olmalarına neden olabilir (Eisenberg, Fabes, Shepard, Guthrie, Murphy & Reiser, 1999). ...
... Second, the relationship between empathy and school bullying or cyberbullying may be bidirectional (Eisenberg et al., 1999;Lengua, 2006). While it seems intuitive that youth with lower levels of empathy are more likely to cyberbully others, it is possible that repeated cyberbullying offending lowers an aggressor's level of empathy over time. ...
Article
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Bias-based cyberbullying involves repeated hurtful actions online that devalue or harass one’s peers specific to an identity-based characteristic. Cyberbullying in general has received increased scholarly scrutiny over the last decade, but the subtype of bias-based cyberbullying has been much less frequently investigated, with no known previous studies involving youth across the United States. The current study explores whether empathy is related to cyberbullying offending generally and bias-based cyberbullying specifically. Using a national sample of 1644 12- to 15-year-olds, we find that those higher in empathy were significantly less likely to cyberbully others in general, and cyberbully others based on their race or religion. When the two sub-facets of empathy were considered separately, only cognitive empathy was inversely related to cyberbullying, while (contrary to expectation) affective empathy was not. Findings support focused efforts in schools to improve empathy as a means to reduce the incidence of these forms of interpersonal harm.
... Emotional learning develops with interpretation of physical sensations, or "core affect," of which there are two dimensions: valence and arousal (Barrett, 2017). Learning about emotions develops socially, parents provide labels to emotion states and teach soothing and affiliative reward with early interactions (Eisenberg et al., 1999). In combination, experiences of core affect and parental labeling help children to develop "emotion concepts," which map on to how we understand specific affect types, or "discrete" emotions (Hoemann et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Children with conduct problems and high callous-unemotional (CP+CU) traits are characterized by dampened emotional responding, limiting their ability for affective empathy and impacting the development of prosocial behaviors. However, research documenting this dampening in young children is sparse and findings vary, with attachment-related stimuli hypothesized to ameliorate deficits in emotional responding. Here we test emotional responsiveness across various emotion-eliciting stimuli using multiple measures of emotional responsiveness (behavioral, physiological, self-reported) and attention, in young children aged 2–8 years ( M age = 5.37), with CP+CU traits (CP+CU; n = 36), CPs and low CU traits (CP−CU; n = 82) and a community control sample (CC; n = 27). We found no evidence that attachment-related stimulus ameliorated deficits in emotional responding. Rather, at a group level we found a consistent pattern of reduced responding across all independent measures of responsiveness for children with CP+CU compared to the CC group. Few differences were found between CP+CU and CP−CU groups. When independent measures were standardized and included in a regression model predicting to CU trait score, higher CU traits were associated with reduced emotional responding, demonstrating the importance of multimodal measurement of emotional responsiveness when investigating the impact of CU traits in young children.
Article
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at considerable risk for difficulties with emotion regulation and related functioning. Although it is commonly accepted that parents contribute to adaptive child regulation, as indexed by observable child behavior, theory and recent evidence suggest that parenting may also influence relevant underlying child physiological tendencies. The current study examined concurrent associations between two elements of parental socialization of emotion and measures of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity in 61 children with ASD aged 6 to 10 years. To index parental socialization, parents reported on their reactions to their children’s negative emotions, and parental scaffolding was coded from a dyadic problem-solving task. Children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), electrodermal reactivity (EDA-R), and RSA reactivity in response to challenge were obtained as measures of the children’s physiological activity. Regression analyses indicated that supportive parent reactions were related to higher child baseline RSA, a biomarker of regulatory capacity. Fewer unsupportive parent reactions and higher quality scaffolding were associated with higher EDA-R, a physiological index of inhibition. The identification of these concurrent associations represents a first step in understanding the complex and likely bidirectional interplay between parent socialization and child physiological reactivity and regulation in this high-risk population.
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Caregiver socialization of child emotions has consequences for both typical development and anxiety risk, with caregivers’ non-supportive responses to worry perhaps especially salient to children’s anxiety development. Children, in turn, impact the caregiving environment they receive through their temperament. We investigated transactional relations between maternal non-supportive responses to child worry (mother-reported) and two differently-measured child inhibited temperament indices (i.e., mother-perceived child inhibition to novelty, laboratory-observed child dysregulated fear) in a sample of 136 predominantly non-Hispanic, White mother-toddler dyads. Worry socialization and mother-reported inhibition to novelty were measured at each of three time points (toddler age 2, 3, 4 years), and dysregulated fear was measured at ages 2 and 3. Constructs showed stability across time, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. Child inhibited temperament measures positively correlated within time point at ages 2 and 3, and laboratory-observed child dysregulated fear predicted mothers’ later perceptions of their children’s inhibition to novelty. At toddler age 2, mothers of children showing more dysregulated fear reported responding more non-supportively to worry. However, when controlling for one another, more mother-perceived child inhibition to novelty and less laboratory-observed child dysregulated fear at age 3 predicted mothers’ greater non-supportive worry responses at child age 4. There was an indirect effect across time, such that children’s greater laboratory-observed dysregulated fear predicted their mothers’ heightened perceptions of inhibited temperament, which in turn predicted mothers’ greater non-supportive worry responses. Findings lend support to anxiety-relevant construct stability in toddlerhood, as well as child-elicited, rather than parent-elicited, associations across time.
Chapter
Supporting the development of emotion regulation skills in children is considered important in terms of supporting the psychological, emotional, and social development of children and healthy social and psychological functionality in adulthood. In this context, basic concepts related to emotion regulation, factors affecting emotion regulation in childhood, development process of emotion regulation skills, social and psychological consequences of emotion regulation in children, and supporting emotion regulation in childhood will be discussed.
Thesis
One of the biggest determinants of preschool children's behavior is the behaviors of parents. All verbal and non-verbal behaviors of parents towards their children are defined as parental behaviors. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothetical model developed based on the literature to determine parenting behaviors that affect children's development. Parenting Behavior Scale and Child Temperament Scale were developed within the scope of the study. The study group of the research consists of 448 parents who have children in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education (MNE) in various districts of Ankara in the 2019-2020 Academic Year. Temperament Scale in Children, Adjective Based Personality Test, Marital Life Scale, The Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) Scale, Parenting Stress Tool and Parenting Behavior Scale were used to collect data in the study. The research was carried out with the correlational model. MANOVA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. In the analysis of demographic variables, it was observed that parenting behaviors differ according to gender and employment status, but no significant difference was observed according to age. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parenting behavior and parental stress is mediator variable, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated, while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a positive relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parental behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated, while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a negative correlation with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental stress, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a negative relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a positive relationship with positive parenting.
Thesis
One of the biggest determinants of preschool children's behavior is the behaviors of parents. All verbal and non-verbal behaviors of parents towards their children are defined as parental behaviors. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothetical model developed based on the literature to determine parenting behaviors that affect children's development. Parenting Behavior Scale and Child Temperament Scale were developed within the scope of the study. The study group of the research consists of 448 parents who have children in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education (MNE) in various districts of Ankara in the 2019-2020 Academic Year. Temperament Scale in Children, Adjective Based Personality Test, Marital Life Scale, The Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) Scale, Parenting Stress Tool and Parenting Behavior Scale were used to collect data in the study. The research was carried out with the correlational model. MANOVA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for data analysis. In the analysis of demographic variables, it was observed that parenting behaviors differ according to gender and employment status, but no significant difference was observed according to age. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parenting behavior and parental stress is mediator variable, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated, while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a positive relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is negative parental behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated, while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a negative correlation with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental stress, parental stress, marital satisfaction and personality traits were negatively correlated while parental stress and temperament traits were positively correlated. Parental stress also showed a negative relationship with negative parenting. In the model in which the predicted variable is positive parenting behavior and the mediator variable is parental self-efficacy, parental self-efficacy, marital satisfaction and personality traits were positively correlated while parental self-efficacy and temperament traits were negatively correlated. Parental self-efficacy also showed a positive relationship with positive parenting.
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Research on predictors of emotion-related parenting has predominantly focused on parents' social cognitions including parenting goals and beliefs about emotions. Less is known about parents' regulation of their own arousal when facing children's negative emotions, and how it relates to parents' ability to engage in sensitive and supportive behaviors. Taking a biopsychosocial approach, the current study focused on parents' psychophysiological responses when viewing their children experience frustration among 150 urban Chinese families (children were 6-12 years, Mage = 8.54, SD = 1.67), and examined how these responses were associated with emotion-related parenting. The primary caregiver of each family (121 mothers and 29 fathers) participated in the study with the child. Measures of sympathetic [skin conductance level (SCL)] and parasympathetic [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)] activity were collected from parents during resting baseline and a child frustration task. Parents self-reported their tendency to react supportively and unsupportively to children's displays of negative emotions. Their general availability to children's emotional needs was observed during a separate interactive task. Results suggested that parents who showed greater sympathetic arousal during the child frustration task reported less supportive and more unsupportive reactions to children's negative emotions in daily life, and also tended to be emotionally unavailable during the interactive task. No main effect was found for RSA reactivity, and there was no significant interaction between SCL and RSA reactivity in predicting parenting. Findings highlight the importance of considering parents' physiological regulatory functioning as a proximal factor shaping parenting behaviors directed toward children's emotions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examined the longitudinal relations among parent–child cohesion (i.e., father–child and mother–child cohesion), loneliness, and prosocial behavior (PB) in children, using a four-wave longitudinal design with 6-month intervals. A total of 678 elementary school students from Grades 4–5 in China ( M age = 10.11 years, 45.6% girls) completed a multi-measure questionnaire, including parent–child cohesion, loneliness, and PB. The results revealed (a) both father–child cohesion and mother–child cohesion predicted children’s PB, and vice versa; (b) both father–child cohesion and mother–child cohesion predicted children’s loneliness and vice versa; (c) loneliness predicted children’s PB and vice versa; and (d) father–child cohesion and mother–child cohesion indirectly predicted children’s PB via children’s loneliness and vice versa. Thus, parent–child cohesion, loneliness, and PB form a complex, dynamic system, suggesting the need for family-based interventions to promote PB in children.
Chapter
Understanding the development of individual differences in temperament is crucial because temperament represents fundamental attributes that underlie various normal behaviors as well as psychopathology. In this chapter, we reviewed contemporary theories and empirical findings concerning the gene-environment processes in temperament development throughout infancy, childhood, and early adolescence with an emphasis on parenting environments. We started by reviewing theories of temperament. We then reviewed literature from the two traditionally segregated fields that respectively examined the genetic vs. environmental (in particular parental) influences on temperament. Most of the chapter focused on the cutting-edge research examining the complex interplay between genes and early rearing environment in temperament development. Three types of gene-environment interplay processes were discussed: gene-environment correlation, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetic processes. This growing body of literature suggests complex transactional processes between genes and rearing environment in shaping the vast diversity of individual differences that we observe in temperament and personality. Finally, we discussed existing gaps in the current literature and suggested potential future directions for the field.
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A large body of literature has shown the close relationship between parents’ parenting attitudes and their parenting experiences during their own childhood. However, it is hard to find either theoretical or empirical studies explaining why and how such close relationships develop. This study fills this gap. To do so, we extensively review the related theories and hypothesize that mothers’ parenting experiences during their own childhood affect their later level of awareness of children’s rights through the mediation effects of two psychological factors: self-esteem and emotional intelligence. Applying structural equation modeling to a vast dataset acquired by surveying 1,011 Korean mothers we provide evidence that strongly supports the main hypothesis. We also find that this relationship holds in a roundabout way: while there is no direct relationship between mothers’ parenting experiences during childhood and their current level of awareness of children’s rights, the effects of the former on the latter are indirectly mediated by self-esteem and emotional intelligence. These findings may imply that psychological programs for parents can improve their emotional intelligence and self-esteem and thus improve their practices regarding children’s rights since psychological factors can change over one’s lifetime.
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth, behavioral/psychological control) moderate the association between central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment and adjustment among pediatric cancer survivors at 3 years post-diagnosis or relapse. Methods: Three years after their child's cancer diagnosis or relapse, mothers (N = 84) reported on their child's academic and social competence, as well as their internalizing and externalizing problems. Children (N = 84; Mage = 13.21 years, 52.4% male) reported on maternal parenting behaviors. Using medical chart data, children were separated into CNS (i.e., received cranial radiation, intrathecal chemotherapy, and/or neurosurgery; N = 45) or non-CNS-directed treatment (N = 39) groups. Twelve moderation models were tested when examining two-way interactions between CNS treatment group and maternal parenting behaviors. Results: Children in the CNS-directed treatment group demonstrated significantly worse academic and social competence. Moderation analyses revealed four significant two-way interactions between CNS treatment group and maternal parenting behaviors when predicting children's adjustment. High levels of maternal behavioral control buffered the negative impact of CNS-directed treatment on children's social competence. In addition, maternal warmth had a contrasting effect, as CNS-directed treatment was associated with worse academic competence at high levels of warmth. Analyses with psychological control revealed that low levels of this parenting style were not protective against internalizing or externalizing problems among those with CNS-directed treatment. Conclusions: Children who receive CNS-directed treatment may benefit from a different pattern of parenting during early cancer survivorship. Findings highlight the importance of considering the broader family context when conceptualizing the impact of illness-related factors on adjustment among pediatric cancer survivors.
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This article introduces the concepts of parental meta-emotion, which refers to parents' emotions about their own and their children's emotions, and meta-emotion philosophy, which refers to an organized set of thoughts and metaphors, a philosophy, and an approach to one's own emotions and to one's children's emotions. In the context of a longitudinal study beginning when the children were 5 years old and ending when they were 8 years old, a theoretical model and path analytic models are presented that relate parental meta-emotion philosophy to parenting, to child regulatory physiology, to emotion regulation abilities in the child, and to child outcomes in middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The relations of kindergartners' to 2nd graders' dispositional sympathy to individual differences in emotionality, regulation, and social functioning were examined. Sympathy was assessed with teacher- and self-reports; contemporaneously and 2 years earlier, parents and teachers reported on children's emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Social functioning also was assessed with peer evaluations and children's enacted puppet behavior, and negative arousability-personal distress was assessed with physiological responses. In general, sympathy was associated with relatively high levels of regulation, teacher-reported positive emotionality and general emotional intensity, and especially for boys, high social functioning and low levels of negative emotionality, including physiological reactivity to a distress stimulus. Vagal tone was positively related to boys' self-reported sympathy, whereas the pattern was reversed for girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Makes explicit a reconceptualization of the nature of emotion that over the past decade has fostered the study of emotion regulation. In the past, emotions were considered to be feeling states indexed by behavioral expressions: now, emotions are considered to be processes of establishing, maintaining, or disrupting the relation between the organism and the environment on matters of significance to the person. When emotions were conceptualized in the traditional way as feelings, emotion regulation centered on ego-defense mechanisms and display rules. The former was difficult to test; the latter was narrow in scope. By contrast, the notion of emotions as relational processes has shifted interest to the study of person/environment transactions in the elicitations of emotion and to the functions of action tendencies, emotional "expressions," language, and behavioral coping mechanisms. The article also treats the importance of affect in the continuity of self-development by documenting the impressive stability of at least two emotional dispositions: irritability and inhibition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examines roles that social competence, Type A behavior, monitoring, blunting, and locus of control play in coping with everyday stressors. 48 2nd- and 52 5th-graders were interviewed individually 3 times over an 8-wk period to assess perceptions of everyday stressors and associated coping behaviors. Teachers rated social competence and Type A behavior; the remaining predictors were self-reported at the start of the study. Results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) revealed that, except for Type A behavior, coping was associated with the predictors. Strongest associations were found for social competence, which was related to greater use of avoidant actions and cognitive avoidance and less use of problem behavior. The predictors were unassociated with ratings of coping efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The argument for preceding multiple analysis of variance ({anovas}) with a multivariate analysis of variance ({manova}) to control for Type I error is challenged. Several situations are discussed in which multiple {anovas} might be conducted without the necessity of a preliminary {manova}. Three reasons for considering multivariate analysis are discussed: to identify outcome variable system constructs, to select variable subsets, and to determine variable relative worth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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gender in emotional development [understanding and applying emotion concepts, producing and reading emotionally expressive behavior, self-report of emotional experience] / emotion beliefs and values in gender development [beliefs about emotion are gender coded, beliefs about emotion code gender, learning gender by doing emotion] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the prediction of adults' situational and dispositional empathy-related responses from measures of emotionality (emotional intensity and positive and negative affect) and regulation. A multimethod approach including self-reported, facial, and heart rate (HR) responses was used to assess situational vicarious emotional responding; Ss' (and sometimes friends') reports were used to assess the dispositional characteristics. In general, dispositional sympathy, personal distress, and perspective taking exhibited different, conceptually logical patterns of association with indexes of emotionality and regulation. The relations of situational measures of vicarious emotional responding to dispositional emotionality and regulation varied somewhat by type of measure and gender. Findings for facial and HR (for men) measures were primarily for the more evocative empathy-inducing stimulus. In general, the findings provided support for the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding.
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This study examined relations between mother-child conversations about peers and children's peer competence. Conversation data were obtained from telephone interviews with 39 mothers. A subset of dyads was observed in a laboratory playroom. Frequencies of conversations, maternal advice giving, and discussions of emotions were associated with children's competence. Conversational frequency continued to predict competence after controlling for observed involvement and encouragement. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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To provide data on middle-class mothers' and fathers' conceptions of their child-rearing roles during adolescence, parents of 5th, 8th, and 11th graders were interviewed in their homes. Forty-two families (an equal number of boys and girls at each grade level) participated. Parents described the behaviors that they were currently encouraging or discouraging in their child, as well as the techniques they used to elicit or influence these behaviors. Fathers saw themselves as more actively involved in encouraging instrumental behaviors such as independence and assertiveness, whereas mothers saw themselves as more involved in the training of interpersonal behaviors such as manners and politeness. Fathers reported using more forceful childrearing techniques than did mothers, although parents reported being more punishing and less rewarding with same-sexed children. Parents of girls were more likely to emphasize prosocial behaviors and politeness; parents of boys emphasized selfcare behaviors.
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Undergraduates scoring at the extremes on the Mehrabian and Epstein (1972) empathy scale completed a questionnaire tapping their early socialization experiences. Hi and Lo empathy groups differed on a variety of dimensions relevant to the expression and awareness of affect. A consistent pattern of sex differences on the empathy-relevant socialization practices was also found.
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Using a longitudinal data set of children aged 4--6,6-8,8-10, and 10-12, consistency and change in teachers' and parents' reports of emotionality and regulation were examined. In general, there was considerable interindividual (correlational) consistency in emotionality and regulation, with attentional control increasing in consistency over time. Intensity of emotion (and parent-reported negative emotionality) and girls' impulsivity decreased in mean level with age whereas regulation (particularly behavioral regulation) increased over time. The findings generally were consistent with developmental trends discussed, but not often demonstrated longitudinally, in the developmental literature.
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