Prevalence and Impact of Caregiving: A Detailed Comparison Between Dementia and Nondementia Caregivers
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Article: Prevalence and Impact of Caregiving: A Detailed Comparison Between Dementia and Nondementia Caregivers
- SourceAvailable from: Manju Dhandapani
- " Caregivers of patients with cognitive deficits are reported providing more assistance with ADL than those without cognitive deficits.  Cognitive deficits in these patients are a good predictor of poor QoL not only in patients,  but also in family caregivers. This study is limited because of small sample size. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study is to expand our recent work, which showed that spousal dementia caregivers compared to spousal nondementia caregivers experience an accelerated rate of frailty over time, by exploring cognitive health outcomes between dementia and nondementia caregivers. Design and methods: Using 8 biannual waves of the Health and Retirement Study data and performance on the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, we examined changes in cognitive health among surviving spousal caregivers (N = 1,255) of individuals with dementia (n = 192) and without dementia (n = 1,063), 2 waves prior and 2 waves following the death of the care recipient. Results: Controlling for baseline health and contextual factors (e.g., frailty status, age, education), results revealed that dementia caregivers had significantly greater cognitive decline (p < .01) compared to nondementia caregivers. Relative to 2 waves prior to the death of their spouse, dementia caregivers declined by 1.77 points relative to nondementia caregivers (0.87 points) at the time their spouses' deaths were reported and 1.89 relative to the 1.18 points at the wave following these deaths, respectively. Implications: The findings from this study show that spousal caregivers of persons with dementia experience accelerated cognitive decline themselves compared to nondementia caregivers. These results, along with our previous study findings, suggest that this vulnerable group could benefit from early cognitive screening and psychosocial interventions designed to help dementia caregivers better maintain their cognitive and physical health during and following their intensive caregiving responsibilities.
- "900). Additional factors that place spousal dementia caregivers at risk for cognitive decline include their advanced age (dementia caregivers are typically over the age of 60) and the associated increased risk of dementia (Kawas, Gray, Brookmeyer, Fozard, & Zonderman, 2000) as well as additional stress associated with the fact that spouses typically provide significantly more hours of care per week (+35 on average) compared to nonspousal caregivers (e.g., adult children) (Ory et al., 1999). Although numerous studies have suggested that caregiving is stressful and that it is associated with psychological distress and physiological dysregulation, more recent population studies have shown that many caregivers report low levels of stress and reap many benefits from caregiving (for a review, see Roth, Fredman, & Haley, 2015). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With over 43 million family caregivers living in the United States, families are the largest providers of informal care in this country. Despite the extensive caregiving literature about prevalence, characteristics of care providers and care recipients, risks to caregivers’ health and well-being, economic costs, impact on personal and family well-being, evidence-based interventions, and model community-based programs and supports for adult caregivers, gaps exist, specifically relating to caregiving youth, i.e., children under the age of 18 years. With no previous comprehensive review to assess what is known about US youth caregivers, a scoping review, focusing on mapping the key concepts, including the main sources and types of evidence available, was undertaken. By drawing conclusions about the overall state of research activity and identifying research gaps and priorities in the existing literature, this study provides a baseline assessment of youth caregiver research published in peer-reviewed journals from 1996 to 2015. A total of 22 articles were included in the analysis. Beyond inconsistencies with naming and defining young/youth caregivers, the review found significant knowledge gaps in crucial areas including SES status of families who rely on caregiving youth, the role of race, ethnicity and culture, support across schools, communities and medical professions, and the lack of caregiving programs and polices inclusive of youth under 18. The results underscore the need for further inquiry, including longitudinal study, into the lives and experiences of caregiving youth, informing the development of youth caregiver focused supports and polices across the US.
- "The data on adult research has revealed the numerous immediate and long terms effects of caregiving, including physical strain and injuries, stress, obesity and long-term chronicity (Ory et al. 1999; Kim and Schulz 2008). While Shifren and Chong (2012) reported higher levels of alcohol consumption in a retrospective sample of young carers, underscoring the need to assess health behaviors that may impact young carer well-being, no other US studies have focused on the impact of caregiving on the physical health or health behaviors of caregiving youth. "